Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Social

  • broader social
  • capital social
  • changing social
  • contemporary social
  • corporate social
  • different social
  • important social
  • local social
  • major social
  • negative social
  • new social
  • other social
  • own social
  • particular social
  • significant social
  • wider social

  • Terms modified by Social

  • social acceptance
  • social accounting
  • social action
  • social activism
  • social activity
  • social actor
  • social adaptation
  • social adjustment
  • social affairs
  • social agent
  • social aggression
  • social alienation
  • social analysis
  • social animals
  • social anthropology
  • social anxiety
  • social anxiety disorder
  • social anxiety scale
  • social approach
  • social arena
  • social arrangement
  • social aspect
  • social assistance
  • social attitude
  • social attitude survey
  • social background
  • social barrier
  • social behavior
  • social behaviour
  • social being
  • social benefit
  • social body
  • social bond
  • social bonding
  • social boundary
  • social burden
  • social capital
  • social capital literature
  • social capital theory
  • social care
  • social care partnership
  • social care provider
  • social care services
  • social care setting
  • social category
  • social causation
  • social cause
  • social change
  • social character
  • social characteristic
  • social choice function
  • social circumstance
  • social citizenship
  • social class
  • social climate
  • social club
  • social cognition
  • social cognitive theory
  • social cohesion
  • social commitment
  • social communication
  • social comparison
  • social comparison information
  • social comparison orientation
  • social comparison theory
  • social competence
  • social complexity
  • social component
  • social composition
  • social concern
  • social condition
  • social conflict
  • social conformity
  • social connectedness
  • social connection
  • social consequence
  • social constraint
  • social construct
  • social construction
  • social contact
  • social context
  • social contingency
  • social contract
  • social control
  • social convention
  • social correlate
  • social cost
  • social crisis
  • social criticism
  • social critique
  • social cue
  • social decision
  • social deficit
  • social demand
  • social democracy
  • social democrat
  • social democratic
  • social democratic party
  • social deprivation
  • social desirability
  • social desirability scale
  • social determinant
  • social development
  • social dialogue
  • social difference
  • social differentiation
  • social difficulty
  • social dilemma
  • social dimension
  • social disability
  • social disadvantage
  • social discourse
  • social disparity
  • social disruption
  • social distance
  • social distinction
  • social distribution
  • social diversity
  • social division
  • social domain
  • social dominance
  • social dominance orientation
  • social drinker
  • social dynamics
  • social dysfunction
  • social economy
  • social effects
  • social efficiency
  • social element
  • social elite
  • social embeddedness
  • social encounter
  • social energy
  • social engagement
  • social engineering
  • social enterprise
  • social entity
  • social entrepreneurship
  • social environment
  • social equity
  • social ethic
  • social ethics
  • social evaluation
  • social event
  • social evolution
  • social exchange
  • social exchange process
  • social exchange theory
  • social exchanges
  • social exclusion
  • social existence
  • social expectation
  • social expenditure
  • social experience
  • social explanation
  • social fabric
  • social facilitation
  • social fact
  • social factor
  • social fear
  • social field
  • social force
  • social form
  • social formation
  • social forum
  • social forums
  • social function
  • social functioning
  • social functioning scale
  • social fund
  • social geography
  • social goal
  • social gradient
  • social group
  • social group size
  • social grouping
  • social groups
  • social harmony
  • social health insurance
  • social hierarchy
  • social historian
  • social history
  • social housing
  • social hymenoptera
  • social identification
  • social identity
  • social identity approach
  • social identity theory
  • social impact
  • social impairment
  • social implication
  • social importance
  • social incentive
  • social inclusion
  • social indicator
  • social inequality
  • social influence
  • social information
  • social information processing
  • social infrastructure
  • social injustice
  • social insect
  • social instability
  • social institution
  • social insurance
  • social insurance program
  • social integration
  • social intelligence
  • social interaction
  • social interaction test
  • social interest
  • social intervention
  • social investment
  • social involvement
  • social isolation
  • social issue
  • social issues
  • social judgment
  • social justice
  • social justice issues
  • social justice perspective
  • social knowledge
  • social learning
  • social learning approach
  • social learning process
  • social learning theory
  • social level
  • social life
  • social limitation
  • social link
  • social logic
  • social loss
  • social marketing
  • social meaning
  • social mechanism
  • social media
  • social memory
  • social mobility
  • social model
  • social motivation
  • social movement
  • social movement theory
  • social nature
  • social need
  • social negotiation
  • social network
  • social network analysis
  • social network perspective
  • social network site
  • social network theory
  • social networking
  • social norm
  • social objective
  • social obligation
  • social ontology
  • social opportunity
  • social optimum
  • social order
  • social ordering
  • social organisation
  • social organism
  • social organization
  • social orientation
  • social origins
  • social outcome
  • social parasite
  • social participation
  • social partner
  • social partnership
  • social pattern
  • social patterning
  • social perception
  • social performance
  • social perspective
  • social phenomenoN
  • social philosophy
  • social phobia
  • social planner
  • social planning
  • social play
  • social policy
  • social position
  • social positioning
  • social power
  • social practice
  • social preference
  • social presence
  • social pressure
  • social problem
  • social problem solving
  • social problem-solving
  • social process
  • social production
  • social program
  • social progress
  • social protection
  • social protection system
  • social provision
  • social psychological approach
  • social psychological research
  • social psychologist
  • social psychology
  • social purpose
  • social rank
  • social reality
  • social reason
  • social recognition
  • social regulation
  • social rejection
  • social relations
  • social relations model
  • social relationship
  • social relationships
  • social reporting
  • social representation
  • social representation theory
  • social reproduction
  • social research
  • social research council
  • social resource
  • social response
  • social responsibility
  • social return
  • social reward
  • social rhythm therapy
  • social right
  • social risk
  • social role
  • social rule
  • social safety net
  • social scale
  • social science
  • social science citation index
  • social science data
  • social science journal
  • social science literature
  • social science perspective
  • social science research
  • social scientist
  • social scientists
  • social sector
  • social security
  • social security contribution
  • social security policy
  • social security program
  • social security system
  • social segregation
  • social selection
  • social self-efficacy
  • social service
  • social service agencies
  • social service organization
  • social service provision
  • social services
  • social services department
  • social setting
  • social signal
  • social significance
  • social situation
  • social skill
  • social solidarity
  • social space
  • social species
  • social spending
  • social sphere
  • social spider
  • social stability
  • social status
  • social stereotype
  • social stigma
  • social stimulation
  • social stimulus
  • social strategy
  • social stratification
  • social stratum
  • social stress
  • social stressor
  • social structure
  • social studies
  • social success
  • social support
  • social support group
  • social support network
  • social support questionnaire
  • social support system
  • social survey
  • social sustainability
  • social system
  • social tension
  • social term
  • social theorist
  • social theory
  • social tie
  • social transfer
  • social transformation
  • social transmission
  • social trend
  • social trust
  • social understanding
  • social unit
  • social use
  • social value
  • social value orientation
  • social variable
  • social vulnerability
  • social wasp
  • social welfare
  • social welfare function
  • social welfare program
  • social well-being
  • social withdrawal
  • social work
  • social work department
  • social work education
  • social work practice
  • social worker
  • social world

