Bypass Grafting Surgery (bypass + grafting_surgery)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Bypass Grafting Surgery

  • artery bypass grafting surgery
  • coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

  • Selected Abstracts

    ACQUIRED CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Original Articles: A Prospective Observational Study to Compare Conventional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery with Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting on Basis of EuroSCORE

    Pawan Singhal M.Ch.
    Off-pump coronary bypass (OPCAB) surgery has become a widely used technique during recent years. EuroSCORE risk scale is the most rigorously evaluated scoring system in cardiac surgery to preoperatively quantify the risk of death and other serious postoperative complications. The aim of this prospective observational study was to compare the mortality and morbidity between OPCAB and conventional CABG in three major preoperative groups as assessed by EuroSCORE. Material and Method: All consecutive patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass surgery between January 2003 and December 2004 at Wellington Hospital were included. In this period, 347 patients had conventional CABG and 254 patients had OPCAB. Data were prospectively collected according to Australasian Society of Cardiothoracic Surgeons' cardiac surgery data set. The preoperative additive EuroSCORE was computed in each patient and the patients were divided into three risk groups. Results of OPCAB and conventional CABG were compared on basis of EuroSCORE group. Results: OPCAB surgery is preferably performed in patients with low-risk. OPCAB group had lesser number of grafts per patient. When adjusted with risk score, there was no statistically significant difference in mortality in any of the three groups. No significant difference was found for stroke, renal dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, re-exploration for bleeding, deep sternal wound infection, or pulmonary complications in either of three groups. However, inotropic requirement and requirements of blood products were less in OPCAB group. Conclusion: OPCAB does not offer any significant advantage in terms of mortality and morbidity over conventional CABG.,(J Card Surg 2010;25:495-500) [source]

    Effects of Minimal Dose Aprotinin on Blood Loss and Fibrinolytic System-Complement Activation in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

    Ferit Cicekcioglu M.D.
    Methods: Forty-four patients scheduled for primary CABG were randomly assigned to the aprotinin (n = 24) or control group (n = 20). In aprotinin group, aprotinin was administered in two equal doses (before skin incision and added to the pump prime). Ventilation time, intensive care unit stay, mediastinal tube drainage, hospitalization, transfusion requirements, and postoperative morbidities and mortality were noted. Hematologic markers of fibrinolytic activity and complement activation were also measured pre- and postoperatively. Results: Although less mediastinal drainage occurred in aprotinin group, the difference was not statistically significant. Other postoperative variables like transfusion requirements, morbidities, and mortality were also found to be similar between groups. Among hematologic parameters, only postoperative levels of ,2-antiplasmin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were significantly higher in aprotinin group. Conclusions: Although plasmin inhibitors begin to rise at this very low aprotinin dosage, it is not advisable to use this aprotinin regimen in CABG patients. [source]

    Meta-analysis comparing clinical effectiveness of drug-eluting stents, bare metal stents and coronary artery bypass surgery

    Eun-Hwan Oh PhD MPH MHA BA
    Abstract Objective, To compare clinical outcomes among patients receiving drug-eluting stents, bare metal stents, or coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) to treat coronary artery disease. Data sources, Randomised controlled trials were systematically selected from electronic database for head-to-head comparisons. The results from these head-to-head comparisons were used for an adjusted indirect comparison. Methods, Published randomised controlled trials were reviewed for outcome data in patients treated for coronary artery disease with drug-eluting stents, bare metal stents, or CABG. Head-to-head comparisons were conducted for drug-eluting stents versus bare metal stents and for CABG versus bare metal stents. Adjusted indirect comparison was used to compare drug-eluting stents and CABG. Mid-term clinical outcomes (range: 6,12 months) were investigated and included rates of mortality, myocardial infarction, thrombosis, target lesion revascularisation, target vessel revascularisation, restenosis and major adverse cardiac events. Results, Systematic literature search identified 23 randomised controlled trials (15 for drug-eluting stents vs. bare metal stents, 8 for CABG vs. bare metal stents). Head-to-head comparisons for both single and multiple vessel disease demonstrated that compared with bare metal stents, drug-eluting stents had better outcomes for target lesion revascularisation, target vessel revascularisation, restenosis and major adverse cardiac events. Except target lesion revascularisation, data were similarly favourable for CABG when compared with bare metal stents. Adjusted indirect comparison between drug-eluting stents and CABG in single vessel disease failed to detect significant differences in any of the measured outcomes. Multiple vessel disease data analysis demonstrated that target vessel revascularisation (odds ratio 3.41 [95% CI 2.29,5.08]) and major adverse cardiac events (1.89 [1.28,2.79]) were superior to drug-eluting stents in patients undergoing CABG. Conclusions, Drug-eluting stents and CABG were superior to bare metal stents in terms of target lesion revascularisation (drug-eluting stents only), target vessel revascularisation, restenosis and major adverse cardiac events. There was no difference in clinical outcomes when comparing CABG and drug-eluting stents in patients with single vessel disease, and CABG may be superior to drug-eluting stents for target vessel revascularisation and major adverse cardiac events in patients with multiple vessel disease. However, results may vary between subpopulations with different clinical or socioeconomic differences. [source]

