Social Support (social + support)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Social Support

  • greater social support
  • low social support
  • perceived social support
  • poor social support

  • Terms modified by Social Support

  • social support group
  • social support network
  • social support questionnaire
  • social support system

  • Selected Abstracts


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    Social support, institutional anomie, and macrolevel general strain perspectives have emerged as potentially important explanations of aggregate levels of crime. Drawing on insights from each of these perspectives in a cross-national context, the analyses show that 1) our measure of social support is inversely related to homicide rates, 2) economic inequality also maintains a direct relationship with homicide rates, and 3) social support significantly interacts with economic inequality to influence homicide rates. The implications of the analysis for ongoing discourse concerning the integration of these criminological theories and the implications for the development of effective crime control policies are discussed. [source]

    Parental psychopathology and self-rated quality of life in adolescents with epilepsy in Nigeria

    Abiodun O Adewuya MBChB
    This study sought to investigate the relationship between parental psychopathology and health-related quality of life in a group of Nigerian adolescents with epilepsy. The participants were 86 adolescents with epilepsy (50 males, 36 females; mean age 14y 5mo [SD 2y 1mo]; age range 12,18y). There were 54 (62.8%) adolescents with complex partial seizures, six (7.0%) with simple partial seizures, 14 (16.3%) with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, four (4.7%) with absence seizures, and eight (9.2%) with other types of seizure. They completed the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory for Adolescents (QOLIE-AD-48). Parents also completed the General Health Questionnaire, Zung's Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, and Zung's Self-Rating Depressive Scale as measures of their psychopathology. Factors correlating with poor overall quality of life in the adolescents include longer duration of illness, large number of antiepileptic drugs, more severe medication toxicity, and psychopathology in the parents. General psychopathology in parents is significantly associated with QOLIE-AD-48 subscales of Epilepsy Impact (r= 0.527, p < 0.001), Attitude (r= 0.214, p= 0.047), Physical Function (r= 0.417, p < 0.001), Stigma (r= 0.305, p= 0.004), Social Support (r= 0.365, p= 0.001), and School Behaviour (r= 0.220, p= 0.042). There is a possibility of a cross-cultural difference on the effect of epilepsy on the quality of life of adolescents. Psychopathology in parents is significantly associated with poorer quality of life of these adolescents. Physicians should consider this, therefore, when planning intervention strategies in improving the quality of life in adolescents with epilepsy. [source]

    Social Support and Psychological Well-Being in Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 3 2008
    Abbie E. Goldberg
    Abstract: This study examines predictors of social support and mental health among 36 lesbian and 39 heterosexual couples who were waiting to adopt. Lesbian preadoptive partners perceived less support from family than heterosexual partners but similar levels of support from friends. Lesbian and heterosexual partners reported similar levels of well-being. Aspects of the adoption process were associated with anxiety, whereas couples' conception history was associated with depression. Adoption practitioners should acknowledge these distinct pathways in prevention efforts. [source]

    A Culturally Informed Model of Academic Well-Being for Latino Youth: The Importance of Discriminatory Experiences and Social Support,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 3 2006
    David S. DeGarmo
    Abstract: This study tested a culturally informed model of academic well-being for 278 Latino youth. We examined detrimental effects of discriminatory experiences and protective effects of social support on self-reported academic outcomes. Models specified main and buffering effects of social support and compared contributions of support provided by parents, school, and peers. Data indicated that discrimination was associated with lower academic well-being, social support buffered effects of discrimination on academic well-being, and parental support was most predictive of greater academic well-being. Combined sources of social support were more important than any one source alone. Implications for culturally specified research, preventive interventions, and practitioners are discussed. [source]

    The Family and Community Life of Older People: Social Networks and Social Support in Three Urban Areas

    Article first published online: 29 JAN 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Predictors of representational aggression in preschool children of low-income urban African American adolescent mothers,

    Geoff Goodman
    Responses to five doll-story stems thematically related to attachment experiences with the mother were videotaped in the home and used to evaluate child, maternal, and environmental predictors of representational aggression in 93 preschool children of African American women receiving public assistance who had become pregnant as teenagers. Significant correlations were found between representational aggression and child's gender (male), birth weight, maternal depressive affect, maternal educational attainment, recent employment, mother's historical residence with her own mother, and felt social support, accounting for 40% of the variance in representational aggression. A significant Felt Social Support × Gender interaction effect suggested that girls of mothers who perceive higher levels of felt social support are more likely to represent less aggression in their stories; felt social support was not associated with boys' representational aggression. A significant Felt Social Support × Employment interaction effect suggested that representational aggression is associated with lower levels of felt social support only among employed mothers. Findings suggest that different pathways exist for representational aggression in children of low-income adolescent mothers, which nevertheless share predictors associated with poverty. [source]

