By-product Meal (by-product + meal)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of By-product Meal

  • poultry by-product meal


  • Selected Abstracts


    Replacement of Fish Meal with Poultry By-product Meal as a Protein Source in Pond-raised Sunshine Bass, Morone chrysops , × M. saxatlis ,, Diets

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 5 2008
    Harvey J. Pine
    Replacement of fish meal (FM) as a protein source with alternative sources of protein in aquaculture diets has been widely explored in aquaculture. The goal of replacement of FM in production diets is to maintain growth, lower production costs, and increase sustainability. Evaluation of the replacement of FM with poultry by-product meal (PBM) in phase II sunshine bass diets, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis, was conducted in ponds over 246 d. Four diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (37%) and isocaloric (4 kcal/g) with different levels of FM replacement with PBM (0, 33, 67, and 100%, Diets 1,4, respectively). Twelve ponds were stocked with 400 phase II sunshine bass (mean weight 5.6 g) and randomly assigned one of the four diets. Fish were fed below satiation based on predicted growth and feed conversion, initially once daily (1700 h) and then twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) as water temperatures and feeding activity increased. Diets were evaluated based on production and performance indicators, body composition, and economic analysis. Production results revealed no significant differences in mean final individual fish weight (511 ± 21 g), net production (4257 ± 247 kg/ha), and survival (85 ± 2%). No significant differences occurred between the performance indicators: mean feed conversion ratio (2.47 ± 0.11), specific growth rate (1.84 ± 0.02), and protein conversion efficiency (23 ± 1.3%). Body composition was statistically similar for mean percent fillet weight (49 ± 0.6%) and percent intraperitoneal fat (9.8 ± 1.0%); however, the hepatosomatic index was significantly different between Diets 3 (3.7 ± 0.1%) and 4 (3.2 ± 0.1%). Mean proximate analysis of whole fish (dry weight basis) was not significantly different among treatments yielding the following: percent protein (46 ± 0.4%), lipid (47 ± 1.3%), and ash (8 ± 0.7%). Mean fillet composition (dry weight basis) also revealed no significant differences: percent protein (72 ± 0.8%), percent lipid (30 ± 1.6%), and percent ash (5 ± 0.2%). Proximate analysis was also performed on the diets and revealed a significantly lower protein content in Diet 3 (34.3 ± 0.5%) compared to the other diets (37.1 ± 0.4%). Amino acid analysis of the diets indicated a possible deficiency in methionine in Diets 3 and 4. Based on production, performance, and body composition, the results indicate that complete replacement of FM with PBM in sunshine bass diets is feasible; however, economic analysis suggests that the replacement of FM with PBM may result in reduced revenue over feed costs. [source]


    Practical diet evaluation with hatchlings of soft-shell turtle, Trionyx sinensis Wiegmann, in the tropics

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED ICHTHYOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    C.R. Saad
    Summary An 8-week feeding trial was undertaken to evaluate the growth and survival of soft-shell turtle, Trionyx sinensis, hatchlings fed with trash fish (TF), fish meal (FM), poultry by-product meal (PM) and a 1:1 mixture of FM and PM (MIX). No significant difference (P>0.05) was observed for survival; however, the weight gain and carapace length among different dietary treatments were significantly different (P<0.05). The weight gain and carapace length for hatchlings fed with MIX and PM were highest and lowest (P<0.05), respectively. It is concluded that the inexpensive and readily available poultry by-product can be substituted in part for FM in feed formulation for soft-shell turtle culture. [source]


