Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Bacterial

  • other bacterial

  • Terms modified by Bacterial

  • bacterial 16s rdna
  • bacterial 16s rrna gene
  • bacterial abundance
  • bacterial activity
  • bacterial adherence
  • bacterial adhesion
  • bacterial agent
  • bacterial aggregation
  • bacterial antigen
  • bacterial artificial chromosome
  • bacterial assemblage
  • bacterial attachment
  • bacterial binding
  • bacterial biofilm
  • bacterial biomarker
  • bacterial biomass
  • bacterial biosensor
  • bacterial blight
  • bacterial burden
  • bacterial canker
  • bacterial cause
  • bacterial cell
  • bacterial cell membrane
  • bacterial cell wall
  • bacterial cellulose
  • bacterial challenge
  • bacterial chemotaxis
  • bacterial chromosome
  • bacterial clearance
  • bacterial colonization
  • bacterial colony
  • bacterial community
  • bacterial community composition
  • bacterial community profile
  • bacterial community structure
  • bacterial component
  • bacterial composition
  • bacterial concentration
  • bacterial conjunctivitis
  • bacterial consortium
  • bacterial contamination
  • bacterial count
  • bacterial culture
  • bacterial cytoplasm
  • bacterial degradation
  • bacterial density
  • bacterial detection
  • bacterial disease
  • bacterial diversity
  • bacterial dna
  • bacterial effector protein
  • bacterial endocarditis
  • bacterial endosymbiont
  • bacterial endotoxin
  • bacterial enzyme
  • bacterial exposure
  • bacterial expression system
  • bacterial extract
  • bacterial factor
  • bacterial fermentation
  • bacterial flagellum
  • bacterial flora
  • bacterial gene
  • bacterial gene expression
  • bacterial genome
  • bacterial genus
  • bacterial group
  • bacterial groups
  • bacterial growth
  • bacterial growth rate
  • bacterial homologue
  • bacterial identification
  • bacterial inactivation
  • bacterial infection
  • bacterial infections
  • bacterial inhibition
  • bacterial interaction
  • bacterial internalization
  • bacterial invasion
  • bacterial isolation
  • bacterial keratitis
  • bacterial kidney disease
  • bacterial killing
  • bacterial leakage
  • bacterial ligand
  • bacterial lineage
  • bacterial lipopolysaccharide
  • bacterial load
  • bacterial lp
  • bacterial lysate
  • bacterial membrane
  • bacterial meningitis
  • bacterial metabolism
  • bacterial metabolite
  • bacterial microbiota
  • bacterial motility
  • bacterial number
  • bacterial origin
  • bacterial overgrowth
  • bacterial parasite
  • bacterial pathogen
  • bacterial pathogenesis
  • bacterial peptidoglycan
  • bacterial peritonitis
  • bacterial persistence
  • bacterial phylum
  • bacterial physiology
  • bacterial plaque
  • bacterial pneumonia
  • bacterial poly
  • bacterial population
  • bacterial presence
  • bacterial process
  • bacterial production
  • bacterial products
  • bacterial profile
  • bacterial proliferation
  • bacterial prostatitis
  • bacterial protein
  • bacterial reduction
  • bacterial replication
  • bacterial resistance
  • bacterial respiration
  • bacterial response
  • bacterial ribosome
  • bacterial rna polymerase
  • bacterial sample
  • bacterial sepsis
  • bacterial sequence
  • bacterial skin infections
  • bacterial species
  • bacterial spore
  • bacterial strain
  • bacterial strain capable
  • bacterial strain isolated
  • bacterial supernatant
  • bacterial surface
  • bacterial surface protein
  • bacterial survival
  • bacterial suspension
  • bacterial swab
  • bacterial symbiont
  • bacterial symbiosis
  • bacterial system
  • bacterial taxa
  • bacterial toxin
  • bacterial translocation
  • bacterial transmission
  • bacterial uptake
  • bacterial vaginosi
  • bacterial viability
  • bacterial virulence
  • bacterial virulence factor

  • Selected Abstracts

    Bacteria in oral secretions of an endophytic insect inhibit antagonistic fungi

    Abstract 1.,Colonisation of host trees by an endophytic herbivore, the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis, is accompanied by invasion of its galleries by a number of fungal species. Four of these associated species were identified as Leptographium abietinum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nomius, and Trichoderma harzianum. 2.,Trichoderma and Aspergillus significantly reduced spruce beetle survival and reproduction in controlled assays. 3.,A previously undescribed behaviour was observed, in which spruce beetle adults exuded oral secretions, especially within fungus-pervaded galleries. 4.,These oral secretions inhibited the growth of fungi except A. nomius, and disrupted the morphology of the latter. Administration of these secretions indicated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect. 5.,Oral secretions cultured on microbiological media yielded substantial bacterial growth. 6.,Filter-sterilised secretions failed to inhibit fungal growth, evidence that the bacteria are responsible for the antifungal activity. 7.,Nine bacterial isolates belonging to the Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria taxa were obtained from the secretions. 8.,Bacterial isolates showed species-specific inhibitory activity against the four fungi antagonistic to spruce beetle. The bacterium with the strongest fungal inhibition activity was the actinomycete Micrococcus luteus. 9.,The production of bark beetle secretions containing bacteria that inhibit fungal growth is a novel finding. This suggests an additional level of complexity to ecological associations among bark beetles, conifers, and microorganisms, and an important adaptation for colonising subcortical tissue. [source]