    Association Between Cognitive Function and Social Support with Glycemic Control in Adults with Diabetes Mellitus

    Toru Okura MD
    OBJECTIVES: To examine whether cognitive impairment in adults with diabetes mellitus is associated with worse glycemic control and to assess whether level of social support for diabetes mellitus care modifies this relationship. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: The 2003 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Mail Survey on Diabetes and the 2004 wave of the HRS. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 50 and older with diabetes mellitus in the United States (N=1,097, mean age 69.2). MEASUREMENTS: Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level; cognitive function, measured with the 35-point HRS cognitive scale (HRS-cog); sociodemographic variables; duration of diabetes mellitus; depressed mood; social support for diabetes mellitus care; self-reported knowledge of diabetes mellitus; treatments for diabetes mellitus; components of the Total Illness Burden Index related to diabetes mellitus; and functional limitations. RESULTS: In an ordered logistic regression model for the three ordinal levels of HbA1c (<7.0, 7.0,7.9, ,8.0 mg/dL), respondents with HRS-cog scores in the lowest quartile had significantly higher HbA1c levels than those in the highest cognitive quartile (adjusted odds ratio=1.80, 95% confidence interval=1.11,2.92). A high level of social support for diabetes mellitus care modified this association; for respondents in the lowest cognitive quartile, those with high levels of support had significantly lower odds of having higher HbA1c than those with low levels of support (1.11 vs 2.87, P=.02). CONCLUSION: Although cognitive impairment was associated with worse glycemic control, higher levels of social support for diabetes mellitus care ameliorated this negative relationship. Identifying the level of social support available to cognitively impaired adults with diabetes mellitus may help to target interventions for better glycemic control. [source]

    The Comparison Between Active and Passive Types of Social Support: The Emotional Responses,

    Ai Ni Teoh
    Social support was manipulated in previous experimental studies in different ways, including active support and passive support. The present study compared the effects among active support, passive support, and alone conditions on emotional changes by randomly assigning 61 participants to either one of the support conditions. Consistent with the hypothesis, passive support produced a lower level of positive affect and attentive than active support and alone, reduced level of active than alone, as well as a decrease in determined and pleasantness appraisal than active support after a stressful task. Implications of the findings were discussed in terms of the definition of social support and the manipulation of social support in laboratory settings. [source]

    Influence of Social Support, Work Overload, and Parity on Pregnant Career Women's Psychological Well-Being

    Adebayo O. Adejumo
    The influence of social support, work overload, and parity on psychological well-being of pregnant career women was investigated. Women executives (N200) attending antenatal clinics were selected. A 2 × 2 × 2 analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant independent influence of social support (F(1, 199) = 26.51, p < 0.05) and work overload (F(1, 199) = 461.76, p < 0.05), and significant joint effect of social support and work overload. There was no significant effect of parity (F(1, 199) = 0.72, p > 0.05). Combinations of parity, social support, and work overload were also not significant (F(1, 199) = 0.80, p > 0.05). Social support and appropriate work incentives are helpful in assisting pregnant women executives in coping with psychological changes during pregnancy. [source]

    Social Support as a Moderator of the Big-Fish-in-a-Little-Pond Effect in Online Self-Help Support Groups,

    Cynthia M. H. Bane
    Downward social comparisons to others in a relatively unsuccessful group can bolster mood, a phenomenon known as the big-fish-in-a-little-pond effect (BFLPE). The current study examined social support as a moderator of the BFLPE in online weight-management support groups (SGs). Participants (N= 149) were recruited from weight-management message boards. In an Internet survey, participants made weight-related social comparisons to the average person and the average SG member. Big fish indicated that they would feel more self-pride after reading a downward social comparison message than did other participants, but the BFLPE occurred only for participants with lower weight-related social support. Social support could foster collective identity in online self-help support groups, reducing the BFLPE. [source]

    The Moderating Role of Social Support Between Role Stressors and Job Attitudes Among Roman Catholic Priests,

