Bypass Procedures (bypass + procedure)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Effect of Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting on Risk-Adjusted and Cumulative Sum Failure Outcomes After Coronary Artery Surgery

JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 6 2002
Richard J. Novick M.D.
We therefore applied CUSUM, as well as standard statistical techniques, to analyze a surgeon's experience with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) and on-pump procedures to determine whether the two techniques have similar or different outcomes. Methods: In 320 patients undergoing nonemergent, first time coronary artery bypass grafting, preoperative patient characteristics, rates of mortality and major complications, and ICU and hospital lengths of stay were compared between the on-pump and OPCAB cohorts using Fisher's exact tests and Wilcoxon two sample tests. Predicted mortality and length of stay were determined using previously validated models of the Cardiac Care Network of Ontario. Observed versus expected ratios of both variables were calculated for the two types of procedures. Furthermore, CUSUM curves were constructed for the on-pump and OPCAB cohorts. A multivariable analysis of the predictors of hospital length of stay was also performed to determine whether the type of coronary artery bypass procedure had an independent impact on this variable. Results: The predicted mortality risk and predicted hospital length of stay were almost identical in the 208 on-pump patients ( 2.2 3.9% ; 8.2 2.5 days) and the 112 OPCAB patients ( 2.0 2.2% ; 7.8 2.1 days). The incidence of hospital mortality and postoperative stroke were 2.9% and 2.4% in on-pump patients versus zero in OPCAB patients (p= 0.09 and 0.17, respectively). Mechanical ventilation for greater than 48 hours was significantly less common in OPCAB (1.8%) than in on-pump patients (7.7%, p= 0.04). The rate of 10 major complications was 14.9% in on-pump versus 8.0% in OPCAB patients (p= 0.08). OPCAB patients experienced a hospital length of stay that was a median of 1.0 day shorter than on-pump patients (p= 0.01). The observed versus expected ratio for length of stay was 0.78 in OPCAB patients versus 0.95 in on-pump patients. On CUSUM analysis, the failure curve in OPCAB patients was negative and was flatter than that of on-pump patients throughout the duration of the study. Furthermore, OPCAB was an independent predictor of a reduced hospital length of stay on multivariable analysis. Conclusions: OPCAB was associated with better outcomes than on-pump coronary artery bypass despite a similar predicted risk. This robust finding was documented on sensitive CUSUM analysis, using standard statistical techniques and on a multivariable analysis of the independent predictors of hospital length of stay.(J Card Surg 2002;17:520-528) [source]


Combined biliary and gastric bypass procedures as effective palliation for unresectable malignant disease

ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 6 2009
Christopher D. Mann
Abstract Background:, Although endoscopic treatment of jaundice is increasingly used in the palliation of unresectable malignant disease, surgical bypass still has a role to play in this setting. This study aimed to reappraise the short-term and long-term results of combined biliary/gastric bypass (hepaticojejunostomy and gastrojejunostomy) as palliation for unresectable malignant disease. Methods:, All patients undergoing simultaneous biliary and gastric bypass procedures for unresectable malignant disease between August 2000 and January 2006 were identified and outcomes reviewed. Results:, One hundred and two patients underwent open surgical biliary drainage procedures for palliation of malignant disease. Underlying malignant disease included pancreatic carcinoma (n = 88), duodenal adenocarcinoma (n = 6) and distal cholangiocarcinoma (n = 3). Thirty-one of the patients underwent a planned palliative bypass procedure, the remainder being carried out after unresectable disease was identified at laparotomy. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates were higher in the group undergoing planned bypass. During follow up, two patients developed recurrent jaundice that required transhepatic stenting and two patients developed late gastric outlet obstruction requiring refashioning of the gastrojejunostomy. Conclusion:, Combined surgical biliary and gastric bypass achieved effective palliation of jaundice and gastric outlet obstruction until death in >95% of patients in this series. It remains first-line therapy in patients identified as having unresectable disease at laparotomy. [source]