  • Selected Abstracts


    First page of article [source]


    Katherine V. Gough
    ABSTRACT Claims have recently been made for a ,mobilities paradigm' which is challenging the relative ,a-mobile' focus of much of the social sciences. The agenda drawn up for this mobilities paradigm is clearly based on Northern trends with little consideration of the South. African populations have always been mobile but little is known about the mobility of urban populations and in particular of the youth, who constitute a large proportion of the population. This paper explores the daily and residential mobility of young people in Lusaka building upon interviews held with low- and middle-income youth. The aim is to contribute to discussions of: how mobility varies by gender and class; the links between spatial mobility and social and economic mobility; the nature of the relationship between patterns of mobility and residential structure; and how examining mobility can illuminate many other aspects of young people's lives. Overall the picture emerging from Lusaka is rather bleak. In a context of spiralling economic decline and rising HIV/AIDS rates, the social mobility of youth is predominantly downwards which is reflected in the residential and daily mobility patterns of the young people. There is a strong link between young people's mobility and their livelihoods, an aspect of mobility that is widespread in the South but largely overlooked by the emerging mobilities paradigm. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 1 2000
    For several decades, interpreting technical variations in the physical characteristics of pottery has followed two major trends: the ,cultural'approach and the ,behavioural or ,techno-functionalist'approach. Using data collected during extensive ethnographic fieldwork, I will consider the relative importance of social and technical requirements in the field of clay processing techniques in the Faro area (northern Cameroon) 1 will show that environmental and techno-functional constraints cannot explain technical variations, while cultural factors appear determinant. However, faking the discussion one step further, I will show the complexity of the social/cultural mechanism involved in the regional distribution of these techniques. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 1 2000
    A discussion of how Andean potters acquire and use their fuels is used to demonstrate the ,embedded'nature of ceramic technology. The most common choice of fuel in the highlands of Peru and Bolivia is animal dung (mainly cow, sheep, and llama). This technological choice is related to wider social and economic practices (particularly in relation to animal husbandry) which has further repercussions that affect other technologies (such as agriculture practices). Such a succession of interrelated activities is not unique to pottery; it is fundamental to all technologies and should be considered within archaeological analysis. [source]


