Basal Portion (basal + portion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The anatomy of the palatoquadrate in the Lower Triassic Proterosuchus fergusi (Reptilia, Archosauromorpha) and its morphological transformation within the archosauriform clade

ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
Jozef Klembara
Abstract The anatomy of the palatoquadrate ossifications of the Lower Triassic archosauromorph Proterosuchus fergusi from South Africa is described. It consists of two ossifications, the epipterygoid and the quadrate, which were joined by cartilage in life. The margins of the cartilage are clearly indicated by ridges and grooves on the dorsal surface of the pterygoid. The epipterygoid ossification consists of two structures: the anteroposteriorly expanded basal portion and, dorsally from it, an extending, slender, ascending process. From the anterior margin of the basal portion of the epipterygoid, a plate-like structure, herein called the lamina epipterygoidea anteromedialis, extends anteromedially to form the anterolateral wall of the cavum epiptericum. Comparisons with the similarly constructed embryonal and adult epipterygoid components of Sphenodon punctatus show that the anteromedial lamina of the epipterygoid of P. fergusi is an additional component of the epipterygoid of this species and that this lamina is absent in the former species. However, a structure in a topologically similar position to the anteromedial lamina of the epipterygoid of P. fergusi is present in the palatoquadrate of Alligator mississippiensis. In the latter species, the structure is called the lamina palatoquadrati anterior; it ossifies in membrane and forms the dorsolateral cover of the huge trigeminal ganglion. It is hypothesized here that the anteromedial lamina of the epipterygoid of P. fergusi and the anterior lamina of the palatoquadrate of A. mississippiensis are most probably homologous structures and are present in both the basal and one of the crown taxa of the archosauromorph clade, respectively. [source]

Microscopic structure of the sperm storage tubules in the polygynandrous alpine accentor, Prunella collaris (Aves)

ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 4 2001
Akira Chiba
Abstract We describe the microscopic structure of the sperm storage tubules (SSTs) of the polygynandrous alpine accentor, Prunella collaris. The SSTs were found at the utero-vaginal junction of the oviduct and were composed of a single layer of columnar epithelium. The cells of the tubule proper were non-ciliated and had a round or oval nucleus in their basal portion. Their cytoplasm was finely or coarsely vacuolated due to lipid inclusions. Under the electron microscope, the epithelial cells exhibited a number of mitochondria, Golgi bodies, occasional lysosome-like dense bodies, granular endoplasmic reticula, junctional complex, and tonofilaments. The apical margin of the cells was fringed with numerous microvilli. The epithelial lining of the SSTs was devoid of mucous cells, but showed occasional infiltration of lymphoid cells. No contractile elements were found in association with the SSTs, but a close apposition of unmyelinated nerve fibres to the basal part of the SST cells was recognized. Intraluminal sperm were arranged in bundles, and their heads were orientated towards the distal portion of the SSTs. Evidence for engulfment of sperm by the SST cells was obtained for the first time. A sign of atrophy or regression of the SSTs was found in one specimen. [source]


Takahiro Yamagishi
The phylogenetic group stramenopiles refers to the systematic groups that possess tripartite tubular hairs (stramenopiles) on their flagella. There have been a number of studies describing the fine structure of these mastigonemes and a few studies isolating the component proteins; however, these proteins and their gene sequences have not yet been identified. In the present study, we identified a mastigoneme protein (Ocm1) of the chrysophycean alga Ochromonas danica Pringsh. (UTEX LB1298). Its corresponding gene, Ocm1, was identified by using degenerate primers that correspond to the partial amino acid sequences of a protein (85 kDa) obtained from a mastigoneme-rich fraction of isolated flagella. The polypeptide encoded by Ocm1 has four cysteine-rich, epithelial growth factor (EGF),like motifs, potentially involved in protein,protein interactions. It lacks obvious hydrophobic regions characteristic of transmembrane domains, suggesting that this polypeptide is not likely a protein for anchoring the mastigoneme. In addition, a polyclonal antibody against Ocm1 labeled the area where the tubular shafts of the mastigonemes are located, but not the basal portion or the terminal filaments. [source]