    Preoperative Electrocardiographic Risk Assessment of Atrial Fibrillation After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Ph.D., YI GANG M.D.
    Introduction: This study evaluated the role of surface ECG in assessment of risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). Methods and Results: One hundred fifty-one patients (126 men and 25 women; age 65 ± 10 years) without a history of AF undergoing primary elective and isolated CABG were studied. Standard 12-lead ECGs and P wave signal-averaged ECG (PSAE) were recorded 24 hours before CABG using a MAC VU ECG recorder. In addition to routine ECG measurements, two P wave (P wave complexity ratio [pCR]; P wave morphology dispersion [PMD]) and six T wave morphology descriptors (total cosine R to T [TCRT]; T wave morphology dispersion of ascending and descending part of the T wave [aTMD and dTMD], and others), and three PSAE indices (filtered P wave duration [PD]; root mean square voltage of terminal 20 msec of averaged P wave [RMS20]; and integral of P wave [Pi]) were investigated. During a mean hospital stay of 7.3 ± 6.2 days after CABG, 40 (26%) patients developed AF (AF group) and 111 remained AF-free (no AF group). AF patients were older (69 ± 9 years vs 64 ± 10 years, P = 0.005). PD (135 ± 9 msec vs 133 ± 12 msec, P = NS) and RMS20 (4.5 ± 1.7 ,V vs 4.0 ± 1.6 ,V, P = NS) in AF were similar to that in no AF, whereas Pi was significantly increased in AF (757 ± 230 ,Vmsec vs 659 ± 206 ,Vmsec, P = 0.007). Both pCR (32 ± 11 vs 27 ± 10) and PMD (31.5 ± 14.0 vs 26.4 ± 12.3) were significantly greater in AF (P = 0.012 and 0.048, respectively). TCRT (0.028 ± 0.596 vs 0.310 ± 0.542, P = 0.009) and dTMD (0.63 ± 0.03 vs 0.64 ± 0.02, P = 0.004) were significantly reduced in AF compared with no AF. Measurements of aTMD and three other T wave descriptors were similar in AF and no AF. Significant variables by univariate analysis, including advanced age (P = 0.014), impaired left ventricular function (P = 0.02), greater Pi (P = 0.012), and lower TCRT (P = 0.007) or dTMD, were entered into multiple logistic regression models. Increased Pi (P = 0.038), reduced TCRT (P = 0.040), and lower dTMD (P = 0.014) predicted AF after CABG independently. In patients <70 years, a linear combination of increased pCR and lower TCRT separated AF and no AF with a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 62% (P = 0.005). Conclusion: ECG assessment identifies patients vulnerable to AF after CABG. Combination of ECG parameters assessed preoperatively may play an important role in predicting new-onset AF after CABG. [source]

    The Immune,Endocrine Interaction Varies with the Duration of the Inflammatory Process in Cardiac Surgery Patients