    David Wilkinson
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to compare selected characteristics of the Australian general medical practitioner workforce in capital cities and regional areas. Data were derived from the 1996 Census of Population and Housing. Characteristics included age, sex, full- or part-time work, place of birth and change in residential address. Analyses were performed for each state and territory in Australia, the statistical division containing each capital city and all other statistical divisions in each state and territory. Of the 26 359 general medical practitioners identified, 68% were male. More female than male general medical practitioners were aged < 45 years (74 vs 52%, respectively; P < 0.0001). The proportion of general medical practitioners aged < 35 years was higher in capital cities (30%) than regional areas (24%; P < 0.0001). Overall, 32% of the general medical practitioner workforce was female and almost 50% of those aged < 35 years were female. The proportion of female general medical practitioners was higher in capital cities than regional areas, by up to 30%. While 13% of male general medical practitioners reported part-time work, 42% of females also reported part-time work and these figures were similar in capital cities and regional areas. Approximately 40% of the Australian general medical practitioner workforce was born outside Australia and while fewer migrants have entered in recent years they were more likely to be living in regional areas than the capitals. The census provides useful medical workforce data. The regional workforce tends to be made up of more males and is older than in capital cities. Monitoring trends in these characteristics could help to evaluate initiatives aimed at addressing regional workforce issues. [source]

    Noninvasive Stress and Reproductive Measures of Social and Ecological Pressures in Free-Ranging African Elephants

    C. A. H. Foley
    This, coupled with political pressures to delist the elephant, has created a need for noninvasive physiological measures that can quantify the long-term effects of past mortality patterns of this long-lived species. We collected fresh fecal samples from 16 female elephants in three different groups over 23 months at Tarangire National Park, Tanzania, and analyzed them for fecal progesterone and cortisol metabolites. Social and ecological measures were collected concurrently. Fecal progesterone metabolite measures corresponded significantly with stage of gestation, and appear to be able to confirm pregnancy in female elephants from as early as 3 months of gestation. We found that progesterone metabolite concentrations were significantly lower during the dry season than during the wet season after controlling for stage of gestation. Fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations showed the opposite seasonal pattern, being significantly higher in the dry season and inversely correlated with rainfall across seasons. Fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations also increased with group size and were correlated positively with dominance rank in the largest group. Our results suggest that measures of progesterone and cortisol metabolites in feces provide indices of reproductive function and physiological stress that can quantify both natural and human disturbances in African elephants. These measures are ideally suited for monitoring the long-term effects of social disruption from poaching and a variety of other management concerns. Resumen: Debido a la cacería furtiva, la población de elefante africano ( Loxodonta africana) declinó en un 60%, principalmente adultos, entre 1979 y 1988. Esto, aunado a presiones políticas para eliminar al elefante de las listas de especies en peligro, ha creado la necesidad de medidas fisiológicas no invasivas que puedan cuantificar efectos a largo plazo de patrones de mortalidad en el pasado de esta especie longeva. Recolectamos muestras fecales de 16 elefantes hembras en tres grupos diferentes en el Parque Nacional Tarangire, Tanzania a lo largo de 23 meses, y las analizamos para detectar metabolitos de progesterona fecal y de cortisol. Al mismo tiempo se recolectaron medidas sociales y ecológicas. Las medidas de metabolitos de progesterona fecal correspondieron significativamente con la etapa de gestación, y parecen permitir la confirmación de preñez en elefantes hembras tan temprano como a los tres meses de gestación. Las concentraciones de metabolitos de progesterona fueron significativamente menores durante la época de sequía que en la de lluvias después de controlar para la etapa de gestación. Las concentraciones de metabolitos de cortisol fecal mostraron un patrón estacional opuesto, siendo significativamente más altas en la época de sequía e inversamente correlacionados con la precipitación en todas las estaciones. Las concentraciones de metabolitos de cortisol fecal también incrementaron con el tamaño del grupo y se correlacionaron positivamente con el rango de dominancia en el grupo más grande. Nuestros resultados sugieren que las medidas de metabolitos de progesterona y cortisol en las heces proporcionan índices de la función reproductiva y del estrés fisiológico que puede cuantificar perturbaciones, tanto naturales como humanas, en elefantes africanos. Estas medidas son idealmente adecuadas para monitorear efectos a largo plazo de la disrupción social por la cacería furtiva y así como una variedad de aspectos del manejo. [source]

    Christian Critics: Religion and the Impasse in Modern American Social Thought by Eugene McCarraher

    Article first published online: 23 MAY 200
    Reviewed by Kelton Cobb, p.16 Responce by Eugene McCarraher, p.27 [source]

    The implementation of socially responsible purchasing

    Charlotte Leire
    Abstract Social and ethical issues in the supply chain are gaining importance in all types of organizations. Therefore some public and private organizations have already started to introduce socially responsible purchasing practices. However, current practices are limited and seem unsystematic. There is also a difference between few front-running organizations and the rest. It is therefore useful at this early stage to disseminate the knowledge and experiences based on the best-performing organizations. This paper does that by developing a model of the socially responsible purchasing process that is based on the empirical and secondary data. The model reveals the five elementary steps that are necessary in the implementation of systematic socially responsible purchasing practices: developing internal policies; setting purchasing criteria that regard social issues; applying assurance practices; managing supplier relations; and building internal capacity. The model also points to the different activities in the process and their associated challenges. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Social and emotional detachment: A cross-cultural comparison of the non-disruptive behavioural psychopathic traits in children