    Bacterial and mammalian-cell genotoxicity of mixtures of chlorohydroxyfuranones, by-products of water chlorination

    Jorma Mki-Paakkanen
    Abstract The genotoxic responses of mixtures of four chlorohydroxyfuranones (CHFs), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), 3,4-dichloro-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MCA), 3-chloro- 4-(chloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (CMCF) and 3-chloro-4-methyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MCF), were compared with the genotoxicity of the individual compounds. Genotoxicity was evaluated in the Salmonella reversion assay (Ames test), the in vitro Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell Hprt mutation assay, and in the CHO chromosome aberration test. When tested individually, the concentrations of the chemicals that were chosen for the mixtures induced no or only a modest increase in the genotoxic effects, and caused little or no cytotoxicity. In the Ames test, the genotoxic responses caused by the mixtures of CHFs did not follow simple additivity. Synergism was observed with strains TA97 and TA98, and antagonism with strain TA100. In the CHO/Hprt mutation assay, the mutagenic response of the mixtures was inconsistent, with near additivity seen with a mixture of CHFs that resulted in 12% cell survival. In contrast, the four CHFs together consistently caused more structural chromosome damage (mainly chromatid-type breaks and exchanges) compared to the sum of net effects of the four CHFs tested alone. Also, a potentiating effect was consistently seen for the cytotoxicity of the CHF mixtures both in the CHO/Hprt mutation assay and the chromosome aberration test. The present results indicate that the genotoxic effects of CHF mixtures can be greater than additive. Such effects may be worth considering in the cancer risk assessment of chlorinated drinking water. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 43:217,225, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A methane-driven microbial food web in a wetland rice soil

    Jun Murase
    Summary Methane oxidation is a key process controlling methane emission from anoxic habitats into the atmosphere. Methanotrophs, responsible for aerobic methane oxidation, do not only oxidize but also assimilate methane. Once assimilated, methane carbon may be utilized by other organisms. Here we report on a microbial food web in a rice field soil driven by methane. A thin layer of water-saturated rice field soil was incubated under opposing gradients of oxygen and 13C-labelled methane. Bacterial and eukaryotic communities incorporating methane carbon were analysed by RNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and cloning showed that methanotrophs were the most prominent group of bacteria incorporating methane carbon. In addition, a few Myxobacteria -related sequences were obtained from the ,heavy' rRNA fraction. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 18S rRNA detected various groups of protists in the ,heavy' rRNA fraction including naked amoeba (Lobosea and Heterolobosea), ciliates (Colpodea) and flagellates (Cercozoa). Incubation of soil under different methane concentrations in air resulted in the development of distinct protozoan communities. These results suggest that methane carbon is incorporated into non-methanotrophic pro- and microeukaryotes probably via grazing, and that methane oxidation is a shaping force of the microeukaryotic community depending on methane availability. [source]

    Microbial response to salinity change in Lake Chaka, a hypersaline lake on Tibetan plateau

    Hongchen Jiang
    Summary Previous investigations of the salinity effects on the microbial community composition have largely been limited to dynamic estuaries and coastal solar salterns. In this study, the effects of salinity and mineralogy on microbial community composition was studied by using a 900-cm sediment core collected from a stable, inland hypersaline lake, Lake Chaka, on the Tibetan Plateau, north-western China. This core, spanning a time of 17 000 years, was unique in that it possessed an entire range of salinity from freshwater clays and silty sands at the bottom to gypsum and glauberite in the middle, to halite at the top. Bacterial and archaeal communities were studied along the length of this core using an integrated approach combining mineralogy and geochemistry, molecular microbiology (16S rRNA gene analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction), cultivation and lipid biomarker analyses. Systematic changes in microbial community composition were correlated with the salinity gradient, but not with mineralogy. Bacterial community was dominated by the Firmicutes -related environmental sequences and known species (including sulfate-reducing bacteria) in the freshwater sediments at the bottom, but by halophilic and halotolerant Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in the hypersaline sediments at the top. Succession of proteobacterial groups along the salinity gradient, typically observed in free-living bacterial communities, was not observed in the sediment-associated community. Among Archaea, the Crenarchaeota were predominant in the bottom freshwater sediments, but the halophilic Halobacteriales of the Euryarchaeota was the most important group in the hypersaline sediments. Multiple isolates were obtained along the whole length of the core, and their salinity tolerance was consistent with the geochemical conditions. Iron-reducing bacteria were isolated in the freshwater sediments, which were capable of reducing structural Fe(III) in the Fe(III)-rich clay minerals predominant in the source sediment. These data have important implications for understanding how microorganisms respond to increased salinity in stable, inland water bodies. [source]

    Physiological and molecular characterization of anaerobic benzene-degrading mixed cultures