    Michael J. Zickar
    This study examined the relations role stressors and job attitudinal variables, as well as the potential moderating effects of social support in a sample of 190 Roman Catholic priests. The priesthood is an important occupation to study because the work priests do can be considered a vocation instead of a job. Role stressors were negatively correlated with job attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction, turnover intention). Consistent with a buffering hypothesis, several sources of social support (parishioners, staff, fellow priests) consistently moderated this relationship, in that the relationship attenuated as social support increased. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to the role of the priest, as well as with other types of work-based vocations. [source]

    Social Support, Social Undermining, and Coping in Underemployed and Unemployed Persons

    Peter A. Creed
    Participants (94 unemployed, 77 underemployed) were administered scales tapping social support, social undermining, coping, and distress. We hypothesised that the unemployed would exhibit less social support but more social undermining and distress than the underemployed; females would report more social support but less social undermining; social support would better predict coping than social undermining; social undermining would better predict distress than social support. The unemployed reported less social support, more distress, and poorer coping. Males reported less social support and more emotion-focused coping. Social support significantly predicted distress and coping. No group or gender differences were identified for social undermining, which did not predict distress or coping. We discuss the role of social undermining and distress in the unemployed. [source]

    The Effect of Victims' Social Support on Attributions of Blame in Female and Male Rape

    Irina Anderson
    The effects of perceived social support of the victim, victim gender, and participant gender on attributions of blame in rape were examined. The impact of attitudes toward gender roles was also investigated for their mediational role between participant gender and blame. Participants (N= 121) read a report of an incident of rape and evaluated the victim and the perpetrator. Two ANOVAs showed that social support and participant gender influenced blame attributed to the victim, while victim gender influenced blame attributed to the perpetrator. Socially supported victims were blamed less than were unsupported victims. Men were more blaming of rape victims than were women, but further analyses showed this was mediated by attitudes toward gender roles. Men held significantly more traditional attitudes toward gender roles than did women, and this accounted for the effect of participant gender on victim perceptions. The perpetrator of male rape was blamed less than the perpetrator of female rape. Findings are discussed in terms of the differential attributional mechanisms that may underpin men's and women's reasoning about different types of rape. [source]

    Toward a Multidimensional Construct of Social Support: Implications of Provider's Self-Reliance and Request Characteristics

    Anat Drach-Zahavy
    The two studies reported here sought to propose a multidimensional taxonomy for providing social support, and to use an attachment-theory framework to investigate provision of support at work. Additionally, the studies sought to explore the distinct contextual considerations that affect decisions on the type of support provided. In Study 1, case studies were presented to 164 hospital nurses, who, taking the role of the head nurse, were asked to deal with a distressed staff nurse who was either high or low tenured, and whose cause of distress was either personal or job-related. In the second study, 55 nurses with various job tenures described the support behaviors of their superiors. In both studies, support interventions and attachment styles were measured. Results provided partial evidence of the multidimensionality of social support, and indicated that it contains 4 distinct support behaviors: helping, maintenance, referral, and encouragement of self-coping. Furthermore, the distinct support behaviors were affected by different attachment styles and contextual considerations. [source]

    Cardiometabolic Syndrome and Its Association With Education, Smoking, Diet, Physical Activity, and Social Support: Findings From the Pennsylvania 2007 BRFSS Survey

    Longjian Liu MD
    J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich).2010;12:556,564. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The authors aimed to examine the prevalence of cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) and its association with education, smoking, diet, physical activity, and social support among white, black, and Hispanic adults using data from the 2007 Pennsylvania Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, the largest population-based survey in the state. The authors examined associations between CMS and associated factors cross-sectionally using univariate and multivariate methods. The study included a representative sample of 12,629 noninstitutionalized Pennsylvanians aged ,18. Components of CMS included obesity, hypercholesterolemia, angina (as a surrogate for decreased high-density lipoprotein), prehypertension or hypertension, and prediabetes or diabetes. CMS was identified as the presence of ,3 CMS components. The results show that the prevalence of CMS was 20.48% in blacks, followed by Hispanics (19.14%) and whites (12.26%), (P<.01). Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that physical inactivity, lower educational levels, smoking, daily consumption of vegetables and/or fruits <3 servings, and lack of social support were significantly associated with the odds of having CMS. In conclusion, black and Hispanic adults have a significantly higher prevalence of CMS than whites. The significant association between CMS and risk factors provides new insights in the direction of health promotion to prevent and control CMS in those who are at high risk. [source]