    Evaluation of Reduced Fish Meal Diets for Second Year Growout of the Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 6 2009
    Nathan J. Cochran
    Development of efficient cost-effective diets is a critical component in the refinement of production technologies for the largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides (LMB). One of the first steps in reducing feed costs can be to decrease the amount of fish meal in the diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate reduced levels of fish meal, and a least-cost formulation diet, for second year growout of LMB under practical pond conditions. Twelve 0.04-ha ponds were stocked with juvenile LMB (210.1±3.3 g) at a stocking density of 8650 fish/ha (350 fish/pond). Each pond was randomly assigned one of the four dietary treatments with three replicate ponds per treatment. The three experimental diets contained varying levels of fish meal. Diets FM-45, FM-24, and FM-8 contained 45, 23.5, and 8% fish meal, respectively. In diets FM-24 and FM-8, fish meal was replaced by varying levels of poultry by-product meal, soybean meal, and blood meal. The fourth diet was a commercial salmonid diet widely used as a LMB growout feed (Nelson and Sons, Inc., SilvercupTM, Steelhead, Murray, UT, USA). This diet served as a commercial control (CC) and contained 46% crude protein. The experimental diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric with the CC diet and were fed once daily to apparent satiation for 180 d. At harvest, there were no significant differences between treatments (P > 0.05) in terms of survival, which averaged 95% overall. Mean weights of fish fed the three experimental diets FM-45, FM-24 and FM-8 were not significantly different (P > 0.05) and averaged 518, 546, and 529 g, respectively, but were all significantly greater (P, 0.05) than those fed the CC (488 g). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) of fish fed the FM-45 and FM-8 diets (1.43 and 1.46, respectively) was significantly greater (P, 0.05) than those fed the FM-24 diet (1.34). The FCR of fish fed the CC diet (1.39) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from fish fed other diets. Feed cost per unit of weight gain ($US/kg) was significantly lower (P, 0.05) in fish fed the FM-24 and FM-8 diets ($0.73 and $0.72/kg, respectively) than in fish fed other diets. Feed cost per unit gain of fish fed the FM-45 diet ($0.83/kg) was significantly lower (P, 0.05) than those fed the CC diet ($1.04/kg). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in dress-out percentages or proximate composition among fish fed the four diets. This study indicates that fish meal levels in feeds used for the second year growout of LMB can be reduced to,8% of the formulation without reducing survival or growth and without negatively impacting body composition. [source]


    Replacement of Fish Meal with Poultry By-product Meal as a Protein Source in Pond-raised Sunshine Bass, Morone chrysops , × M. saxatlis ,, Diets

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 5 2008
    Harvey J. Pine
    Replacement of fish meal (FM) as a protein source with alternative sources of protein in aquaculture diets has been widely explored in aquaculture. The goal of replacement of FM in production diets is to maintain growth, lower production costs, and increase sustainability. Evaluation of the replacement of FM with poultry by-product meal (PBM) in phase II sunshine bass diets, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis, was conducted in ponds over 246 d. Four diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (37%) and isocaloric (4 kcal/g) with different levels of FM replacement with PBM (0, 33, 67, and 100%, Diets 1,4, respectively). Twelve ponds were stocked with 400 phase II sunshine bass (mean weight 5.6 g) and randomly assigned one of the four diets. Fish were fed below satiation based on predicted growth and feed conversion, initially once daily (1700 h) and then twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) as water temperatures and feeding activity increased. Diets were evaluated based on production and performance indicators, body composition, and economic analysis. Production results revealed no significant differences in mean final individual fish weight (511 ± 21 g), net production (4257 ± 247 kg/ha), and survival (85 ± 2%). No significant differences occurred between the performance indicators: mean feed conversion ratio (2.47 ± 0.11), specific growth rate (1.84 ± 0.02), and protein conversion efficiency (23 ± 1.3%). Body composition was statistically similar for mean percent fillet weight (49 ± 0.6%) and percent intraperitoneal fat (9.8 ± 1.0%); however, the hepatosomatic index was significantly different between Diets 3 (3.7 ± 0.1%) and 4 (3.2 ± 0.1%). Mean proximate analysis of whole fish (dry weight basis) was not significantly different among treatments yielding the following: percent protein (46 ± 0.4%), lipid (47 ± 1.3%), and ash (8 ± 0.7%). Mean fillet composition (dry weight basis) also revealed no significant differences: percent protein (72 ± 0.8%), percent lipid (30 ± 1.6%), and percent ash (5 ± 0.2%). Proximate analysis was also performed on the diets and revealed a significantly lower protein content in Diet 3 (34.3 ± 0.5%) compared to the other diets (37.1 ± 0.4%). Amino acid analysis of the diets indicated a possible deficiency in methionine in Diets 3 and 4. Based on production, performance, and body composition, the results indicate that complete replacement of FM with PBM in sunshine bass diets is feasible; however, economic analysis suggests that the replacement of FM with PBM may result in reduced revenue over feed costs. [source]