DAMAGE CONTROL SURGERY AND ANGIOGRAPHY IN CASES OF ACUTE MESENTERIC ISCHAEMIA

ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 5 2005
Anthony J. Freeman
Background: Acute mesenteric arterial occlusion typically presents late and has an estimated mortality of 60,80%. This report examines the evolution of a novel management approach to this difficult surgical problem at a teaching hospital in rural Australia. Methods: A retrospective review of 20 consecutive cases that presented to Lismore Base Hospital, Lismore, New South Wales, between 1995 and 2003 was performed. Results: Of the 16 patients who were actively treated, 10 survived. Mortality was associated with attempting an emergency operative revascularisation and not performing a second-look laparotomy. All three patients who had a damage control approach at the initial operation survived and in four cases endovascular intervention successfully achieved reperfusion of acutely ischaemic bowel. Conclusions: Evidence from the series of patients described suggests that damage control surgery and early angiography improve survival in patients suffering acute mesenteric ischaemia. A damage control approach involves emergency resection of ischaemic bowel with no attempt to restore gastrointestinal continuity and formation of a laparostomy. Patients are stabilised in the intensive care unit (ICU) and angiography can be arranged to either plan a definitive bypass procedure or alternatively endovascular therapies can be carried out in an attempt to arrest gastrointestinal infarction. Definitive surgery is then considered after 2,3 days. This approach is particularly attractive if immediate specialist vascular expertise is not available. [source]


Colorectal cancer in the young: a 12-year review of patients 30 years or less

COLORECTAL DISEASE, Issue 3 2004
M. H. Kam
Abstract Objectives As the incidence of young colorectal cancer is rising, a review of the characteristics of such malignancy in those under 30 years of age is timely at this stage. Patients and methods Thirty-nine patients (21 M, 18 F) were operated upon over a 12-year period in a single centre. The mean age was 25 years and median follow-up was 20 months. Results Rectal bleeding, change in bowel habit and abdominal pain were the commonest symptoms. Six patients had a positive family history, while four others were diagnosed as index cases of familial adenomatous polyposis. Rectal tumours made up 43% of all colorectal cancers diagnosed. Seventy percent of patients presented at an advanced stage, but curative resection was attempted for 29 patients. Eight underwent palliative resections, 1 had an ileostomy while another underwent a bypass procedure. Eleven patients have died, 14 had no evidence of recurrent disease while 3 were still alive with recurrent disease. Conclusion Age does not affect survival, and early endoscopy is recommended for all with persistent symptoms. Early diagnosis, radical resection and adjuvant therapy still form the cornerstone in management of colorectal cancer in this age group. [source]


Does the Trainee's Level of Experience Impact on Patient Safety and Clinical Outcomes in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery?

JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 1 2008
L. Ray Guo M.D.
We designed this study to determine if there were any significant differences in patient demographics and clinical outcomes of coronary artery bypass procedures (CABG) performed by residents of PGY 4/lower, residents of PGY 5/6, fellows, or consultants. Methods: Standardized preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were prospectively collected and analyzed on 2906 isolated CABG procedures, performed between July 1999 and March 2006 with the primary surgeon prospectively classified as PGY4/lower, PGY5/6, fellow, and consultant. Results: The number of cases performed by residents of PGY4/lower, PGY5/6, fellows and consultants were 179, 263, 301, and 2163, respectively. Preoperative demographics and comorbidities were similar except PGY4/lower group had more diabetics and consultant group had more patients requiring IABP. More non-LIMA arterial conduits were used in the consultant and fellow groups. However, there were neither significant differences in the mean number of grafts nor in the composite postoperative morbidity, median ICU, and hospital lengths of stay. Observed in-hospital mortality was 2.2%, 1.5%, 1.7%, and 2.7% (p = 0.49), respectively. Conclusions: Preoperative patient demographics and operative data were similar in all groups except that patients requiring IABP preoperatively were more likely operated on by consultants and arterial revascularization was performed more commonly by consultants and fellows. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates were similar among all groups, thus demonstrating that with appropriate supervision, trainees of all levels can safely be taught CABG. [source]