    Family support, perceived self-efficacy and self-care behaviour of Turkish patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Magfiret Kara Ka
    Aim., The purpose of this study was to describe family support, self-efficacy perception and self-care behaviour among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and to ascertain the relationship between these variables. Background., It is important to work at improving confidence in the patients' ability to follow a self-care regimen by increasing self-efficacy. Family support also plays an important role in self-care activities. Method and design., The study design is descriptive and correlational. Of 230 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who were recruited for the study, 200 agreed to participate. The patients were recruited by the first author from an outpatient clinic in the Department of Chest Disease of a university hospital and a pulmonary hospital in Erzurum, eastern Turkey. Data were collected by using a demographic data form, the Perceived Social Support from Family Scale, the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Self-efficacy Scale and the Alberto Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Self-care Behaviour Inventory. Results., Although most participants (91·5%) perceived that they had family support and more than three quarters (73·0%) of the participants engaged in an adequate amount of self-care behaviours, only twenty five participants' (12·5%) perceived self-efficacy as high. There were statistically significant positive relationships between family support and self-care behaviour (r = 0·302; p = 0·01) and between self-efficacy and self-care behaviour (r = 0·186; p = 0·01). There was also a statistically significant positive relationship between family support and self-efficacy (r = 0·412; p = 0·01). Conclusion., The results of the study demonstrated weak to moderate, but statistically significant, relationships between family support and self-care behaviours, self-efficacy and self-care behaviour and family support and self-efficacy in Turkish patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Relevance to clinical practice., The assessment of the family support, self-efficacy and self-care behaviours of the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease should be an essential part of nursing practice. The study also provides the foundation for the conduct of future studies of self-care training for managing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. [source]

    The impact of residential context on adolescents' Subjective Well being

    Elvira Cicognani
    Abstract The study investigates the impact of residential context on stressful events and Subjective Well being (Emotional and Psychological) in young people living in a deprived geographical area, and the mediating role of personal (Self-Efficacy) and social (Social Support, Sense of Community) variables. A questionnaire was submitted to 297 subjects (48.5% males): 203 adolescents (14,19 years old) and 94 young adults (20,27 years old), from different socio-economic (SES) levels. Results confirm the significant impact of the residential context on youngsters' perceived residential quality, Stress and Subjective Well being outcomes; such effect partly differs according to participants' gender and age. Adolescents are less satisfied of their living context and enjoy lower well being than young adults. Social resources (Friend and Family Support) significantly buffer the effect of a deprived residential context of youngsters' Well being, whereas personal resources (Self-Efficacy) directly increase Well being levels. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Perceived social support from significant others, family and friends and several socio-demographic characteristics

    Miretta Prezza
    Abstract The first aim was to explore the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and perceived support from significant others, family and friends. Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet, and Farley's Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) (Journal of Personality Assessment, 52, 1988, 30,41) was administered to 418 males and 623 females between 18 and 77 years of age. The results indicate that family support is higher in males, and the support of friends decreases with age as does the support of significant others. Significant interactions also emerged between gender and age and between gender and marital status. No differences were found for educational level. The second aim was to discover which persons are identified as ,special persons' on the items of the ,Significant others' sub-scale of the MSPSS. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Soliciting and Providing Social Support Over the Internet: An Investigation of Online Eating Disorder Support Groups