    Ania C. Ulrich
    Summary Nine distinct anaerobic benzene-degrading cultures were enriched from sediment samples from four different sites. These cultures used nitrate, sulphate or CO2 as electron acceptors. The shortest doubling times were observed in nitrate-reducing cultures, although cell yield was lowest in these cultures. The highest substrate concentration utilized and maximum absolute rates of benzene degraded (in M day,1) were observed in methanogenic cultures. The microbial compositions of a methanogenic and nitrate-reducing culture were determined from a clone library of 16S rRNA genes. Five Bacterial 16S rRNA sequences, one of which resembled a clone previously found in a sulphate-reducing, benzene-degrading culture and four Archaeal 16S rRNA sequences were identified in a methanogenic culture. Four Bacterial and no Archaeal 16S rRNA sequences were identified in a nitrate-reducing culture. The relative abundance of the four nitrate-reducing putative species was determined by slot blot hybridization. Two green sulphur bacteria together formed 52% of the clone library, but were found to be less than 4% of the culture by slot blot analysis. One of the cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences comprised 70% of the culture and was phylogenetically 93% similar to both Azoarcus and Dechloromonas species, which have been shown to degrade aromatic compounds, including benzene, under nitrate-reducing conditions. [source]

    Bacterial and archaeal populations associated with freshwater ferromanganous micronodules and sediments

    Lisa Y. Stein
    Biology is believed to play a large role in the cycling of iron and manganese in many freshwater environments, but specific microbial groups indigenous to these systems have not been well characterized. To investigate the populations of Bacteria and Archaea associated with metal-rich sediments from Green Bay, WI, we extracted nucleic acids and analysed the phylogenetic relationships of cloned 16S rRNA genes. Because nucleic acids have not been routinely extracted from metal-rich samples, we investigated the bias inherent in DNA extraction and gene amplification from pure MnO2 using defined populations of whole cells or naked DNA. From the sediments, we screened for manganese-oxidizing bacteria using indicator media and found three isolates that were capable of manganese oxidation. In the phylogenetic analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene clones, we found two groups related to known metal-oxidizing genera, Leptothrix of the ,-Proteobacteria and Hyphomicrobium of the ,-Proteobacteria, and a Fe(III)-reducing group related to the Magnetospirillum genus of the ,-Proteobacteria. Groups related to the metal-reducing ,-Proteobacteria constituted 22% of the gene clones. In addition, gene sequences from one group of methanogens and a group of Crenarchaeota, identified in the archaeal gene clone library, were related to those found previously in Lake Michigan sediments. [source]

    Clinical features and outcomes of severe ulcerative keratitis with medical and surgical management in 41 horses (2000,2006)

    M. E. Utter
    Summary The clinical features and outcomes of equine ulcerative keratitis with and without conjunctival graft surgery were assessed using a retrospective study. Medical records of horses hospitalised from July 2000-January 2006 for ulcerative keratitis were included if a diagnosis of melting ulcer, descemetocele or iris prolapse was made, or if surgery was recommended due to severity of corneal disease, and aggressive medical therapy using a subpalpebral catheter was instituted. Treatment and outcome variables were evaluated with and without conjunctival graft surgery. Forty-one horses, 21 that had surgery and 20 for whom surgery was recommended but not performed, were included. Horses were hospitalised for an average of 24 days, with 37/41 melting ulcers, 17/41 descemetoceles and 3/41 iris prolapses, with no statistical difference in frequencies between groups. Bacterial or fungal organisms were cultured from 22/39 cases, with 10 Aspergillus spp. and 8 Pseudomonas spp. Infectious organisms were seen on corneal cytology in 23/30 cases. Surgical cases were hospitalised for an average of 4.9 days prior to surgery. Abdominal discomfort was observed in 8/41 hospitalised horses, with 5/8 operated horses developing caecal impactions. Thirty-five horses retained an intact globe, including 18/20 treated medically and 17/21 that had surgery. Hospitalisation cost was 24% more for cases that had surgery than for medical cases. It was concluded that there was no statistical difference in length or cost of hospitalisation between surgical and nonsurgical groups. Outcomes from both groups were similar, with a high frequency of globe retention. [source]

    High prokaryote diversity and analysis of community structure in mobile mud deposits off French Guiana: identification of two new bacterial candidate divisions

    Vanessa M. Madrid
    Abstract Bacterial and archaeal community compositions in highly mobile nearshore muds typical of the Guiana coastline of South America were examined by sequence analysis of a 16S rDNA clone library. DNA was extracted from a subsurface sediment layer (10,30 cm) collected at a subtidal (,1 m deep) mud wave site between Kourou and Sinnamary, French Guiana. Analysis of 96 non-chimeric sequences showed the majority to be bacteria (98%), that diversity was high with 64 unique sequences, and that proteobacteria were dominant (46%). Two crenarchaeota sequences were found (2%). Bacterial sequences belonged to the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (18%), Actinobacteria (11.5%), Planctomycetes (6.3%), Cyanobacteria (3.2%), low-GC Gram-positive (1%), ,, , and , subdivisions of Proteobacteria (27%, 16%, and 9%, respectively). Additional bacterial sequences belonged to the candidate division TM6 (1%) and to two newly proposed candidate divisions: KS-A (2%) and KS-B (3%). A sizeable fraction (22%) of sequences from the Kourou,Sinnamary library are normally found in water column populations, reflecting frequent entrainment of suspended debris into physically reworked underlying sediments. Dominant sequences (56%) were related to Gelidibacter algens (Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group), Actinobacteria, Sulfitobacter and Ruegeria spp. (,-proteobacteria), all of which are chemoorganotrophs, consistent with abundant labile organic carbon. The presence of sequences from potential sulfate reducers and sulfide oxidizers suggests the likelihood of sulfur cycling in these sediments, despite the dominance of suboxic (iron-reducing), non-sulfidic diagenetic properties. Rarefaction analysis indicated that bacterial diversity in the French Guiana library is not only unusually high in comparison with other marine sedimentary environments, but among the most diverse of all environments reported to date. [source]