    Replacement of Fish Meal with Soybean Meal in the Production Diets of Juvenile Red Snapper, Lutjanus campechanus

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 1 2005
    D. Allen Davis
    The replacement of fish meal with soybean meal in fish diets has met with varying degrees of success. Quite often, poor responses to high soybean meal diets are either due to shifts in the nutrient profile or a reduced palatability of the diet when fish meal is removed. The present research was designed to evaluate the replacement of menhaden fish meal with solvent-extracted soybean meal in practical diets containing 10% poultry by-product meal and formulated to contain 40% protein, 8% lipid, and a total sulfur amino acid content of > 3.0% of the protein. The response of red snapper (mean initial weight 10.9 g) to diets containing graded levels of fish meal (30,20, 10, 0%) as well as the response to a low fish meal diet (10%) without poultry by-product meal were evaluated over a 6-wk growth period. Significant (P± 0.05) differences in final mean weight, percent weight gain, and feed conversion were observed. Final weights (percent gain) ranged from 30.9 g (185.5%) for fish offered diets with 30% fish meal to 12.6 g (16.3%) for fish offered diets with 0% fish meal. Corresponding feed conversion efficiencies ranged from 60.1% to 7.7%. No significant differences were observed for survival between treatment means. Although there was a clear reduction in performance as the fish meal was replaced with soybean meal, the use of 10% poultry by-product meal or 10% fish meal resulted in similar performance of the fish. This is a good indication that poultry by-product meal does not have palatability problems and could be used as a substitute. The present findings suggest that replacing fish meal with high levels of soybean meal appears to reduce the palatability of the diet. While the cost reducing benefit, with respect to the replacement of fish meal, has been shown with other species, before high levels of inclusion can be efficiently utilized further research is needed to address the palatability problems observed with red snapper. [source]


    A comparison of two faecal collection methods for protein and amino acid digestibility coefficients of menhaden fish meal and two grades of poultry by-product meals for market-size sunshine bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis)

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 1 2010
    S.D. RAWLES
    Abstract Apparent digestibility and availability coefficients for protein and amino acids in menhaden fish meal (MEN), pet-food grade (PBM-pet,) and feed-grade poultry by-product meal (PBM-feed) were determined for market-size (500 g) sunshine bass in two consecutive trials using passive netting (1.6 mm mesh) followed by manual stripping of faeces. A reference diet resembling a commercial feed was formulated to meet or exceed all known nutritional requirements of hybrid striped bass. Test diets were formulated to contain a 70 : 30 mixture of reference diet to test ingredient with chromic oxide (1%) serving as the inert marker. Diets were extruded under commercial conditions and the reference diet was fed for two weeks in order to acclimate fish to experimental conditions. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate tanks containing 30 fish each. Fish were fed their respective diet twice daily to apparent satiation for two weeks, with faecal collections being conducted on the 7th and 14th day, in each trial. ADC values determined in the net method were highly variable and generally lower than ADCs obtained by stripping. Consistently lower and highly variable chromium concentrations were found in the net method faecal samples and suggest that marker loss relative to nutrient content, or dilution of marker with non-faecal matter, on the net collectors influenced results in that trial. In contrast, the standard errors of ADCs determined in the strip method were less than 5 percentage points in most cases. Protein digestibility ranged from a low of 51% (PBM-feed) to a high of 87% (PBM-pet) in the net method, and from a low of 80% (PBM-feed) to a high of 99% (MEN) in the strip method. With the exception of Lys, no differences in amino acid availabilities among diets were found in the net method. In the strip method, protein digestibility and amino acid availabilities in MEN were generally greater than those found in PBM-pet or PBM-feed, whereas ADCs were not significantly different between the two poultry by-products. Based on the conditions of the present study, net collection of faecal matter can not be recommended for determining the digestibility of nutrients in feed ingredients for market-size sunshine bass. Digestibility coefficients obtained by the strip method for feed and petfood grades poultry by-product were higher than those previously reported and will be facilitate more efficient and economical diet formulations for larger sunshine bass. [source]