    Kristen Campbell Eichhorn
    Using a longitudinal, systematic random sample of 490 postings, this study analyzed the type of social support provided, the strategies used to solicit social support, and the themes on the top 5 Yahoo! eating disorder discussion boards. Optimal match theory was used as the theoretical framework for the study. Results suggest that messages providing informational support were more prevalent than those providing instrumental support. Also, the findings revealed that the most frequent strategy for soliciting support was sharing experiences and the most frequent theme was positive affect. The results of the study highlight the significance of prosocial communication exchanges on these discussion boards. Résumé Solliciter et apporter un soutien social sur Internet : Une étude des groupes de soutien en ligne liés aux troubles alimentaires Par une analyse longitudinale et systématique d,un échantillon aléatoire de 490 messages tirés des cinq plus grands babillards Yahoo! portant sur les troubles alimentaires, cette étude analyse le type de soutien social offert, les stratégies utilisées pour solliciter du soutien social ainsi que les thčmes des messages. La théorie de la correspondance optimale (optimal match theory) fut utilisée comme cadre théorique de l'étude. Les résultats suggčrent que les messages apportant un soutien informationnel furent plus courants que ceux fournissant un soutien instrumental. De plus, les résultats révčlent que la stratégie de recherche de soutien la plus fréquente était le partage d'expériences et que le thčme le plus courant était l'émotion positive. Les résultats de l'étude soulignent l,importance des échanges communicationnels ŕ caractčre sociable sur ces babillards. Abstract Kontaktanbahnung und soziale Unterstützung mit Hilfe des Internets: Eine Untersuchung von Online-Selbsthilfegruppen zum Thema Essstörungen Anhand einer zufälligen, systematischen Langzeitstichprobe von 490 Einträgen in den Top5 Yahoo! Diskussionsforen zu Essstörungen, untersuchten wir zum einen die Form der sozialen Unterstützung, zum anderen die Strategien der Anbahnung dieser sozialen Unterstützung und die diskutierten Themen. Die Theorie der optimalen Übereinstimmung diente als theoretischer Rahmen für die Studie. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Unterstützungsbotschaften informationeller Art häufiger vorkamen als solche, die instrumentelle Unterstützung boten. Zudem zeigten die Ergebnisse auch, dass am häufigsten über Erlebnisse berichtet wurde, um einen Kontakt herzustellen und positiver Affekt am häufigsten thematisiert wurde. Die Ergebnisse der Studie unterstreichen den Stellenwert eines prosozialen Kommmunikationsaustausches in diesen Diskussionsforen. Resumen Solicitando y Proveyendo Apoyo Social a través del Internet: Una Investigación de los Grupos Online de Apoyo Social de Desórdenes de la Alimentación Usando una muestra longitudinal, sistemática al azar de 490 mensajes, este estudio analizó el tipo de apoyo social provisto, las estrategias usadas para solicitar apoyo social, y los tópicos de 5 foros de Yahoo! de desórdenes de la alimentación. La teoría del ajuste óptimo fue usada como marco teórico para este estudio. Los resultados sugieren que los mensajes que proveen información de apoyo fueron más prevalentes que aquellos que proveen de apoyo instrumental. Los hallazgos revelaron también que la estrategia más frecuente para solicitar apoyo fue el compartir experiencias y el tema más frecuente fue el afecto positivo. Los resultados de este estudio subrayan la significancia de los intercambios de comunicación pro-social en las discusiones de estos foros. ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]

    Stages of Change, Processes of Change, and Social Support for Exercise and Weight Gain in Postpartum Women

    Colleen Keller
    Objectives:, To test the extent to which social support and variables included in the Transtheoretical Model were explanatory for exercise initiation and weight maintenance in postpartum women. Design:, A cross-sectional descriptive design. Setting:, Data were collected in the participant's homes. Participants:, Postpartum women who had normal pregnancies were interviewed and measured on body fat, physical activity, and psychosocial scales. Main outcome measure:, (a) Stages of exercise change measure, (b) Seven Day Recall, (c) Friend and Family Support for Exercise Scale, (d) Processes of Change Questionnaire, and (e) body fat measures including body mass index and percent body fat. Results:, Forty percent reported engaging in vigorous activity less than 1 hour daily, 55% walked less than four city blocks daily, and 52% engaged in less than 2 hours of vigorous weekend activity. Multilinear regression showed that the processes of change contributed 36% to the body mass index, and 21% of the variance in waist-thigh ratio. Of the processes of change, environmental reevaluation correlated significantly with body mass index. Conclusion:, The impact of a woman's weight on others as well as information concerning the health effects of obesity and physical activity could enhance the initiation of exercise in the postpartum woman. JOGNN, 35, 232-240; 2006. DOI: 10.1111/J.1552-6909.2006.00030.x [source]

    Social Support to Childbearing Women: What Are the Rules?