The effect of taxol on centrosome function and microtubule organization in apical cells of Sphacelaria rigidula (Phaeophyceae)

Ilias Dimitriadis
SUMMARY Treatment of interphase apical cells of Sphacelaria rigidula Kützing with 10 ,mol L,1 taxol for 4 h induced drastic changes in microtubule (MT) organization. In normal cells these MTs converge on the centrosomes and are nucleated from the pericentriolar area. After treatment, the endoplasmic, perinuclear and centrosome-associated MT almost disappeared, and a massive assembly of cortical/subcortical, well-organized MT bundles was observed. The bundles tended to be axially oriented, usually following the cylindrical wall, although other orientations were not excluded. The MTs in the apical part of the cell seemed to reach the cortex of the apical dome, sometimes bending to follow its curvature, whereas those in the basal portion of the cell terminated close to the transverse wall. Mitotic cells were also highly affected. Typical metaphase stages were very rarely found, and typical anaphase arrangements of chromosomes were completely absent. The chromosomes usually appeared to be dispersed singly or in small groups. Different atypical mitotic configurations were observed, depending on the stage of the cell cycle when the treatment started. The position and the orientation of the atypical mitotic spindles was disturbed. The nuclear envelope was completely disintegrated. The separation of the duplicated centrioles, as well as their usual perinuclear position, was also disturbed. Cortical MT bundles similar to those found in interphase cells were not found in the affected mitotic cells. In contrast, numerous MTs, without definite focal points, were found in the pericentriolar areas. Cytokinesis was inhibited by taxol treatment. The perinuclear and centrosome-associated MTs found in mitotic cells were gradually replaced by a MT system similar to that of interphase cells. When the cytokinetic diaphragm had already been initiated when taxol treatment began, MTs were found on the cytokinetic plane, a phenomenon not observed in normal untreated cells. The results show clearly that: (i) in interphase cells the ability of centrosomes to nucleate MTs is intensely disturbed by taxol; (ii) centrosome dynamics in MT nucleation vary during the cell cycle; and (iii) taxol strongly affects mitosis and cytokinesis. In addition, it seems that the cortical/subcortical cytoplasm of interphase cells assumes the capacity to form numerous MT bundles. [source]

Oxygen dynamics during submergence in the halophytic stem succulent Halosarcia pergranulata

ABSTRACT This study elucidated O2 dynamics in shoots and roots of submerged Halosarcia pergranulata (Salicornioideae), a perennial halophytic stem succulent that grows on flood-prone mudflats of salt lakes. Oxygen within shoots and roots was measured using microelectrodes, for plants when waterlogged or completely submerged, with shoots in light or in darkness, in a controlled environment. Net photosynthesis (PN) when underwater, at a range of dissolved CO2 concentrations, was measured by monitoring O2 production rates by excised stems. The bulky nature and apparently low volume of gas-filled spaces of the succulent stems resulted in relatively high radial resistance to gas diffusion. At ambient CO2, quasi-steady state rates of PN by excised succulent stems were estimated to be close to zero; nevertheless, in intact plants, underwater photosynthesis provided O2 to tissues and led to radial O2 loss (ROL) from the roots, at least during the first several hours (the time period measured) after submergence or when light periods followed darkness. The influence of light on tissue O2 dynamics was confirmed in an experiment on a submerged plant in a salt lake in south-western Australia. In the late afternoon, partial pressure of O2 (pO2) in the succulent stem was 23.2 kPa (i.e. ,10% above that in the air), while in the roots, it was 6.2,9.8 kPa. Upon sunset, the pO2 in the succulent stems declined within 1 h to below detection, but then showed some fluctuations with the pO2 increasing to at most 2.5 kPa during the night. At night, pO2 in the roots remained higher than in the succulent stems, especially for a root with the basal portion in the floodwater. At sunrise, the pO2 increased in the succulent stems within minutes. In the roots, changes in the pO2 lagged behind those in the succulent stems. In summary, photosynthesis in stems of submerged plants increased the pO2 in the shoots and roots so that tissues experience diurnal changes in the pO2, but O2 from the H2O column also entered submerged plants. [source]