    Eirini Manti
    Background,Questions about the international reliability and validity of aspects of psychopathy have been raised for adults, but hardly considered when applying the constructs to children. Aims/objectives,Our aim was to compare the psychometrics of a new instrument to measure psychopathic traits in children between two countries , the Netherlands and Greece. We also tested the hypothesis that, in both countries, both narcissistic-egocentric and callous-unemotional dimensions would be related to observed behavioural disorders. Methods,The Social and Emotional Detachment Questionnaire was used to assess narcissistic-egocentric and callous-unemotional dimensions of personality in representative national and community samples of 4,12-year-old children in the Netherlands and Greece, respectively. Parents filled in the questionnaires anonymously and also provided ratings of conduct disorders. Results,A two-dimensional construct of the psychopathic syndrome depicting, respectively, narcissistic and unemotional traits was reliable and valid in both countries, although there was considerable correlation between these two dimensions, which we designated ,social detachment' and ,emotional detachment', respectively. In both countries, the composite of social and emotional detachment was associated with aggressive and antisocial conduct disorders. Conclusions/implications,The reliability, validity and predictive value of this questionnaire must be tested further, for example, through multiple informants and longitudinally, but our findings that the tool performs robustly in two very different European countries is encouraging in terms of its potential value as a clinical screening tool and a tool for furthering the understanding of serious behavioural disorders in children. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Tanning and Cutaneous Malignancy

    BACKGROUND Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) results in a darkening of the skin known as tanning. Recently, it has been shown that tanning is a response to UVR-induced DNA damage and represents the skin's efforts to protect itself against further injury. Despite the link between UVR and cutaneous malignancy, people continue to pursue tanning from natural and artificial sources. This trend is reflected in the exponential rise in skin cancer incidence. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to review our current understanding of the factors controlling the tanning response and the relationship to cutaneous carcinogenesis, as well as the impact that the multibillion dollar tanning industry has had on the practice of dermatology. MATERIALS AND METHODS Extensive literature review was conducted in subjects related to tanning and the relationship to cutaneous malignancy. RESULTS Our knowledge of tanning and its effects on the skin has increased tremendously. It is clear that tanning contributes to the development of skin cancer. Despite this information, the incidence of skin cancer continues to increase exponentially. CONCLUSIONS Skin cancer poses a major public health concern and tanning remains the most modifiable risk factor in its etiology. Social, economic, and legislative issues have become tightly intertwined with the complex nature of human behavior in the continued pursuit of an activity that clearly has detrimental effects on one's health. [source]

    Bridging the Social and Digital Divides in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala: A Capabilities Approach

    Jayan Jose Thomas
    ABSTRACT Combining empirical evidence with Amartya Sen's concept of capabilities, this article argues that the digital divide is not merely a problem of access to ICTs. It is part of a larger developmental problem in which vast sections of the world's population are deprived of the capabilities to use ICTs, acquire information and convert information into useful knowledge. Fieldwork research including sample surveys conducted in rural locations in Kerala and Andhra Pradesh in India shows that these capabilities can only be created through large-scale complementary interventions in economic and social development. [source]

    A multi-site Canadian perspective: examining the functional outcome from first-episode psychosis

    N. M. Menezes
    Objective:, To examine factors contributing to variance in functional outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP) following 1 year of treatment. Method:, Naturalistic 1-year follow-up of a FEP cohort (n = 200), from programs in four university centers in Ontario, Canada. Functional recovery was defined by ,Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale' (SOFAS) score>60. Regression analysis examined the contribution of independent variables to variance in functional outcome. Results:, Twelve-month outcome measures were available for 76.5% of the original cohort. Of these, 70% reported being in school/work and in satisfactory relationships. The functional recovery rate was 51%, compared to 74% attaining symptomatic remission. The greatest contributors to variance in outcome were ongoing symptoms at 6 months and substance abuse comorbidity. Conclusion:, After 1 year of treatment, FEP patients show high rates of symptomatic remission and relatively lower rates of functional recovery. Symptoms and substance abuse contribute to variance in outcome. [source]

    Reducing Child Labour Through Conditional Cash Transfers: Evidence from Nicaragua's Red de Protección Social

    Kevin A. Gee
    Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programmes, providing eligible households with periodic cash payments, contingent on their children's adherence to school enrolment and attendance requirements, hold considerable promise for reducing levels of child labour across the developing world. This article presents the results of an analysis of a CCT programme in Nicaragua, Red de Protección Social, and compares them with those of other CCT programmes, discussing how the structure of each programme's incentives, including differences in targeting, subsidy amounts and educational requirements, contributes to the variation in their effectiveness at reducing child labour. [source]

    Replacing ineffective early alcohol/drug education in the United States with age-appropriate adolescent programmes and assistance to problematic users