    Organic matter availability structures microbial biomass and activity in a Mediterranean stream

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 10 2009
    Summary 1. We compared microbial biomass (bacteria, fungi, algae) and the activity of extracellular enzymes used in the decomposition of organic matter (OM) among different benthic substrata (leaves, coarse and fine substrata) over one hydrological year in a Mediterranean stream. 2. Microbial heterotrophic biomass (bacteria plus fungi) was generally higher than autotrophic biomass (algae), except during short periods of high light availability in the spring and winter. During these periods, sources of OM shifted towards autochthonous sources derived mainly from algae, which was demonstrated by high algal biomass and peptidase activity in benthic communities. 3. Heterotrophic activity peaked in the autumn. Bacterial and fungal biomass increased with the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose compounds from leaf material. Later, lignin decomposition was stimulated in fine (sand, gravel) and coarse (rocks, boulders and cobbles) substrata by the accumulation of fine detritus. 4. The Mediterranean summer drought provoked an earlier leaf fall. The resumption of the water flow caused the weathering of riparian soils and subsequently a large increase in dissolved organic carbon and nitrate, which led to growth of bacteria and fungi. [source]

    An in-vitro investigation of the antibacterial effect of nisin in root canals and canal wall radicular dentine

    S. R. Turner
    Abstract Aim, To determine whether nisin, a bacteriocin, would be effective at killing Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus gordonii cells in solution and within the root canal system. Methodology, Bacterial isolates of E. faecalis and S. gordonii were grown from glycerol stocks in closed tubes containing BHY broth at 37 C. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of nisin for both bacterial species was determined by a microdilution method. Extracted human teeth were decoronated to produce roots of equal length with a single canal and divided into six groups of 10 roots. The canals were prepared to a master apical size 30 file using 0.04 taper Ni-Ti rotary instruments. Bacterial samples of each species were inoculated into three groups of prepared roots and incubated in closed tubes at 37 C for 21 days. The root canals in each group were then medicated with water (control), calcium hydroxide powder mixed with sterile water [Ca(OH)2], or nisin and incubated for a further 7 days. Rotary Ni-Ti files were used to take radicular dentine samples from the walls of each canal which were then incubated in BHY broth for 24 h. Optical density (OD600) readings were taken as a measure of bacterial growth. Results, The MBC of nisin for E. faecalis and S. gordonii was 70 and 20 mg mL,1 respectively. Calcium hydroxide and nisin medication eradicated infection within the root canal while cells remained viable in the control group. Mean optical density (OD600) readings from canal wall dentine shavings infected with E. faecalis were 1.32 0.98, 0.73 0.27 and 0.69 0.38 for the control, Ca(OH)2 and nisin samples respectively. Corresponding mean readings for S. gordonii were 1.19 0.18, 0.73 0.15 and 0.60 0.29. The Ca(OH)2 and nisin group readings were significantly (P < 0.01) lower than the control for each species as tested by Student's t -test and Mann,Whitney U statistical analysis. Values for Ca(OH)2 and nisin were not significantly (P > 0.01) different. Conclusion, Nisin was effective at eradicating E. faecalis and S. gordonii cells in pure culture and was comparable with Ca(OH)2 in the elimination of these species from within the root canal system. [source]

    A Diversified Library of Bacterial and Fungal Bifunctional Cytochrome P450 Enzymes for Drug Metabolite Synthesis

    Roland Weis
    Abstract Innovative biohydroxylation catalysts for the preparation of drug metabolites were developed from scratch. A set of bacterial and fungal sequences of putative and already known bifunctional P450 enzymes was identified by protein sequence alignments, expressed in Escherichia coli and characterised. Notably, a fungal self-sufficient cytochrome P450 (CYP) from Aspergillus fumigatus turned out to be especially stable during catalyst preparation and application and also in presence of organic co-solvents. To enhance the catalytic activity and broaden the substrate specificity of those variants with high expression levels prominent single mutations were introduced. Selected improved variants were then used as lyophilised bacterial lysates for the synthesis of 4,-hydroxydiclofenac and 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone, the two metabolites of active pharmaceutical compounds diclofenac and chlorzoxazone representing the same metabolites as generated by human P450s. [source]

    Commensal bacilli inhibitory to mastitis pathogens isolated from the udder microbiota of healthy cows

    M. Al-Qumber
    Abstract Aims:, To isolate from the microbiota of the healthy cow udder commensal bacteria having antimicrobial activity against bovine mastitis pathogens, with a long-term view to their potential application as antimastitis probiotics. Methods and Results:, Bacterial isolates from four healthy cow udders were tested for inhibitory activity against three Gram-positive indicator bacteria. This led to the selection of nine broadly inhibitory strains. All were of the Bacillus genus and their antimicrobial activities, which appeared heterogeneous on the basis of their antibacterial spectra and heat susceptibilities, enabled grouping of the inhibitory bacilli into six different inhibitory profiles. All displayed strong in vitro activity against Gram-positive mastitis pathogens. Inhibitory bacilli were recovered from each of the 11 udder samples collected over 7 months from one of these cows and the isolates included representatives of all six inhibitory profiles. Conclusions:, Bacilli present in the udder microbiota of healthy cows can produce a variety of broadly active inhibitors of Gram-positive bacteria, including potential mastitis pathogens. Significance and Impact of the Study:, Inhibitor-producing strains of commensal Bacillus species have been identified, which may have the potential for use as possible antimastitis probiotics. [source]