Contribution of Nitric Oxide Synthase to Improved Early Graft Patency in Human Saphenous Vein Graft Harvested by a Novel ,No-Touch' Technique

JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 6 2002
JCS Tsui
Aim: Saphenous vein (SV) is the most commonly used conduit in bypass procedures but has a one-year occlusion rate of 15-30%. A new ,no-touch' technique where the SV is harvested with a cushion of surrounding tissue with no distension has led to improved early patency rates of 5% at 18-months. Nitric oxide (NO), synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has properties beneficial to graft patency. Our aim was to study the distribution of NOS in SV harvested by this technique and the effect of distension and removal of perivascular tissue on NOS content of SV. Methods: Following ethical committee approval and patients' informed consent, SVs were harvested from ten patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. A segment of vein was harvested by the conventional technique (surrounding tissue stripped and vein distended with saline); another part was stripped but not distended (,control') and the remaining parts harvested by the ,no-touch' technique. Samples of each segment were taken and transverse sections prepared for NOS identification using 3[H]L-NG nitroarginine (NO Arg) autoradiography and NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. NOS isoforms were studied using standard immunohistochemistry. Endothelial cells and nerves were also identified using immunohistochemistry with CD31 and NF200 respecitvely, to confirm sources of NOS. Morphometric analysis of NADPH-diaphorase staining was carried out to study tissue NOS content. Results: NO Arg binding representing NOS was preserved on the lumen of ,no-touch' vessels whilst that on conventional and control vessels was reduced. NOS was also localised to the medial smooth muscle cells of all vein segments and to the intact adventitia of ,no-touch' segments. This was confirmed by NADPH-diaphorase staining, which revealed a mean reduction of NOS by 19.5% (p < 0.05, ANOVA) in control segments due to stripping of surrounding tissue alone and a reduction of 35.5% (p < 0.01, AVNOVA) in conventional segments due to stripping and distension, compared to ,no-touch' segments. Adventitial NOS sources in ,no-touch' vessels corresponded to vasa vasorum and paravascular nerves. All three NOS isoforms contributed to the preserved NOS in ,no-touch' vessels. Conclusions: Apart from preserved lumenal NOS, NOS sources are also located in the media and adventitia of SV grafts. These are reduced by both adventitial damage and vein distension during conventional vein harvesting. The ,no-touch' technique avoids these procedures, preserving NOS sources. This may result in improved NO availability in SV harvested by this technique, contributing to the improved patency rates reported. [source]


Combined biliary and gastric bypass procedures as effective palliation for unresectable malignant disease

ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 6 2009
Christopher D. Mann
Abstract Background:, Although endoscopic treatment of jaundice is increasingly used in the palliation of unresectable malignant disease, surgical bypass still has a role to play in this setting. This study aimed to reappraise the short-term and long-term results of combined biliary/gastric bypass (hepaticojejunostomy and gastrojejunostomy) as palliation for unresectable malignant disease. Methods:, All patients undergoing simultaneous biliary and gastric bypass procedures for unresectable malignant disease between August 2000 and January 2006 were identified and outcomes reviewed. Results:, One hundred and two patients underwent open surgical biliary drainage procedures for palliation of malignant disease. Underlying malignant disease included pancreatic carcinoma (n = 88), duodenal adenocarcinoma (n = 6) and distal cholangiocarcinoma (n = 3). Thirty-one of the patients underwent a planned palliative bypass procedure, the remainder being carried out after unresectable disease was identified at laparotomy. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates were higher in the group undergoing planned bypass. During follow up, two patients developed recurrent jaundice that required transhepatic stenting and two patients developed late gastric outlet obstruction requiring refashioning of the gastrojejunostomy. Conclusion:, Combined surgical biliary and gastric bypass achieved effective palliation of jaundice and gastric outlet obstruction until death in >95% of patients in this series. It remains first-line therapy in patients identified as having unresectable disease at laparotomy. [source]