    Professor, RODNEY SKAGER PhD
    Abstract Issues. Despite more than a decade of federal sponsorship of ,evidence-based' alcohol/drug education, there has been no consistent downward trend in overall prevalence among youth over the past 15 years. Reasons underlying this situation are examined. Approach. Published technical critiques of initial research supporting widely used evidence-based programs are reviewed along with replication studies conducted later by independent researchers not associated with initial program development. Social and institutional barriers in the US against changes in AOD policy and practice for young people are also suggested. Key Findings. Emerging use of diverted pharmaceuticals (now second to cannabis in prevalence) may underlie moderate recent decline in use of alcohol. Early federal certification standards for ,evidence based' prevention education have been seriously compromised. Technical critiques of initial evaluations and negative replication studies of these programs are consistent with lack of impact. Finally, fidelity of implementation in regular school settings is commonly flawed. Implications. Failure of these mainly pre-secondary educational programs may underlie recent federal support for forced random AOD testing of secondary school students. A new approach to drug education for adolescent students seems warranted as a positive alternative to personally intrusive surveillance. Conclusion. An interactive approach at the secondary school level that incorporates an age-appropriate educational process is proposed. While advising abstinence, this approach also facilitates identifying and assisting problematic AOD users. [source]

    Understanding Social and Spatial Divisions in the New Economy: New Media Clusters and the Digital Divide

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2004
    Diane Perrons
    Abstract: Economic inequality is increasing but has been sidelined in some of the recent debates in urban and regional studies. This article outlines a holistic framework for economic geography, which focuses on understanding social and spatial divisions, by drawing on economists' ideas about the new economy and feminist perspectives on social reproduction. The framework is illustrated with reference to the emerging new media cluster in Brighton and Hove, which, as a consequence, emerges less as a new technology cluster and more as a reflection of increasing social divisions in the new economy. [source]

    Government Managing Risk: Income-Contingent Loans for Social and Economic Progress.

    ECONOMICA, Issue 306 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Social and Commercial Entrepreneurship: Same, Different, or Both?

    James Austin
    Entrepreneurship has been the engine propelling much of the growth of the business sector as well as a driving force behind the rapid expansion of the social sector. This article offers a comparative analysis of commercial and social entrepreneurship using a prevailing analytical model from commercial entrepreneurship. The analysis highlights key similarities and differences between these two forms of entrepreneurship and presents a framework on how to approach the social entrepreneurial process more systematically and effectively. We explore the implications of this analysis of social entrepreneurship for both practitioners and researchers. [source]

    Humor Styles Questionnaire: personality and educational correlates in Belgian high school and college students,

    Vassilis Saroglou
    Studies often treat sense of humour as a unidimensional construct. Recently, however, four different humour styles have been hypothesized and validated by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ). In the present two studies, first, the HSQ received cross-cultural validation among French-speaking Belgian students (94 high school and 87 college students). Second, apart from some similarities (Extraversion, low need for closure), the four humour styles were found to be differently related to personality. Social and self-enhancing humour styles were positively related to Agreeableness, Openness, and self-esteem, whereas hostile humour was negatively related to Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Self-defeating humour was negatively related to Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, security in attachment, and self-esteem. Finally, students' humour styles were neither direct nor indirect predictors of school performance, but self-defeating and hostile humour styles were typical of students with low school motivation. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Social and sexual incentive properties of estrogen receptor ,, estrogen receptor ,, or oxytocin knockout mice

    A. Ågmo
    Social and sexual incentive motivation, defined as the intensity of approach to a social and a sexual incentive, respectively, were studied in female Swiss Webster mice. In the first experiment, the social incentive was a castrated mouse of the same strain as the females, whereas the sexual incentive was an intact male mouse of the same strain. Ovariectomized females were first tested after oil treatment and then after administration of estradiol benzoate + progesterone in doses sufficient to induce full receptivity. The hormones increased sexual incentive motivation while leaving social incentive motivation unaffected. This suggests that sexual incentive motivation in the female mouse is dependent on ovarian hormones. In the next experiment, ovariectomized females were tested with an intact, male estrogen receptor , knockout and its wild type as incentives, first without hormones and then when fully receptive. There were no differences in incentive properties between the wild type and the knockout. In a similar experiment, we used an intact male estrogen receptor , knockout and its corresponding wild type as incentives. The wild type turned out to be a more attractive social incentive than the knockout, while they were equivalent as sexual incentives. Finally, an intact male oxytocin knockout and its wild type were used as incentives. The knockout turned out to be a superior incentive, particularly a superior sexual incentive. The fact that the estrogen receptor , and oxytocin knockouts have incentive properties different from their wild types may be important to consider in studies of these knockouts' sociosexual behaviors. [source]