    Soil survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 acquired by a child from garden soil recently fertilized with cattle manure

    A. Mukherjee
    Abstract Aims:, This investigation was conducted to determine the survival of a naturally occurring Escherichia coli O157:H7 in garden soil linked to a sporadic case of E. coli O157 infection in Minnesota. Methods and Results:, The presence and viability of E. coli O157:H7 was monitored in manure-contaminated garden soil for several weeks. Bacterial isolates were characterized using PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates obtained from the patient and the garden plots during this investigation had indistinguishable PFGE patterns and had the same virulence factors (stx1, stx2, eaeA, ehxA). The E. coli O157:H7 levels obtained from the garden plots declined gradually for a period of 2 months, and on day 69 only one garden plot of four had detectable levels of pathogen. All plots were negative on day 92. The rate of decline in the soil samples stored at 4C was faster compared with soil samples that remained in ambient conditions, and in refrigerated storage E. coli O157:H7 could not be detected after 10 days. Conclusions:,E. coli O157:H7 strains can survive on manure-amended soil for more than 2 months, and this survival could be reduced by low temperature. Significance and Impact of the Study:, This is one of the few reports that have investigated the survival of a proven virulent strain in naturally contaminated soil samples. This case stresses the importance of avoiding the use of raw cattle manure to amend soil for cultivation of foods, including soils in residential garden plots. [source]

    16S rDNA Sequence Analysis of Bacterial Isolates from Die-back Affected Sissoo Trees (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) in Bangladesh

    H. Tantau
    Abstract A new form of disease called ,die-back' has been established in Dalbergia sissoo trees. This disease has reached epidemic proportions in Bangladesh as well as in other countries of South Asia and is characterized by browning of the leaves, signs of wilting, and trunk lesions with gum flow. The trees die within a few months. In order to investigate the causes of this die-back disease, samples were taken for a first trial in the Rajshahi division at two sites around Sherpur. For the isolation of bacteria, surface-sterilized plant material (leaves, twigs and trunk bark) from diseased trees was transferred to LB medium and incubated. After isolation of single colonies, various bacteria species could be identified by polymerase chain reaction analysis with two primers specific for highly conserved sequence regions in the bacterial 16S rDNA and by sequencing. First indications for the presence of bacteria with phytopathogenic potential were found. [source]

    In situ determination of sulfate turnover in peatlands: A down-scaled push,pull tracer technique,

    Tobias Goldhammer
    Abstract Bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is a key process in anaerobic respiration in wetlands and may have considerable impacts on methane emissions. A method to determine sulfate production and consumption in situ is lacking to date. We applied a single-well, injection-withdrawal tracer test for the in situ determination of potential sulfate turnover in a northern temperate peatland. Piezometers were installed in three peat depth levels (20, 30, and 50,cm) during summer 2004, and three series of injection-withdrawal cycles were carried out over a period of several days. Turnover rates of sulfate, calculated from first-order-reaction constant k (,0.097 to 0.053 h,1) and pore-water sulfate concentrations (approx. 10 mol L,1), ranged from ,1.3 to ,9.0 nmol cm,3 d,1 for reduction and from +0.7 to +25.4 nmol cm,2 d,1 for production, which occurred after infiltration of water following a heavy rainstorm. Analysis of stable isotopes in peat-water sulfate revealed slightly increasing ,34S values and decreasing sulfate concentrations indicating the presence of BSR. The calculated low sulfur-fractionation factors of <2, are in line with high sulfate-reduction rates during BSR. Routine application will require technical optimization, but the method seems a promising addition to common ex situ techniques, as the investigated soil is not structurally altered. The method can furthermore be applied at low expense even in remote locations. [source]

    The host species affects the microbial community in the goat rumen

    P.J. Shi
    Abstract Aims:, This study was carried out to determine whether bacterial and ciliate populations in goat rumen vary significantly between different goat species living in the same environment. Methods and Results:, Bacterial and ciliate communities in the rumen of three goat species were analysed at the molecular level using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The microbial community varied considerably among goats living in the same environment. Interspecies variation in the bacterial population was noticeably greater than intraspecies variation. In contrast, there was considerable variation in the ciliate population among goats within the same species, and intraspecies similarities were no greater than those observed across species. Conclusions:, Because environmental factors and diets were identical for all goats, differences in bacterial populations reflect species-specific differences in rumen microbes. Significance and Impact of the Study:, Factors related to the host species have an important effect on determining the bacterial composition in the goat rumen. [source]

    Phylogenetic analyses of Caulerpa taxifolia (Chlorophyta) and of its associated bacterial microflora provide clues to the origin of the Mediterranean introduction