    Nutrients apparent digestibility coefficients of selected protein sources for juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt), compared by two chromic oxide analyses methods

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 6 2009
    H. LIU
    Abstract Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of dry matter (ADCd), crude protein (ADCp), energy (ADCe) and amino acids in selected feedstuffs were determined for juvenile Siberian sturgeon (8.38 ± 0.20 g). The tested feedstuffs were fishmeal (FM), meat and bone meal (MBM), poultry by-product meal, hydrolysed feather meal, fermented feather meal solvent-extracted cottonseed meal and soybean meal. ADCs were determined using a reference diet and test diets at 7 : 3 ratios with 5 g kg,1 chromic oxide (Cr2O3) as an inert marker. Fish were reared in a recirculating system and fed to apparent satiation five times daily. Cr2O3 in diets and faeces samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and acid-digestion colorimetry (AC) methods, respectively. The results showed that ICP-AES method was more accurate for Cr2O3 determination than AC method, and the results determined by ICP-AES method were used in this study. ADCd and ADCp of seven tested ingredients were lowest for MBM (59.1 and 84.5%) and highest for FM (79.9 and 94.5%); ADCe of tested ingredients were from 71.8% for SECM to 93.2% for FM. ADCs of amino acid in test ingredients followed similar trend to the ADCp. The ADCs of individual amino acids varied from 61.6% (histidine in MBM) to 98.8% (valine in FM). [source]


    Apparent digestibility coefficients of selected feed ingredients for dourado Salminus brasiliensis

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 5 2009
    R. BORGHESI
    Abstract The excellence of its flesh and fast growth makes the dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, a carnivorous fish native to the Prata basin, a potential candidate for intensive fish farming. This study evaluated the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of energy and nutrients of animal and plant protein sources for the carnivorous Characin dourado S. brasiliensis. Fish (19.5 ± 5.0 g) were stocked in plastic cages (80-L) and fed pelleted test diets containing 30% of the test ingredient [fish meal (FM), poultry by-product meal (PBM), soybean meal (SBM), and corn gluten meal (CGM) plus 70% of a reference diet (481.4 g kg,1 of crude protein and 18.63 kJ of gross energy per gram]. After the last daily meal, cages were transferred to cylindrical, conical-bottomed aquarium (200-L) where faeces were collected by sedimentation in a refrigerated container. Except for ADC of protein and energy, all other ADC of nutrients showed significant differences (P < 0.01). ADC values were: 94.3%, 91.3%, 93.1%, and 93.5% for crude protein; 91.0%, 90.3%, 87.8%, and 88.8% for gross energy; 92.1%, 84.5%, 80.6%, and 79.3% for ash; 83.9%, 80.3%, 84.3%, and 84.6% for dry matter; 97.4%, 96.7%, 93.3%, and 91.5% for lipid for FM, PBM, SBM, and CGM, respectively. The average amino acid ADC was: 93.6%, 90.0%, 92.1%, and 92.5% of FM, PBM, SBM, and CGM, respectively. All test ingredients were efficiently used and can partially replace FM in diets for carnivorous dourado. [source]


    Apparent digestibilities of common feedstuffs for bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides using individual test ingredients