    Monuments, Memory and Marginalisation in Adelaide's Prince Henry Gardens

    Iain Hay
    Abstract Social and cultural dominance is (re)produced in the landscape by the exclusion or marginalisation of subordinate and minority groups. This paper illustrates the long-standing and ongoing exclusion of representations of indigeneity in and around Prince Henry Gardens, part of one of the most significant cultural and memorial sites in South Australia. Prince Henry Gardens is home to a large number of monuments and memorials that commemorate almost solely non-indigenous people and events. This is a selective and deliberate landscape of the dominant culture. It confirms a legacy of indigenous dispossession and is symbolic of ongoing marginalisation. While there have been recent compensatory initiatives by state and city agencies to create landscapes of reconciliation through symbolic gestures such as renaming parkland areas, these are argued to be contentious. They associate indigeneity with the city's margins, with violent places and public drunkenness, and perpetuate problematic associations between ,real' indigeneity and nature. The paper concludes with some ideas for new memorial landscapes intended to help construct a postcolonial Australian city. [source]

    Concepts in Social and Spatial Marginality

    Assefa Mehretu
    The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual taxonomy of marginality resulting from two counterposed structural conditions within laissez-faire on the one hand and controlled markets on the other. Marginality is a complex condition of disadvantage that individuals and communities may experience because of vulnerabilities which may arise from unequal or inequitable environmental, ethnic, cultural, social, political and economic factors. A typology of marginality is based on two primary and two derivative forms. The primary forms are contingent and systemic. The derivative forms are collateral and lever-aged. Contingent marginality is a condition that results from competitive inequality in which individuals and communities are put at a disadvantage because of the dynamics of the free market whose uncertain and stochastic outcomes affect them adversely. Systemic marginality is a socioeconomic condition of disadvantage created by socially constructed inequitable non-market forces of bias. Collateral marginality is a condition experienced by individuals or communities who are marginalized solely on the basis of their social and/or geographic proximity to individuals or communities that experience either contingent or systemic marginality. Lever-aged marginality is a contingent or systemic disadvantage that people/communities are made to experience when their bargaining position in free markets is weakened by dominant stakeholders like transnational corporations which are able to leverage lucrative concessions by using the threat of alternative, often cheaper and marginalized (contingent or systemic) labour pools to which they can potentially take their business. [source]

    The Diverging Geographies of Social and Business Interaction Patterns: a Case Study of Rural South Australia

    P.J. Smailes
    Major changes in personal mobility and in country town service provision have taken place in rural South Australia in the period 1968,69 to 1992,93. The later part of this period was one of major rural recession across Australia as a whole. The impact of this recession is considered by investigating changes in three different geographies of rural South Australians. These are their affective identification with place, their local social interaction and their commercial service consumption. There has been a shift of both commercial and social activity up through the hierarchy of settlement, but this is much more pronounced in the case of commercial activity. These differential rates of change are weakening the once mutually reinforcing links between community self-identification, social interaction and trading patterns. The full impact of the rural crisis commencing in 1982,83 on social and commercial spatial patterns is unlikely to have been achieved by 1992,93, and adjustment is likely to continue. [source]

    The Impact of Fair Trade on Social and Economic Development: A Review of the Literature

    Ann Le Mare
    This article explores the outcomes of Fair Trade for producers, artisans and their organisations. It asks the question, ,what happens to people who are involved in Fair Trade?', and reviews the case studies and empirical research conducted on Fair Trade for a range of products in different countries. The article is organised around important aspects of development which Fair Trade seeks to influence, including market relations, institutional development, economic development and reductions in poverty, social development, gender equity and sustainable development. The outcomes are diverse and complex, though, most studies found significant impact on social and economic aspects of development, contributing to the capacity to improve and diversify livelihoods. Fostering sustainable commercial organisations is an important contribution of Fair Trade networks. However, there appears to be less success in achieving gender equality and dealing with issues of importance to women. Both the enactment of partnership and the achievement of development goals require continuous commitment, a variety of strategies and cooperation with other actors, such as government and non-governmental organisations. [source]

    Women in Science: A Social and Cultural History By Ruth Watts

    HISTORY, Issue 310 2008
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Bridging the Social and the Symbolic: Toward a Feminist Politics of Sexual Difference

    HYPATIA, Issue 3 2000
    By clarifying the psychoanalytic notion of sexual difference (and contrasting it with a feminist analysis of gender as social reality), I argue that the symbolic dimension of psychical life cannot be discarded in developing political accounts of identity formation and the status of women in the public sphere. I discuss various bridges between social reality and symbolic structure, bridges such as body, language, law, and family. I conclude that feminist attention must be redirected to the unconscious since the political cannot be localized in, or segregated to, the sphere of social reality; sexual difference is an indispensable concept for a feminist politics. [source]

    The Ages & Stages Questionnaire: Social,Emotional: A validation study of a mother-report questionnaire on a clinical mother,infant sample,