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
    I. Meusnier
    Abstract The accidental introduction of Caulerpa taxifolia into the Mediterranean is no longer under dispute. What has eluded researchers until now, is definitive evidence for the original, biogeographical source population. Here we present two independent lines of evidence that support an Australian origin for the Mediterranean populations of C. taxifolia. First, we reanalysed algal rDNA-internal transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) sequences, combining previously published sequences from different studies with 22 new sequences. The ITS sequence comparison showed that the Australian sample is the sister group of the Mediterranean,aquarium clade. Second, cloned bacterial 16S rDNA gene sequences were analysed from the associated microflora of C. taxifolia collected from Australia, Tahiti, the Philippines and the Mediterranean. Five bacterial lineages were identified, of which three were dominant. Alpha Proteobacteria were the most abundant and were found in all samples. In contrast, members of the beta Proteobacterial line and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides line (CFB) were mainly associated with Mediterranean and Australian samples. Frequency distributions of the five bacterial lineages were significantly different among biogeographical locations. Phylogenetic analyses of the 54 bacterial sequences derived from the four C. taxifolia individuals resulted in a well-resolved tree with high bootstrap support. The topologies of the beta Proteobacteria and CFB mirror the geographical sources of their algal hosts. Bacterial,algal associations provide an identification tool that may have wide application for the detection of marine invasions. [source]

    Region 4 of , as a target for transcription regulation

    Simon L. Dove
    Summary Bacterial , factors play a key role in promoter recognition, making direct contact with conserved promoter elements. Most , factors belong to the ,70 family, named for the primary , factor in Escherichia coli. Members of the ,70 family typically share four conserved regions and, here, we focus on region 4, which is directly involved in promoter recognition and serves as a target for a variety of regulators of transcription initiation. We review recent advances in the understanding of the mechanism of action of regulators that target region 4 of ,. [source]

    Bacterial and Viral Infection

    Article first published online: 26 AUG 2010
    First page of article [source]

    Origin and evolution of the protein-repairing enzymes methionine sulphoxide reductases

    BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS, Issue 3 2008
    Xing-Hai Zhang
    Abstract The majority of extant life forms thrive in an O2 -rich environment, which unavoidably induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during cellular activities. ROS readily oxidize methionine (Met) residues in proteins/peptides to form methionine sulphoxide [Met(O)] that can lead to impaired protein function. Two methionine sulphoxide reductases, MsrA and MsrB, catalyse the reduction of the S and R epimers, respectively, of Met(O) in proteins to Met. The Msr system has two known functions in protecting cells against oxidative damage. The first is to repair proteins that have lost activity due to Met oxidation and the second is to function as part of a scavenger system to remove ROS through the reversible oxidation/reduction of Met residues in proteins. Bacterial, plant and animal cells lacking MsrA are known to be more sensitive to oxidative stress. The Msr system is considered an important cellular defence mechanism to protect against oxidative stress and may be involved in ageing/senescence. MsrA is present in all known eukaryotes and eubacteria and a majority of archaea, reflecting its essential role in cellular life. MsrB is found in all eukaryotes and the majority of eubacteria and archaea but is absent in some eubacteria and archaea, which may imply a less important role of MsrB compared to MsrA. MsrA and MsrB share no sequence or structure homology, and therefore probably emerged as a result of independent evolutionary events. The fact that some archaea lack msr genes raises the question of how these archaea cope with oxidative damage to proteins and consequently of the significance of msr evolution in oxic eukaryotes dealing with oxidative stress. Our best hypothesis is that the presence of ROS-destroying enzymes such as peroxiredoxins and a lower dissolved O2 concentration in those msr -lacking organisms grown at high temperatures might account for the successful survival of these organisms under oxidative stress. [source]

    Aerobic Heterotrophic Bacterial and Fungal Communities in the Topsoil of Omo Biosphere Reserve in Southwestern Nigeria,

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 2 2000
    A. I. Okoh
    ABSTRACT As a part of the surveillance effort to monitor the ecological status of Omo Biosphere Reserve in the southwestern region of Nigeria, the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial and fungal communities of the topsoil were investigated in March 1995 and April 1996, before the onset of the rainy season. Four distinct wood-tree plantations, a core strict nature reserve (SNR) area, and a buffer zone were sampled. The topsoil samples (7.5 cm depth), including the litter, were taken with an auger (8 cm diameter) and transported to the laboratory in polyethylene bags. One-gram dry weight equivalent of sample was suspended in 10 ml sterile water, and serial dilutions from it were used for the estimation of bacterial and fungal densities. The bacterial and fungal densities ranged in the order of 106 and 103 cfu/g, respectively. Out of the 18 bacterial and 16 fungal species that were obtained, 13 and 12, respectively, were isolated from the core SNR. About 46 to 69 percent of the bacteria and 50 to 83 percent of the fungi species found in the SNR were absent in different combinations in the plantations and the buffer zone; these variations were significant among the sites monitored. The bacterial and fungal species compositions were significantly different between the SNR and each of the other sites. Proportional distributions within the sites were significant only for the bacterial communities. It would appear that plantation and human activities have caused significant changes in the distribution and species richness of the heterotrophic bacterial and fungal communities relative to the undisturbed SNR area of the Omo Biosphere Reserve. [source]

    S -Adenosyl- L -Methionine Hydrolase (Adenosine-Forming), a Conserved Bacterial and Archeal Protein Related to SAM-Dependent Halogenases

    CHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 14 2008
    Alessandra S. Eustquio Dr.
    Halogenase versus hydrolase: The newly discovered SAM-dependent halogenases belong to a family of over 100 proteins from bacteria and archaea. Biochemical and in silico analyses reported here suggest, however, that most of these relatives act as previously unknown SAM adenosylhydrolases rather than halogenases. [source]

    Theory of Microbial Carbonate Precipitation and Its Application in Restoration of Cement-based Materials Defects