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 1 2009
    K. MASAGOUNDER
    Abstract Apparent digestibility of dry matter and energy, and availability of amino acids from blood meal (BM), fish meal (FM), meat and bone meal (MBM), poultry by-product meal (PBM), soybean meal (SBM), corn, wheat and yellow grease (YG) were determined for bluegill Lepomis macrochirus (mean weight, 57 g), and likewise, but not for BM or wheat, for largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (mean weight, 30 g). To avoid nutrient interaction from a reference diet, diets containing 98.5% (985 g kg,1) of test ingredients were used, except for semi-solid, YG which was mixed with corn to permit pelletization. Faeces were collected by a siphoning method. Apparent dry matter digestibility values ranged from 50% (corn) to 87% (BM) for bluegill and from 53% (MBM) to 76% (PBM) for largemouth bass. Apparent energy digestibility values ranged from 53% (corn) to 92% (BM) for bluegill and from 63% (MBM) to 93% (YG) for largemouth bass. Apparent digestibility of most amino acids exceeded 90% for evaluated protein sources, except for MBM which showed slightly lower values (80,90%) for both fishes. Isoleucine digestibility from BM was relatively low (82%) for bluegill. High digestibility values for SBM, PBM and BM, indicate good potential for replacing FM in diets for both fishes. [source]


    Amino acid availability and protein digestibility of several protein sources for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 5 2008
    I.G. GUIMARÃES
    Abstract Apparent amino acid availability coefficients and protein digestibility of four animal products [fish meal (FM), meat and bone meal (MBM), poultry by-product and feather meal] and four plant protein-rich products [soybean meal (SBM), cottonseed meal-28, cottonseed meal-38 and corn gluten meal (CGM)] were determined for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Ingredients were incorporated to a practical reference diet at a 7 : 3 ratio (70% of reference diet and 30% of test ingredient). Chromic oxide was used as external digestibility marker. Among animal products poultry by-product meal (PBM; 89.7%) and FM (88.6%) presented the highest apparent protein digestibility (APD) while MBM (78.4%) and feather meal (78.5%) presented the lowest APD. Among plant protein-rich products CGM (91.4%) and SBM (92.4%) presented the highest APD values while cottonseed meal-28 presented the lowest APD (78.6%). Average apparent amino acid availability of feed ingredients was similar to protein digestibility with 92.3%, 89.6%, 73.4%, 80.7%, 88.9%, 84.4%, 91.2% and 79.7% values for SBM, CGM, cottonseed meal-28 and 38, FM, MBM, PBM and feather meal respectively. These results indicate that O. niloticus is able to utilize efficiently different feedstuffs. [source]


    Substituting fish meal with poultry by-product meal in diets for black Sea turbot Psetta maeotica

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 5 2006
    M. YIGIT
    Abstract A 60 days feeding experiment was carried out with Black Sea turbot Psetta maeotica to determine the amount of poultry by-product meal (PBM) that could replace fish meal (FM) in formulated diets without reducing growth performance. Juvenile Black Sea turbot (initial average weight, 30 g) were fed five isoenergetic (gross energy, 20.5 ± 0.21 kJ g,1 diet) and isonitrogenous diets (protein content, 550 ±,0.35 g kg,1). The control diet used white FM as the sole protein source, the other four diets were prepared to replace FM protein at levels of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% with PBM. The fish readily accepted all experimental diets and no mortality were recorded during the trial. There were no significant differences in growth performance of turbot (P < 0.05) fed the diets with 25% and 50% replacement levels compared with fish offered the control diet (100% FM), however, final body weight and specific growth rate values in the 50% replacement diet were about 8% lower than those of the control. Total nitrogen excretion in fish fed 50% replacement diet were about 10% higher than the control group, even though these parameters were not found to be statistically different. At the levels of 750 and 1000 g kg,1 of the protein, PBM inclusion caused a severe decrease in growth performance, feed utilization, protein efficiency ratio and per cent nitrogen retention. The results in the present study indicate that up to 25% of FM protein can be replaced by PBM protein without causing reduction in growth performance, nutrient utilization and nitrogen retention. [source]


    Evaluation of rendered animal protein ingredients for replacement of fish meal in practical diets for gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch)