    ARNP Guest Editor, M. Cynthia Logsdon DNS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Role of Social Support in Facilitating Postpartum Women's Return to Employment

    Marcia Gruis Killien
    Purpose: More than half of mothers with infants under 1 year are employed. This study explored the role of social support in facilitating women's return to employment during the 1st year postpartum. Design: Analysis of existing longitudinal, repeated-measures questionnaire data gathered at 4 and 12 months postpartum. Participants: 94 postpartum women who were married or partnered, employed, and residing in a large urban area in the northwestern United States. Outcome Measures: Satisfaction with decision to return to work, role performance, work-family balance. Results: Relationships between indicators of social support and return-to-work experiences were absent to modest. Satisfaction with child care was related to satisfaction with the decision to return to work. Workplace support was related to work-family balance at 12 months postpartum. Conclusions: Satisfactory child care arrangements and supportive relationships in the workplace are the most significant facilitators of women's return to work postpartum. [source]

    Social support and symptoms of postpartum depression among new mothers in Eastern Turkey

    Emel Ege
    Abstract Aim:, The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between symptoms of postpartum depression and social support in new mothers in a semi-rural province (Malatya) of Eastern Turkey. Methods:, This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The study was conducted with a 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) questionnaire, a 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) questionnaire, and a 16-item demographic/obstetric questionnaire designed by the authors. 364 women who were between 6 to 48 weeks postpartum were included in the study. Results:, Symptoms of postpartum depression were negatively correlated with social support (,0.39, P = 0.000). The frequency of the prevalence of symptoms of postpartum depression was 33.2%. The study showed that EPDS mean score was related to several factors, including age, woman's education, woman's occupation, socioeconomic status of family, spouse's education, number of years married, parity, planned pregnancy, method of delivery, knowledge of infant care, sharing of problems with a close person, past psychiatric history and family support during the postnatal period in an Eastern province of Turkey. Conclusion:, Symptoms of postpartum depression were negatively correlated among Turkish women living in the Malatya province of Eastern Turkey and were associated with the level of social support. The prevalence of postpartum depression was higher than in the published reports regarding most regions of Turkey, with the exception of Northeastern Turkey. [source]

    Breastfeeding duration and postpartum psychological adjustment: Role of maternal attachment styles

    pek Akman
    Aim: Depressive and anxiety symptoms are common in new mothers. The aim of this study is to explore the link between postpartum psychological adjustment and feeding preferences of the mothers. Methods: Sixty mothers and newborns were enrolled in this prospective, longitudinal study. Maternal depressive symptoms were screened by the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS), and maternal anxiety level was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory at 1 month postpartum. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support was used for the assessment of maternal social support. The Adult Attachment Scale was used to determine the attachment style of the mother. Infants were examined and evaluated at 1 and 4 months of life. Results: All mothers started breastfeeding their infants postpartum; 91% and 68.1% continued exclusive breastfeeding at 1 and 4 months, respectively. The first-month median EPDS score of mothers who breastfeed at the fourth month was statistically significantly lower than those who were not breastfeeding (6 and 12, respectively) (P = 0001). The first-month median EPDS score of mothers with secure attachment was lower than the median score of mothers with insecure attachment (5 and 9, respectively) (P < 0001). Exclusive breastfeeding rate was not statistically different among mothers with secure and insecure attachment styles. The median state and trait anxiety scores and social support scores of mothers were not different between groups according to breastfeeding status. Conclusions: This study has shown an association between higher EPDS scores and breastfeeding cessation by 4 months after delivery. [source]

    Alcohol Consumption, Social Support, and Risk of Stroke and Coronary Heart Disease Among Japanese Men: The JPHC Study

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2009
    Satoyo Ikehara
    Background:, It is unclear whether the association between alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease is affected by social support. Methods:, The prospective data for 19,356 men aged 40 to 69 years who participated in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study. Alcohol consumption was classified into 7 categories: never, past, occasional, 1 to 149, 150 to 299, 300 to 449, or ,450 g ethanol/wk. Associations between alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease were stratified by the median level of social support score, which was measured in emotional support score of this cohort study. Results:, During an average follow-up of 9.9 years, 629 total strokes and 207 coronary heart diseases were documented. Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption was associated with reduced risks of coronary heart disease and total cardiovascular disease, while heavy alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of total stroke, in particular hemorrhagic stroke. When stratified by social support score, the multivariable hazard ratios of total cardiovascular disease associated with light-to-moderate alcohol consumption (1 to 299 g/wk) were 0.99 (0.72 to 1.37) in the low social support group and 0.56 (0.44 to 0.70) in the high social support group (p for interaction = 0.002), while the multivariable hazard ratios of hemorrhagic stroke associated with heavy alcohol consumption (,300 g/wk) were 2.09 (1.03 to 4.27) in the low social support group and 1.25 (0.72 to 2.15) in the high social support group (p for interaction = 0.44). There was no interaction between alcohol consumption and social support in relation to risk of coronary heart disease. Conclusions:, Social support may enhance the beneficial effect of light-to-moderate alcohol consumption on risk of cardiovascular disease. [source]