    Chunxiang Qian
    Abstract Bacterial induced carbonate mineralization has been demonstrated as a new potential method for restoration of limestones in historic buildings and monuments. We claim here the formation of calcium carbonate was controlled by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) isolated from Bacillus pasteurii. The process of crystallization nucleation was accelerated in the presence of cells and inhibited in the presence of EPS. The CaCO3 film deposited on cement paste surface was about 100 m after 7 d treatment. The results of various restoring methods showed that higher decrease of water absorption of cement paste was gained in brushing application in the presence of agar, which could maintain urease with high activity in long term compared to spraying method. The coefficient of capillary suction of cement paste treated with brushing method was reduced by 90%. Mixed media consisted of sands, urea, Ca2+ and concentrated biomass, was injected into artificial cracks of cement paste followed by continual nutrient supplement, and CaCO3 particles were precipitated gradually between sands particles which were combined with cement matrix. The results showed that the compressive strength of recovered specimens was restored to 84%, which demonstrated that this kind of bio-restoration method is effective in repairing surface defects of cement-based materials. [source]

    Infections and asthma: new insights into old ideas

    C. M. Sevin
    Summary Cite this as: C. M. Sevin and R. S. Peebles Jr, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 2010 (40) 1142,1154. A relationship between infections and allergic airway disease has long been recognized, and many reviews have been written on this topic. However, both clinical and basic science studies published in the last 3 years provide new insights into the relationship between infection and allergic conditions. In this review, we focus on these very recent studies, which address the role of infection in the development, maintenance, and exacerbation of asthma. Bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections have each been examined and provide a framework for these novel concepts. [source]

    Evaluating the usefulness of spa typing, in comparison with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, for epidemiological typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a low-prevalence region in Sweden 2000,2004

    A. C. Petersson
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2010; 16: 456,462 Abstract The usefulness of spa typing was evaluated in relation to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), as a tool for epidemiological typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a low-prevalence region in southern Sweden. Bacterial isolates from 216 MRSA cases, newly identified in 2000,2004, were studied. The isolates were obtained from infected patients (31%), and from colonized individuals found by screening (69%). In total, 49 spa types and 73 PFGE patterns were identified. The discriminatory power of spa typing was lower (94.9 1.8%) than that of PFGE (97.3 1.2%). For two spa types (t002 and t008) the Panton,Valentine leukocidin results added useful discriminatory information. The most common spa types were t044 (n = 31; four PFGE patterns), t002 (n = 24; 10 PFGE patterns), t067 (n = 12; four PFGE patterns), t050 (n = 12; one PFGE pattern), and t324 (n = 11; one PFGE pattern). Epidemiological investigations identified 91 single cases and 39 transmission chains, each involving two to 13 cases. All the transmission chains were held together both by spa and PFGE typing. Among the 91 single-case isolates, 33 spa types and 50 PFGE patterns were unique (matchless) at the time of identification. The low prevalence of MRSA, the low number of outbreaks, and the wide spectrum of strains due to frequent acquisitions abroad (49% of the cases), makes spa typing a useful complement to epidemiological investigations in our setting. However, we still recommend the continued use of PFGE for further discrimination of isolates with identical spa types when epidemiological data can not exclude possible transmission. [source]

    Simultaneous determination of metronidazole and spiramycin in bulk powder and in tablets using different spectrophotometric techniques

    Fatma I. Khattab
    Abstract Metronidazole (MZ) is an anti-infective drug used in the treatment of anaerobic bacterial and protozoa infections in humans. It is also used as a vetinary antiparasitic drug. Spiramycin (SP) is a medium-spectrum antibiotic with high effectiveness against Gram-positive bacteria. Three simple, sensitive, selective and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of MZ and SP in their pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. In methods A and B, MZ was determined by the application of direct spectrophotometry and by measuring its zero-order (D0) absorption spectra at its ,max = 311 nm. In method A, SP was determined by the application of first derivative spectrophotometry (D1) and by measuring the amplitude at 218.3 nm. In method B, the first derivative of the ratio spectra (DD1) was applied, and SP was determined by measuring the peak amplitude at 245.6 nm. Method C entailed mean centring of the ratio spectra (MCR), which allows the determination of both MZ and SP. The methods developed were used for the determination of MZ and SP over a concentration range of 5,25 g ml,1. The proposed methods were used to determine both drugs in their pure, powdered forms with mean percentage recoveries of 100.16 0.73 for MZ in methods A and B, 101.10 0.90 in method C, 100.09 0.70, 100.02 0.88 and 100.49 1.26 for SP in methods A, B and C, respectively. The proposed methods were proved using laboratory-prepared mixtures of the two drugs and were successfully applied to the analysis of MZ and SP in tablet formulation without any interference from each other or from the excipients. The results obtained by applying the proposed methods were compared statistically with a reported HPLC method and no significant difference was observed between these methods regarding both accuracy and precision. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The presence of conifer resin decreases the use of the immune system in wood ants

    Abstract 1.,Wood ants (Formica paralugubris) incorporate large amounts of solidified conifer resin into their nest, which reduces the density of many bacteria and fungi and protects the ants against some detrimental micro-organisms. By inducing an environment unfavourable to pathogens, the presence of resin may allow workers to reduce the use of their immune system. 2.,The present study tested the hypothesis that the presence of resin decreases the immune activity of wood ants. Specifically, three components of the humoral immune defences of workers kept in resin-rich and resin-free experimental nests (antibacterial, lytic, and prophenoloxidase activities) were compared. 3.,The presence of resin was associated with reduced bacterial and fungal densities in nest material and with a small decrease in worker antibacterial and lytic activities. The prophenoloxidase activity was very low in all workers and was not affected by the presence of resin. 4.,These results suggest that collective medication with resin reduces pathogen pressure, which in turn decreases the use of the inducible part of the immune system. More generally, the use of plant secondary compounds might be an efficient and economical way to fight pathogens. [source]