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 14 2008
    Menghong Hu
    Abstract A 12-week feeding trial was carried out in fibreglass tanks to examine partial replacement of fish meal (FM) with poultry by-product meal (PBM), meat and bone meal (MBM) and blood meal (BM) in practical diets for gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Triplicate groups of fish (initial body weight 15.3 g fish,1) were fed eight isonitrogenous (crude protein: 37.5%) and isolipidic diets (crude lipid: 7%). The control diet is the commercial diet of gibel carp, which used 18% of FM as the sole animal protein source. In the other seven diets (Diet 2,Diet 8), 17,83% of FM protein was substituted by a blend of PBM and BM or a blend of PBM, MBM and BM. The final body weight and thermal-unit growth coefficient of fish fed the feeds in Diet 8 in which 83% of FM protein was replaced by the blend of 3% BM, 10% PBM and 5% MBM is significantly lower than Diet 1 (the control). The feed efficiency ratio in Diet 8 group is significantly lower than Diet 1, 2, 4 and 7 groups. The results of the present study indicated that a combination of PBM, BM and MBM can replace most of the FM protein and the FM level can be reduced to about 6% with satisfactory growth and feed utilization in practical diets for gibel carp. [source]


    Complete replacement of fish meal by porcine and poultry by-product meals in practical diets for fingerling Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus: digestibility and growth performance

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 1 2010
    C. HERNÁNDEZ
    Abstract The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of poultry by-product meal-pet food grade (PBM) and porcine meal (PM) were determined for fingerling male Nile tilapia. ADC for protein were 98.1% and 92.3% in PBM and PM, and 87.1% and 79.4% for energy. PBM and PM were then used as complete replacements for fish meal (FM) in practical diets for Nile tilapia formulated to contain equal digestible protein (300 g kg,1) and energy (16.74 MJ per 100 g) on an as-fed basis. Fingerlings (mean initial weight ±SD, 9.5 ± 0.015 g) were fed for 8 weeks on one of the four diets: FM-, PBM- or PM-based and a commercial feed. The ADC for protein in control and PBM diets (89.7% and 87.9%) were significantly higher than those for the control diet (81.96%). Growth performance and feed utilization were statistically similar between fish fed control and PBM diets, whereas the PM diet exhibited significantly lower performance compared with the control. However, the PM diet showed similar results to the commercial reference diet. Survival and feed conversion ratio were not significantly influenced by replacement of FM with either PBM or PM. The results indicated that PBM and PM can effectively replace FM in practical diets for fingerling Nile tilapia. [source]


    A comparison of two faecal collection methods for protein and amino acid digestibility coefficients of menhaden fish meal and two grades of poultry by-product meals for market-size sunshine bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis)

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 1 2010
    S.D. RAWLES
    Abstract Apparent digestibility and availability coefficients for protein and amino acids in menhaden fish meal (MEN), pet-food grade (PBM-pet,) and feed-grade poultry by-product meal (PBM-feed) were determined for market-size (500 g) sunshine bass in two consecutive trials using passive netting (1.6 mm mesh) followed by manual stripping of faeces. A reference diet resembling a commercial feed was formulated to meet or exceed all known nutritional requirements of hybrid striped bass. Test diets were formulated to contain a 70 : 30 mixture of reference diet to test ingredient with chromic oxide (1%) serving as the inert marker. Diets were extruded under commercial conditions and the reference diet was fed for two weeks in order to acclimate fish to experimental conditions. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate tanks containing 30 fish each. Fish were fed their respective diet twice daily to apparent satiation for two weeks, with faecal collections being conducted on the 7th and 14th day, in each trial. ADC values determined in the net method were highly variable and generally lower than ADCs obtained by stripping. Consistently lower and highly variable chromium concentrations were found in the net method faecal samples and suggest that marker loss relative to nutrient content, or dilution of marker with non-faecal matter, on the net collectors influenced results in that trial. In contrast, the standard errors of ADCs determined in the strip method were less than 5 percentage points in most cases. Protein digestibility ranged from a low of 51% (PBM-feed) to a high of 87% (PBM-pet) in the net method, and from a low of 80% (PBM-feed) to a high of 99% (MEN) in the strip method. With the exception of Lys, no differences in amino acid availabilities among diets were found in the net method. In the strip method, protein digestibility and amino acid availabilities in MEN were generally greater than those found in PBM-pet or PBM-feed, whereas ADCs were not significantly different between the two poultry by-products. Based on the conditions of the present study, net collection of faecal matter can not be recommended for determining the digestibility of nutrients in feed ingredients for market-size sunshine bass. Digestibility coefficients obtained by the strip method for feed and petfood grades poultry by-product were higher than those previously reported and will be facilitate more efficient and economical diet formulations for larger sunshine bass. [source]