    Björn Salomonsson
    Mother-report questionnaires of infant socioemotional functioning are increasingly used to screen for clinical referral to infant mental health services. The validity of the Ages & Stages Questionnaire: Social Emotional (ASQ:SE; J. Squires, D. Bricker, K. Heo, & E. Twombly, 2002) was investigated in a sample of help-seeking mothers with young infants. It was compared with independent observer-rated dyadic interactions, and the quality of dyadic relationships was rated by expert clinicians. The ASQ:SE ratings also were compared with questionnaires on maternal psychological stress and distress. The ASQ:SE did not correlate significantly with either external ratings of dyadic interaction or clinically assessed relationship qualities, though the latter two were strongly associated with each other. In contrast, ASQ:SE scores were associated with questionnaires relating to maternal psychological distress. This was especially true for mothers classified as depressed. Furthermore, reports on the ASQ:SE were strongly predicted by maternal stress. The study points to some problems with the concurrent validity of the ASQ:SE in clinical samples. It also demonstrates a close link between mothers' psychological distress and their ratings of infant social and emotional functioning. Further research should investigate the extent to which the ASQ:SE specifically measures infant functioning or maternal distress, and how it functions in clinical versus nonclinical samples. Los cuestionarios en que las madres reportan el funcionamiento socio-emocional del infante se están usando más para determinar la necesidad de referir a los servicios de salud mental infantil. Se investigó la validez del Cuestionario de Edades y Niveles: Socio-emocional (ASQ:SE) en un grupo muestra de madres con infantes pequeños las cuales buscaban ayuda. Al grupo se le comparó con las interacciones de las díadas evaluadas por un observador independiente, y con la calidad de las relaciones de las díadas evaluadas por clínicos expertos. Los puntajes del ASQ:SE también fueron comparados con cuestionarios sobre el estrés y la ansiedad maternales sicológicas. Resultados: el ASQ:SE no se correlacionó significativamente ni con los puntajes externos de la interacción de la díada ni con las cualidades de la relación evaluadas clínicamente, aunque ambas fueron asociadas fuertemente una con la otra. En contraste, los puntajes de ASQ:SE fueron asociados con cuestionarios que se referían a la ansiedad mental psicológica maternal. Esto resultó verdadero sobretodo en los casos de madres clasificadas como depresivas. Es más, el estrés maternal predijo fuertemente los reportes sobre el ASQ:SE. Este estudio apunta hacia ciertos problemas con la validez concurrente del ASQ:SE en muestras clínicas. El mismo demuestra una conexión cercana entre la ansiedad mental psicológica maternal y los puntajes que las madres les dan al funcionamiento social y emocional del infante. La investigación futura debe enfocarse en hasta qué punto el ASQ:SE mide específicamente el funcionamiento del infante o la ansiedad mental de la madre, y cómo el mismo funciona en muestras clínicas versus aquellas que no lo son. Les questionnaires "rapport de la mère" de fonctionnement social et émotionnel du nourrison sont de plus en plus utilisés pour tester les enfants afin de les envoyer consulter en services de santé mentale du nourrisson. La validité du questionnaire "âge et étapes: social et émotionnel" (en anglais Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social et Emotionnel, abrégé ASQ:SE en anglais) a été examinée chez un échantillon de mères de jeunes bébés cherchant de l'aide. Elle a été comparée à des interactions dyadiques évaluées par un observateur indépendant, la qualité des relations dyadiques étant évaluée par des cliniciens experts. Les évaluations ASQ:SE ont aussi été comparées aux questionnaires sur la détresse et le stress psychologique maternel. Résultats: Le questionnaire ASQ:SE n'a pas été fortement mis en corrélation avec soit les évaluations externes d'interaction dyadique soit les qualités de la relation évaluées cliniquement, bien que ces deux dernières aient été fortement liées les unes aux autres. Par contre, les scores ASQ:SE étaient liés aux questionnaires qui portaient sur la détresse psychologique maternelle. Ceci s'est surtout avéré vrai pour les mères classifiées comme déprimées. De plus, les rapports sur le ASQ:SE étaient frotement prédits par le stress maternel. Cette étude met en lumière certains problèmes avec la validité simultanée du questionnaire ASQ:SE dans les échantillons cliniques. Elle démontre aussi un lien étroit entre la détresse psychologique des mères et leurs évaluations du fonctionnement social et émotionnel du nourrisson. Des recherches plus approfondies devraient porter sur la mesure dans laquelle le questionnaire ASQ:SE mesure spécifiquement le fonctionnement du nourrisson ou la détresse maternelle, et comment il fonctionne dans des échantillons cliniques par rapport à non-cliniques. Fragebögen der sozial-emotionalen Funktionsweisen, die auf Elternurteilen beruhen, werden zunehmend zur Klärung der Frage eingesetzt, ob eine ärztliche Überweisung im Rahmen von psychischer Gesundheit im Kleinkindalter induziert ist. Die Gültigkeit des Fragebogens zum Alter und zu den Entwicklungsstufen "Sozial Emotional" (ASQ: SE) wurde von einer Gruppe Hilfe-suchender Mütter mit Kleinkindern entwickelt. Die Fragebögen wurden von unabhängigern Beobachter innerhalb dyadischer Interaktionen validiert. Zusätzlich überprüften erfahrene Kliniker die Qualität der dyadischen Beziehungen. Die Bewertungen mittels ASQ: SE wurden darüber hinaus mit Fragebogen zu mütterlichen psychologischem Stress und Ängste verglichen. Ergebnisse: Die ASQ: SE zeigte keine signifikant Korrelation mit den externen Ergebnissen der dyadischen Interaktion oder den klinisch beurteilten Beziehungsqualitäten, obwohl die beiden letzteren trotzdem in Zusammenhang standen. Im Gegensatz dazu zeigten die Ergebnisse des ASQ: SE einen Zusammenhang mit den Fragebögen zur mütterlichen psychischen Belastung. Dies galt vor allem für Mütter die als depressiv eingestuft wurden. Außerdem machten die Ergebnisse des ASQ: SE eindeutige Vorhersagen was den mütterlicher Stress anbelangt. Die Studie weist auf einige Probleme der übereinstimmenden Gültigkeit des ASQ: SE in klinischen Stichproben hin. Es zeigt aber auch eine enge Verbindung zwischen mütterlicher psychischer Belastung und ihren Bewertungen der sozialen und emotionalen Funktionsfähigkeit ihrer Säuglinge hin. Weitere Forschung sollte untersuchen, inwieweit der ASQ: SE gezielt Maßnahmen zur Steigerung der Funktionalität von Säuglingen oder mütterliche Not misst und in wie weit der Fragebogen im klinischen bzw. nicht-klinischen Setting Gültigkeit behält. [source]