    Bacteria in oral secretions of an endophytic insect inhibit antagonistic fungi

    Abstract 1.,Colonisation of host trees by an endophytic herbivore, the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis, is accompanied by invasion of its galleries by a number of fungal species. Four of these associated species were identified as Leptographium abietinum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nomius, and Trichoderma harzianum. 2.,Trichoderma and Aspergillus significantly reduced spruce beetle survival and reproduction in controlled assays. 3.,A previously undescribed behaviour was observed, in which spruce beetle adults exuded oral secretions, especially within fungus-pervaded galleries. 4.,These oral secretions inhibited the growth of fungi except A. nomius, and disrupted the morphology of the latter. Administration of these secretions indicated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect. 5.,Oral secretions cultured on microbiological media yielded substantial bacterial growth. 6.,Filter-sterilised secretions failed to inhibit fungal growth, evidence that the bacteria are responsible for the antifungal activity. 7.,Nine bacterial isolates belonging to the Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria taxa were obtained from the secretions. 8.,Bacterial isolates showed species-specific inhibitory activity against the four fungi antagonistic to spruce beetle. The bacterium with the strongest fungal inhibition activity was the actinomycete Micrococcus luteus. 9.,The production of bark beetle secretions containing bacteria that inhibit fungal growth is a novel finding. This suggests an additional level of complexity to ecological associations among bark beetles, conifers, and microorganisms, and an important adaptation for colonising subcortical tissue. [source]

    Extraordinarily widespread and fantastically complex: comparative biology of endosymbiotic bacterial and fungal mutualists of insects

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 2 2010
    Cara M. Gibson
    Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 223,234 Abstract Endosymbiosis is a pervasive, powerful force in arthropod evolution. In the recent literature, bacterial symbionts of insects have been shown to function as reproductive manipulators, nutritional mutualists and as defenders of their hosts. Fungi, like bacteria, are also frequently associated with insects. Initial estimates suggest that insect,fungal endosymbionts are hyperdiverse, yet there has been comparatively little research investigating the roles that fungi play in their insect hosts. In many systems in which the bacterial symbionts are well-characterized, the possible presence of fungi has been routinely ignored. Why has there been so little research on this important group of symbionts? Here, we explore the differences between fungal and bacterial endosymbiotic insect mutualists. We make predictions about why a bacterium or fungus might be found associated with an insect host given particular ecological, physiological, or evolutionary conditions. We also touch on the various hurdles for studying fungal vs. bacterial endosymbionts and potential future research directions. [source]

    Genotoxicity of nitrosulfonic acids, nitrobenzoic acids, and nitrobenzylalcohols, pollutants commonly found in ground water near ammunition facilities

    Tamara Grummt
    Abstract 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrobenzoic acid (2-A-4,6-DNBA), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrobenzoic acid (4-A-2,6-DNBA), 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid (2,4,6-TNBA), 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrobenzylalcohol (2-A-4,6-DNBAlc), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrobenzylalcohol (4-A-2,6-DNBAlc), 2,4-dinitrotoluol-5-sulfonic acid (2,4-DNT-5-SA), 2,4-dinitrotoluol-3-sulfonic acid (2,4-DNT-3-SA), and 2, 4-dinitrobenzoic acid (2,4-DNBA) are derivatives of nitro-explosives that have been detected in groundwater close to munitions facilities. In the present study, the genotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated in Salmonella/microsome assays (in strains TA100 and TA98, with and without S9 and in TA98NR without S9), in chromosomal aberration (CA) tests with Chinese hamster fibroblasts (V79), and in micronucleus (MN) assays with human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. All compounds except the sulfonic acids were positive in the bacterial mutagenicity tests, with 2,4,6-TNBA producing the strongest response (8023 revertants/,mol in TA98 without S9 activation). 2-A-4,6-DNBA was a direct acting mutagen in TA98, but negative in TA100. The other positive compounds were ,1,3 orders of magnitude less mutagenic than 2,4,6-TNBA in TA98 and in TA100; relatively strong effects (,50,400 revertants/,mol) were produced by the benzylacohols in the two indicator strains. With the exception of 2,4-DNBA, the mutagenic responses were lower in the nitroreductase-deficient strain TA98NR than in the parental strain. 2,4-DNBA produced a marginally positive response in the V79-cell CA assay; the other substances were devoid of activity. Only the benzoic acids were tested for MN induction in HepG2 cells, and all produced positive responses. As in the bacterial assays, the strongest effect was seen with 2,4,6-TNBA (significant induction at ,1.9 ,M). 4-A-2,6-DNBA was positive at 432 ,M; the weakest effect was observed with 2,4,-DNBA (positive at ,920 ,M). The differences in the sensitivity of the indicator cells to these agents can be explained by differences in the activities of enzymes involved in the activation of the compounds. The strong responses produced by some of the compounds in the human-derived cells suggest that environmental exposure to these breakdown products of nitro-explosives may pose a cancer risk in man. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2006. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]