    Evaluation of fisheries by-catch and by-product meals in diets for red drum Sciaenops ocellatus L.

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 16 2005
    Kasey W Whiteman
    Abstract This study evaluated various by-catch and by-product meals of marine origin with red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus L.). Four different kinds of by-catch or by-product meals [shrimp by-catch meal from shrimp trawling, Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone)) processing waste meal, red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum)) head meal, and Pacific whiting (Merluccius productus (Ayres)) meal] were substituted for Special SelectÔ menhaden fish meal at 33% or 67% of crude protein in diets formulated to contain 40% crude protein, 12% lipid, and 14.6 kJ digestible energy g,1. Each of these diets and three additional diets consisting of shrimp processing waste meal formulated on a digestible-protein basis and two Pacific whiting diets containing reduced levels of ash were also evaluated in two 6-week feeding trials with juvenile red drum (initial weight of 4,5 and 1,2 g fish,1 in trials 1 and 2). Red drum fed by-catch meal at either level of substitution performed as well as fish fed the control diet; whereas, fish fed shrimp processing waste meal diets had significantly (P,0.05) reduced weight gain and feed efficiency ratio values compared with the controls, even when fed on a digestible-protein basis. The diets containing Pacific whiting at either levels of substitution and regardless of ash level supported similar performance of red drum as those fed the control diet. Fish fed the red salmon head meal diet fared poorly, probably owing to an excessive amount of lipid in the diet that became rancid. Overall, by-catch meal associated with shrimp trawling and Pacific whiting appear to be suitable protein feedstuffs for red drum. [source]


    The potential of land animal protein ingredients to replace fish meal in diets for cuneate drum, Nibea miichthioides, is affected by dietary protein level

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 1 2010
    Y. WANG
    Abstract A net pen experiment was carried out to examine the effect of dietary protein level on the potential of land animal protein ingredients as fish meal substitutes in practical diets for cuneate drum Nibea miichthioides. Two isocaloric basal (control) diets were formulated to contain 400 g kg,1 herring meal but two different digestible protein (DP) levels (400 versus 350 g kg,1). At each DP level, dietary fish meal level was reduced from 400 to 280, 200, 80 and 0 g kg,1 by incorporating a blend that comprised of 600 g kg,1 poultry by-products meal (PBM), 200 g kg,1 meat and bone meal (MBM), 100 g kg,1 feather meal (FEM) and 100 g kg,1 blood meal (BLM). Cuneate drum fingerling (initial weight 42 g fish,1) were fed the test diets for 8 weeks. Fish fed the test diets exhibited similar feed intake. Final body weight, feed conversion ratio and nitrogen retention efficiency was not significantly different between fish fed the basal diets containing 350 and 400 g kg,1 DP. Weight gain decreased linearly with the reduction of dietary fish meal level at the 350 g kg,1 DP level, but did not decrease with the reduction of dietary fish meal level at the 400 g kg,1 DP level. Results of the present study suggest that fish meal in cuneate drum diets can be completely replaced with the blend of PBM, MBM, FEM and BLM at the 400 g kg,1 DP level, based on a mechanism that excessive dietary protein compensate lower contents of bio-available essential amino acid in the land animal protein ingredients relative to fish meal. [source]