Ballooning Degeneration (ballooning + degeneration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Increased tumor necrosis factor ,,converting enzyme activity induces insulin resistance and hepatosteatosis in mice,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
Loredana Fiorentino
Tumor necrosis factor ,,converting enzyme (TACE, also known as ADAM17) was recently involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. We observed that TACE activity was significantly higher in livers of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 1 month, and this activity was increased in liver > white adipose tissue > muscle after 5 months compared with chow control. In mouse hepatocytes, C2C12 myocytes, and 3T3F442A adipocytes, TACE activity was triggered by palmitic acid, lipolysaccharide, high glucose, and high insulin. TACE overexpression significantly impaired insulin-dependent phosphorylation of AKT, GSK3, and FoxO1 in mouse hepatocytes. To test the role of TACE activation in vivo, we used tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (Timp3) null mice, because Timp3 is the specific inhibitor of TACE and Timp3,/, mice have higher TACE activity compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Timp3,/, mice fed a HFD for 5 months are glucose-intolerant and insulin-resistant; they showed macrovesicular steatosis and ballooning degeneration compared with WT mice, which presented only microvesicular steatosis. Shotgun proteomics analysis revealed that Timp3,/, liver showed a significant differential expression of 38 proteins, including lower levels of adenosine kinase, methionine adenosysltransferase I/III, and glycine N -methyltransferase and higher levels of liver fatty acid-binding protein 1. These changes in protein levels were also observed in hepatocytes infected with adenovirus encoding TACE. All these proteins play a role in fatty acid uptake, triglyceride synthesis, and methionine metabolism, providing a molecular explanation for the increased hepatosteatosis observed in Timp3,/, compared with WT mice. Conclusion: We have identified novel mechanisms, governed by the TACE,Timp3 interaction, involved in the determination of insulin resistance and liver steatosis during overfeeding in mice. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

Hydroa vacciniforme-like Epstein-Barr virus-associated monoclonal T-lymphoproliferative disorder in a child

Yu-Hung Wu MD
Hydroa vacciniforme (HV) is a chronic photosensitivity disorder induced by ultraviolet radiation. Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma is a rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma occurring mainly in childhood. Recent studies have demonstrated an association between chronic latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and both the benign skin disorder and the lymphoma. The authors report a 6-year-old boy with chronic EBV infection, HV-like skin eruptions, and chronic hepatitis. Histopathologic examination of a skin biopsy specimen demonstrated epidermal ballooning degeneration and dense superficial and deep perivascular and periappendageal lymphoid cell infiltrates extending to the fat lobules. Some blood vessels in the deep plexus were infiltrated by predominantly CD4+ and TIA-1+ cytotoxic T cells. The EBV genomes were found within tissue from three skin biopsies and peripheral blood cells. Monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement was present in skin biopsy specimens. Although no lymphoma has been found during 2 years of follow-up treatment, the possibility of lymphoma developing out of the current smoldering stage is of concern. The clinical manifestations of lymphoproliferative disorder and chronic active EBV infection are discussed. [source]

Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet

Nalan Kuzu
Abstract Background and Aim:, In the present study, we examined the preventive role of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in an experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis model induced by a high fat diet. Methods:, The study included 21 male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were equally divided into three groups. The first group was fed on a standard rat diet, the second group on a high fat diet (HFD), and the third group on a HFD + EGCG. The study concluded after 6 weeks. Histopathological examination was performed. Plasma and tissue MDA levels, glucose, insulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels were studied. Insulin resistance was calculated by the homeostasis model of insulin resistance method. Results:, Steatosis, inflammation, ballooning degeneration, and necrosis increased significantly in the HFD group, compared to the control group (P < 0.01). Steatosis and inflammation decreased in the HFD + EGCG group, in comparison to the HFD group (P < 0.05, for each). There was a significant decline in ALT (P < 0.01), triglyceride (P < 0.01), insulin (P < 0.05), and glucose (P < 0.05) levels in the HFD + EGCG group, when compared to the HFD group. Plasma and liver MDA levels in the HFD + EGCG group were lower than those of the HFD group; the difference was significant (P < 0.01 for each). Glutathione levels in the HFD + EGCG group was significantly higher those in the HFD group. CYP 2E1 and ,-smooth muscle actin expression decreased in the HFD + EGCG group, in comparison to the HFD group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion:, EGCG reduces the development of experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induced by a high fat diet. It seems to exercise this effect through its effect on lipid metabolism and antioxidant characteristics. [source]

Investigation of histopathological and cytogenetic effects on Lepomis gibbosus (Pisces: Perciformes) in the Çine stream (Ayd,n/Turkey) with determination of water pollution

Yücel Ba, lu Koca
Abstract Water quality and the distribution of some heavy metals in three different organs of Lepomis gibbosus from the Çine Stream were studied. Also, histopathological changes in gill, liver, and muscle tissue were examined at light microscopical level. Micronucleus (MN) formation in fish erytrocytes, as an indicator of chromosomal damage, has been increasingly used to detect the genotoxic potential of environmental contaminants. The frequency of MN was examined from samples of fish from the Çine Stream and a control group. MN frequency was higher in fish samples caught from the Çine Stream than that in the control group. The chemicals ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, orthophosphate, and sulphate were determined as parameters that possibly affect the gill, liver, and muscle morphology. Zn was the most accumulated metal in tissues as well as in water. Maximum metal accumulation occured in both liver and gills. For histopathological examinations, samples of gills, liver, and muscle tissues of L. gibbosus were studied by using light microscopy. In this study, a significant decrease in mean length of primary and secondary lamellae were observed. Moreover, cellular proliferation developed with secondary lamellae fusion, ballooning degenerations or club deformation of secondary lamellae, as well as distribution of necrotic, hyperplastic and clavate secondary lamellae. In the liver, altered staining, swollen and ruptured parenchymal cells, loss of cord structure, reduce of glycogen in hepatocytes, and vacuolar structure filled with cellular debris and many dark particles were seen. In muscle tissue, focal necrosis, cellular dissolution, and a decline or loss of striatation in muscle fibres were found. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 20: 560,571, 2005. [source]