    Social Support and Quality of Life Among Older People in Spain

    Ballesteros, Rocío Fernández
    Social support is a key concept in social gerontology; there is empirical evidence of its relationships with health, well,being and quality of life in old age. The density of an individual's social relationships, the degree to which he/she interacts with others and how much he/she receives and gives affect, instrumental support, and/or services are all associated with health indicators, subjective well,being, and quality of life measures. This article deals with social support in old age in Spain, its relationships with health indicators, and its role in quality of life. Several descriptive studies dealing with social integration, frequency of social interactions, satisfaction with social relationships, and formal and informal social support are reviewed. Finally, the role attributed by elders to social relationships is an important conditioning factor of quality of life. [source]

    The Health Consequences of Cultural Consonance: Cultural Dimensions of Lifestyle, Social Support, and Arterial Blood Pressure in an African American Community

    William W. Dressler
    Cultural dimensions of health and behavior have been difficult to study because of limited theoretical and methodological models linking the cultural, the individual, and the biological. We employ a cognitive theory of culture to understand culture and health in an African American community in the southern United States. First, cultural consensus analysis is used to test for shared cultural models of lifestyles and social supports within the community. Then, the theoretical and operational construct of "cultural consonance" is used to assess the degree to which individuals behave in a way consistent with cultural models. Findings indicate that cultural consonance in lifestyle and social support combine synergistically in association with blood pressure. These associations of cultural consonance and health are not altered by taking into account a variety of other variables, indicating an independent association of cultural dimensions of behavior with health status. Implications of these results for culture theory are discussed, [culture theory, culture consensus analysis, cultural consonance, African American community, arterial blood pressure] [source]

    Relations Among Social Support, Burnout, and Experiences of Anger: An Investigation Among Emergency Nurses

    NURSING FORUM, Issue 3 2009
    Müge Ersoy-Kart PhD
    BACKGROUND., The aim of the present study was to determine whether social support, burnout, and anger expression are related with each other among emergency nurses working in private- or public-sector hospitals. DESIGN AND SAMPLE., The sample consisted of 100 emergency nurses working in the private or public sector in Ankara, Turkey. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and The Trait-Anger and Anger Expression Scale were used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS., The results demonstrated that social support did not differentiate among the nurses working in the private sector or in the public sector according to the burnout subscales' scores. However, nurses in the private sector find it more difficult to express their anger. The state-trait anger levels of the nurses differ according to the burnout levels and also according to the sector that they are working in. The congruence between this study's findings and the literature is discussed. [source]

    Relations Between Social Support and Psychological and Parental Distress for Lesbian, Single Heterosexual by Choice, and Two-Parent Heterosexual Mothers

    Tomer Shechner
    Relations between family type and psychological and parental distress and the moderating role of social support were studied for 90 Israeli lesbian mothers, single heterosexual mothers by choice and 2-parent heterosexual mothers who completed measures of psychological distress, well-being, parental distress, and direct and indirect social support. Findings indicated differences on psychological and parental outcome between mothers from the two heterosexual groups. Social support was higher for lesbian than single heterosexual mothers and was correlated with psychological and parental indices. Unique because of the distinctive demographics of Israeli society (especially in relation to Western Europe and North America), this study highlights ways in which social and individual processes affect psychological outcomes among minority groups. [source]

    Social Support and Mental Health Among College Students

    Jennifer Hefner MPH
    This study is the first, to our knowledge, to evaluate the relationship between mental health and social support in a large, random sample of college students. A Web-based survey was administered at a large, public university, with 1, 378 students completing the measures in this analysis (response rate = 57%). The results support our hypothesis that students with characteristics differing from most other students, such as minority race or ethnicity, international status, and low socioeconomic status, are at greater risk of social isolation. In addition, the authors found that students with lower quality social support, as measured by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, were more likely to experience mental health problems, including a sixfold risk of depressive symptoms relative to students with high quality social support. These results may help administrators and health providers to identify more effectively the population of students at high risk for mental illness and develop effective interventions to address this significant and growing public health issue. [source]