    Applying the Infant-Toddler Social & Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) and Brief-ITSEA in early intervention

    Margaret J. Briggs-Gowan
    To examine the internal consistency and validity of the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) and Brief-ITSEA (BITSEA) parent-report questionnaires in an early intervention sample. A sociodemographically diverse sample of 192 parents of 11- to 36-month-old children referred to early intervention programs completed surveys containing the ITSEA, BITSEA, and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Parents were interviewed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Evaluators blind to children's status on the ITSEA and BITSEA rated child behavior during developmental assessments. Finally, a subsample of 71 children was administered the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Findings support the internal consistency of the ITSEA and BITSEA, with the majority of Cronbach's alphas above .70. Supporting validity, ITSEA and BITSEA problem scores correlated significantly with CBCL Internalizing and Externalizing scores (rs=.28 to .78), as well as with observational ratings of problem behaviors on constructs paralleling the ITSEA domains (rs=.21 to .45). In contrast, ITSEA Competence and BITSEA Competence demonstrated moderate negative associations with CBCL scores (rs=,.39 to ,.43). Finally, ITSEA Competence and BITSEA Competence correlated significantly with developmental level on the Mullen, Vineland Socialization, and observational ratings of competence (rs=.25 to .43). Emphasizing the importance of addressing social-emotional issues in early intervention settings, 58.6% of children had high social-emotional/behavioral problems and/or low competence on the ITSEA; 39.8% had high ITSEA Problems and 38.5% had low ITSEA Competence. Results indicate the need to assess social-emotional adjustment in early intervention settings and support the use of the ITSEA and BITSEA for this purpose. [source]

    A French adaptation of the Infant,Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment

    Ziva Bracha
    This article presents the psychometric properties of the French adaptation of the Infant,Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA), named the Evaluation Sociale et Emotionelle de Jeunes Enfants (ESEJE). The French adaptation involved translation and backtranslation and was administered to 179 parents in pediatric well-baby centers and 115 parents in childcare centers. Confirmatory factor analyses were employed to assess for latent factor structure, and model fit was assessed using three standard-fit indices. Analysis of variance examined age and gender effects on mean domain and scale scores. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a comparable latent factor structure to that reported for the ITSEA. All domains and most scales show adequate intrascale reliability. Certain age and gender effects on mean score differed from those reported for the U.S. sample. Our preliminary results indicate that the ESEJE shares the same latent factor structure as its English counterpart and may be a promising tool for the early detection of problem behaviors and delays in the acquisition of competencies in a French population. ©2004 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Social and ethical issues in indigenous health: time for a fresh start

    P. A. Komesaroff
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Current Developments and Trends in Social and Environmental Auditing, Reporting and Attestation: A Review and Comment

    Rob Gray
    This is a discursive paper which attempts to provide a personal review of current and recent developments in social and environmental reporting with particular emphasis on the attestation and auditing implications. The paper takes the essential desirability of social, environmental and sustainability reporting as a crucial element in any well-functioning democracy as a given. It further assumes that any civilised, but complex, society with pretensions to social justice, that seeks a potentially sustainable future and which wishes to try and rediscover some less exploitative and less insulated relationship with the natural environment, needs social and environmental reporting as one component in redirecting its social and economic organisation. With reporting being such a central issue, the paper further takes good quality attestation of that information as essential to both its reliability and its ability to fulfill its required role in developing transparency and accountability. The paper has three motifs: the need to clarify terminology in the field of social and environmental ,audits'; the current weakness of attestation practices in the area; and the significant , but unfulfilled , promise offered by professional accounting and auditing education and training. The paper concludes with a call for a substantial re-think of accounting education and training. [source]