    A. Roth-Isigkeit
    The present study investigated the perioperative course of cytokine release and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation in relation to the duration of the inflammatory response in cardiac surgery patients. Twelve male patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and general anaesthesia were divided into two study groups: group 1 (n=6) underwent surgery at 13.00 h±30 min, group 2 (n=6) at 08.30 h±50 min. Blood samples were collected preoperatively and up to the first postoperative day. Postoperatively, on the day of surgery, serum concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)- , were not significantly different between the two groups, while blood concentrations of cortisol, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and , -endorphin in group 2 patients were significantly higher than in group 1 patients. Postoperatively, on the day of surgery, ACTH and cortisol concentrations in group 1 patients were positively correlated to the blood concentrations of IL-1,, IL-6 and TNF- ,. By contrast, group 2 patients showed no significant relationship between cytokine release and activation of HPA axis at this time. Our results suggest that in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, the cytokine response is initiated before the HPA axis is fully activated. In the early postoperative period, cytokines appear to be involved in the activation of the HPA axis, while in the later postoperative period, high cortisol concentrations may inhibit the release of IL-6. [source]

    Dexmedetomidine during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: is it neuroprotective?

    A preliminary study
    Background:, In the present study, we aimed to determine whether during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, dexmedetomidine has protective effects against cerebral ischemic injury. Method:, Twenty-four patients, aged 50,70 years, undergoing CABG surgery were randomized into two groups of 12 patients each: those receiving dexmedetomidine (group D) and those not receiving it (group C). As basal blood samples from arterial and jugular bulb catheters were drawn, dexmedetomidine (1 ,g/kg bolus and infusion at a rate of 0.7 ,g/kg/h) was administered to patients in group D. Arterial and jugular venous blood gas analyses, serum S-100B protein (S-100B), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and lactate measurements were performed after induction, 10 min after the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), 1 min after declamping, at the end of CPB, at the end of the operation and 24 h after surgery. Mann,Whitney U - and Wilcoxon's tests were used for statistical analyses. Results:, No significant between-group differences were found regarding arterial and jugular venous pH, PO2, PCO2 and O2 saturations. S-100B, NSE and lactate levels were also similar between groups D and C. During the post-operative period, there were no clinically overt neurological complications in any patient. Conclusion:, Cerebral ischemia marker (S-100B, NSE, lactate) patterns were as expected during CPB; however, there were no differences between the groups, which led us to believe that during CABG surgery dexmedetomidine has no neuroprotective effects. Future studies with larger populations are recommended to further establish the effects of this drug. [source]

    Initial Experience with a New Right Ventricular Support Device for Beating Heart Surgery

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 1 2004
    Ferdinand Kuhn-Régnier
    Abstract:, Objective: Device supported beating heart surgery has been advocated to extend patient selection criteria for off-pump surgery. This article reports the initial experimental and clinical results with a novel paracardial right ventricular support device. Methods: Preclinical experiments were performed in two pigs. Ten elective patients with triple vessel disease were subjected to beating heart coronary artery bypass grafting surgery during right ventricular support by the paracardial device. Measurements included intraoperative hemodynamics during cardiac tilting, perioperative left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), hemolysis parameters, mortality and major morbidity events. Results: A mean of 3.2 ± 0.2 distal anastomoses per patient were performed. Mean arterial pressure and central venous oxygen saturation remained stable during cardiac tilting. Perioperative LVEF did not vary significantly. Sixty-day mortality and postoperative infarction rate were 0%. Functional Canadian Cardiovascular Society class at 6 days after surgery was 1.2 ± 0.1 vs. 3.3 ± 0.2 pre-operatively. Conclusion: In this initial clinical experience, application of the novel paracardial right ventricular support device proved ,to be safe and efficient. [source]

    Beyond peripheral arteries in Buerger's disease: Angiographic considerations in thromboangiitis obliterans

    Bobbi Hoppe MD
    Abstract Thromboangiitis obliterans is an inflammatory peripheral vascular disease that is strongly associated with smoking. It predominantly affects distal small- and medium-sized blood vessels of both the upper and lower extremities. We present histological evidence of this disease process affecting the internal mammary arteries. This can be of paramount clinical significance for patients with Buerger's disease who present with obstructive coronary artery disease and require coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). Internal mammary arteries involved with thromboangiitis obliterans cannot be utilized as arterial conduits during CABG and other alternatives have to be used. Therefore, we recommend preoperative angiography of both internal mammary arteries in patients with Buerger's disease requiring CABG to prevent extensive intraoperative dissection of diseased internal mammary arteries. Cathet Cardiovasc Intervent 2002;57:363,366. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]