Bystander Effects (bystander + effects)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Bystander signaling between glioma cells and fibroblasts targeted with counted particles

Chunlin Shao
Abstract Radiation-induced bystander effects may play an important role in cancer risks associated with environmental, occupational and medical exposures and they may also present a therapeutic opportunity to modulate the efficacy of radiotherapy. However, the mechanisms underpinning these responses between tumor and normal cells are poorly understood. Using a microbeam, we investigated interactions between T98G malignant glioma cells and AG01522 normal fibroblasts by targeting cells through their nuclei in one population, then detecting cellular responses in the other co-cultured non-irradiated population. It was found that when a fraction of cells was individually irradiated with exactly 1 or 5 helium particles (3He2+), the yield of micronuclei (MN) in the non-irradiated population was significantly increased. This increase was not related to the fraction of cells targeted or the number of particles delivered to those cells. Even when one cell was targeted with a single 3He2+, the induction of MN in the bystander non-irradiated population could be increased by 79% for AG01522 and 28% for T98G. Furthermore, studies showed that nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in these bystander responses. Following nuclear irradiation in only 1% of cells, the NO level in the T98G population was increased by 31% and the ROS level in the AG0 population was increased by 18%. Treatment of cultures with 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO), an NO scavenger, abolished the bystander MN induction in non-irradiated AG01522 cells but only partially in non-irradiated T98G cells, and this could be eliminated by treatment with either DMSO or antioxidants. Our findings indicate that differential mechanisms involving NO and ROS signaling factors play a role in bystander responses generated from targeted T98G glioma and AG0 fibroblasts, respectively. These bystander interactions suggest that a mechanistic control of the bystander effect could be of benefit to radiotherapy. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Radiation-induced bystander effects in malignant trophoblast cells are independent from gap junctional communication

Ferya Banaz-Ya
Abstract It is controversially discussed that irradiation induces bystander effects via gap junction channels and/or diffusible cellular factors such as nitric oxide or cytokines excreted from the cells into the environment. But up to now the molecular mechanism leading to a bystander response is not well understood. To discriminate between both mechanisms of bystander response, (i) mediated by gap junctional communication and/or (ii) mediated by diffusible molecules, we used non-communicating Jeg3 malignant trophoblast cells transfected with inducible gap junction proteins, connexin43 and connexin26, respectively, based on the Tet-On system. We co-cultivated X-ray irradiated and non-irradiated bystander Jeg3 cells for 4 h, separated both cell populations by flow cytometry and evaluated the expression of activated p53 by Western blot analysis. The experimental design was proven with communicating versus non-communicating Jeg3 cells. Interestingly, our results revealed a bystander effect which was independent from gap junctional communication properties and the connexin isoform expressed. Therefore, it seems more likely that the bystander effect is not mediated via gap junction channels but rather by paracrine mechanisms via excreted molecules in Jeg3 cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 103: 149,161, 2008. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

An efficient targeted radiotherapy/gene therapy strategy utilising human telomerase promoters and radioastatine and harnessing radiation-mediated bystander effects

Marie Boyd
Abstract Background Targeted radiotherapy achieves malignant cell-specific concentration of radiation dosage by tumour-affinic molecules conjugated to radioactive atoms. Combining gene therapy with targeted radiotherapy is attractive because the associated cross-fire irradiation of the latter induces biological bystander effects upon neighbouring cells overcoming low gene transfer efficiency. Methods We sought to maximise the tumour specificity and efficacy of noradrenaline transporter (NAT) gene transfer combined with treatment using the radiopharmaceutical meta-[131I]iodobenzylguanidine ([131I]MIBG). Cell-kill was achieved by treatment with the ,-decay particle emitter [131I]MIBG or the ,-particle emitter [211At]MABG. We utilised our novel transfected mosaic spheroid model (TMS) to determine whether this treatment strategy could result in sterilisation of spheroids containing only a small proportion of NAT-expressing cells. Results The concentrations of [131I]MIBG and [211At]MABG required to reduce to 0.1% the survival of clonogens derived from the TMS composed of 100% of NAT gene-transfected cells were 1.5 and 0.004 MBq/ml (RSV promoter), 8.5 and 0.0075 MBq/ml (hTR promoter), and 9.0 and 0.008 MBq/ml (hTERT promoter), respectively. The concentrations of radiopharmaceutical required to reduce to 0.1% the survival of clonogens derived from 5% RSV/NAT and 5% hTERT/NAT TMS were 14 and 23 MBq/ml, respectively, for treatment with [131I]MIBG and 0.018 and 0.028 MBq/ml, respectively, for treatment with [211At]MABG. Conclusions These results indicate that the telomerase promoters have the capacity to drive the expression of the NAT. The potency of [211At]MABG is approximately three orders of magnitude greater than that of [131I]MIBG. Spheroids composed of only 5% of cells expressing NAT under the control of the RSV or hTERT promoter were sterilised by radiopharmaceutical treatment. This observation is indicative of bystander cell-kill. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Ongoing activation of p53 pathway responses is a long-term consequence of radiation exposure in vivo and associates with altered macrophage activities,