Improving the Clinical Patency of Prosthetic Vascular and Coronary Bypass Grafts: The Role of Seeding and Tissue Engineering

ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 4 2002
Alexander M. Seifalian
Abstract: In patients requiring coronary or peripheral vascular bypass procedures, autogenous vein is currently the conduit of choice. If this is unavailable, then a prosthetic material is used. Prosthetic graft is liable to fail due to occlusion of the graft. To prevent graft occlusion, seeding of the graft lumen with endothelial cells is undertaken. Recent advances have also looked at developing a completely artificial biological graft engineered from the patient's cells with properties similar to autogenous vessels. This review encompasses the developments in the two principal technologies used in developing hybrid coronary and peripheral vascular bypass grafts, that is, seeding and tissue engineering. [source]


Intestinal regeneration by a novel surgical procedure

BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 5 2008
S.-C. Jwo
Background: Treatment of short bowel syndrome is problematical. Small bowel tissue engineering has achieved modest results in animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate intestinal regeneration in a novel surgical model. Methods: Roux-en-Y bypass procedures were performed on 40 Wistar rats weighing 250,350 g. Animals were killed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks after implantation with a 3-cm silicone tube. The spatio temporal relationship of intestinal regeneration was analysed using three-dimensional multislice computed tomography, and examination of sequential morphological changes on gross or histological findings and measurement of missing intestinal tissue (growth defects). Results: Progressive intestinal regeneration on a silicone tube was identifiable in 35 animals. Most adhesions were initially localized on the tube but spread to a distal site 4 weeks after implantation. Growth defects decreased with time, with a marked reduction in the first 4 weeks and a gradual reduction to week 24 after implantation. Luminal patency shown radiologically as well as sequential histological findings, such as mucosal lining, matrix remodelling and muscular regeneration, suggested that regeneration of intestinal tissue took place, not merely scar contraction. Conclusion: Non-invasive as well as histomorphological assessment followed intestinal regeneration over time in this model, which provides scope for further studies. Copyright 2008 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Impact of angioplasty on infrainguinal bypass for critical ischaemia of the leg

BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 4 2001
D. Evoy
Background: Both angioplasty and infrainguinal bypass procedures may be used to achieve limb salvage in patients with critical ischaemia. The authors investigated the effect of the introduction of angioplasty on the frequency with which infrainguinal bypass was performed and, second, the changes in outcome of infrainguinal bypass following the introduction of angioplasty. Methods: All patients had critical ischaemia of the leg. Three patient groups were studied: 215 patients undergoing infrainguinal bypass before the introduction of angioplasty (1986,1991), 216 patients who had infrainguinal bypass after the introduction of angioplasty (1993,1998) and 193 patients undergoing angioplasty in the same 5-year interval (1993,1998). Results: The age and risk profile of the three groups was identical. The overall caseload increased by 19 per cent following the introduction of angioplasty. Primary and secondary patency rates were superior for bypass compared with angioplasty, but were similar for the two bypass groups (5-year primary patency rate 60 per cent versus 18-month primary patency rate 45 per cent; 5-year secondary patency rate 80 per cent versus 18-month secondary patency rate 60 per cent). By 18 months 26 per cent of patients having angioplasty had gone on to have bypass. The limb salvage rate of 90 per cent at 1 year was similar for all groups. Survival was significantly higher in the group of patients undergoing bypass from 1993 to 1998 compared with the other two groups (80 versus 60 per cent; P < 00002). Conclusion: The introduction of angioplasty has increased overall workload. Angioplasty has a lower patency rate than bypass but a comparable limb salvage rate, making it a suitable alternative to bypass in the management of patients with critical ischaemia. 2001 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd [source]