PJ Coates
Abstract The major adverse consequences of radiation exposure, including the initiation of leukaemia and other malignancies, are generally attributed to effects in the cell nucleus at the time of irradiation. However, genomic damage as a longer term consequence of radiation exposure has more recently been demonstrated due to untargeted radiation effects including delayed chromosomal instability and bystander effects. These processes, mainly studied in vitro, are characterized by un-irradiated cells demonstrating effects as though they themselves had been irradiated and have been associated with altered oxidative processes. To investigate the potential for these untargeted effects of radiation to produce delayed damaging events in vivo, we studied a well-characterized model of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia in CBA/Ca mice. Haemopoietic tissues of irradiated CBA/Ca mice exhibit enhanced levels of p53 stabilization, increased levels of p21waf1, and increased amounts of apoptosis, as expected, in the first few hours post-irradiation, but also at much later times: weeks and months after the initial exposure. Because these responses are seen in cells that were not themselves directly irradiated but are the descendants of irradiated cells, the data are consistent with an initial radiation exposure leading to persistently increased levels of ongoing DNA damage, analogous to radiation-induced chromosomal instability. To investigate the potential source of ongoing oxidative processes, we show increased levels of 3-nitrotyrosine, a marker of damaging nitrogen/oxygen species in macrophages. Not all animals show increased oxidative activity or p53 responses as long-term consequences of irradiation, but increased levels of p53, p21, and apoptosis are directly correlated with increased 3-nitrotyrosine in individual mice post-irradiation. The data implicate persistent activation of inflammatory-type responses in irradiated tissues as a contributory bystander mechanism for causing delayed DNA damage. Copyright 2008 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Irradiated fibroblast-induced bystander effects on invasive growth of squamous cell carcinoma under cancer,stromal cell interaction

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 12 2008
Noriyuki Kamochi
The irradiated fibroblast-induced response of non-irradiated neighboring cells is called ,radiation-induced bystander effect', but it is unclear in non-irradiated human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. The present study shows that irradiated fibroblasts promoted the invasive growth of T3M-1 SCC cells, but not their apoptosis, more greatly than non-irradiated fibroblasts, using collagen gel invasion assay, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The number of irradiated fibroblasts decreased to about 30% of that of non-irradiated fibroblasts, but irradiated fibroblasts increased the growth marker ki-67 display of SCC cells more greatly than non-irradiated fibroblasts. Irradiated fibroblasts did not affect the apoptosis marker ss-DNA expression of SCC cells. Irradiated fibroblasts enhanced the display of the following growth-, invasion- and motility-related molecules in SCC cells more greatly than non-irradiated fibroblasts: c-Met, Ras, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade (Raf-1, MEK-1 and ERK-1/2), matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -9, laminin 5 and filamin A. Irradiated fibroblasts, but not non-irradiated ones, formed irradiation-induced foci (IRIF) of the genomic instability marker p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) and expressed transforming growth factor-,1 (TGF- ,1). Irradiated fibroblasts in turn enabled SCC cells to enhance 53BP1 IRIF formation more extensively than non-irradiated fibroblasts. Finally, effects of irradiated fibroblasts on growth and apoptosis of another HEp-2 SCC cell type were similar to those of T3M-1. These results suggest that irradiated fibroblasts promotes invasion and growth of SCC cells by enhancement of invasive growth-related molecules above through TGF- ,1-mediated bystander mechanism, in which irradiated fibroblast-induced genomic instability of SCC cells may be involved. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 2417,2427) [source]