Bypass Grafting (bypass + grafting)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Bypass Grafting

  • artery bypass grafting
  • coronary artery bypass grafting
  • elective coronary artery bypass grafting
  • off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

  • Terms modified by Bypass Grafting

  • bypass grafting surgery

  • Selected Abstracts


    P. Singhal
    Introduction In Wellington Hospital, CABG is being performed by various techniques like OPCAB, On-pump cardioplegic arrest, fibrillatory arrest and On-pump beating heart. Aim This study was undertaken to compare morbidity and mortality between On- pump CABG and OPCAB on basis of Euroscore. Material and Method From January 2003 till December 2004, data were collected according to Australasian society of Cardiothoracic surgery data set. Euroscores were calculated and patients were divided into 3 groups. Results of OPCAB and On-pump CABG were compared on basis of Euroscore group. In this period we performed 350 On-pump CABG and 254 OPCAB. Results OPCAB group had less number of grafts per patients. Even for triple vessel disease numbers of grafts were lower in OPCAB group. OPCAB group had more patients with total arterial revascularization. There were 10 deaths in On-pump group and 1 in OPCAB group. In the low and moderate risk group there was no significant difference in hospital stay, ventilation hours and ICU stay. However inotropic requirement and requirements of blood products were less in OPCAB group. There was no statistically significant difference between Incidence of new renal failure or arrhythmia in two groups. 2 patients in each group had blocked graft in immediate postop period and required revascularization. There were only 5 patients in the high-risk group in OPCAB making intergroup comparisons difficult. Conclusion OPCAB does not offer any significant advantage in terms of mortality and morbidity over On-pump CABG. To evaluate the effects of number of grafts and total arterial revascularization, it needs a long-term follow-up. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 9 2006
    Brian F. Buxton
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Developing as a Late Complication of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting with Apicoseptal Plication

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2005
    Ozcan Ozeke M.D.
    Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is a false aneurysm, which results from a left ventricle rupture contained by adherent pericardium or scar tissue. The most common etiology of left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is acute myocardial infarction but one-third of pseudoaneurysms develop following surgery. We present a case report of a patient who developed a false aneurysm of the left ventricle 2 months following surgical repair of a left ventricular aneurysm with a concomitant coronary bypass. [source]

    ACQUIRED CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Original Articles: A Prospective Observational Study to Compare Conventional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery with Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting on Basis of EuroSCORE

    Pawan Singhal M.Ch.
    Off-pump coronary bypass (OPCAB) surgery has become a widely used technique during recent years. EuroSCORE risk scale is the most rigorously evaluated scoring system in cardiac surgery to preoperatively quantify the risk of death and other serious postoperative complications. The aim of this prospective observational study was to compare the mortality and morbidity between OPCAB and conventional CABG in three major preoperative groups as assessed by EuroSCORE. Material and Method: All consecutive patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass surgery between January 2003 and December 2004 at Wellington Hospital were included. In this period, 347 patients had conventional CABG and 254 patients had OPCAB. Data were prospectively collected according to Australasian Society of Cardiothoracic Surgeons' cardiac surgery data set. The preoperative additive EuroSCORE was computed in each patient and the patients were divided into three risk groups. Results of OPCAB and conventional CABG were compared on basis of EuroSCORE group. Results: OPCAB surgery is preferably performed in patients with low-risk. OPCAB group had lesser number of grafts per patient. When adjusted with risk score, there was no statistically significant difference in mortality in any of the three groups. No significant difference was found for stroke, renal dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, re-exploration for bleeding, deep sternal wound infection, or pulmonary complications in either of three groups. However, inotropic requirement and requirements of blood products were less in OPCAB group. Conclusion: OPCAB does not offer any significant advantage in terms of mortality and morbidity over conventional CABG.,(J Card Surg 2010;25:495-500) [source]

    Results of Treatment Methods in Cardiac Arrest Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Mehmet R. Guney M.D.
    We evaluated the short- and long-term consequences of these two methods and discussed the indications for re-revascularization. Methods: Between 1998 and 2004, a total of 148 CABG patients, who were complicated with cardiac arrest, were treated with emergency re-revascularization (n = 36, group R) and ICU procedures (n = 112, group ICU). Re-revascularizations are mostly blind operations depending on clinical/hemodynamic criteria. These are: no response to resuscitation, recurrent tachycardia/fibrillation, and severe hemodynamic instability after resuscitation. Re-angiography could only be performed in 3.3% of the patients. Event-free survival of the groups was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Events are: death, recurrent angina, myocardial infarction, functional capacity, and reintervention. Results: Seventy percent of patients, who were complicated with cardiac arrest, had perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI). This rate was significantly higher in group R (p = 0.013). The major finding in group R was graft occlusion (91.6%). During in-hospital period, no difference was observed in mortality rates between the two groups. However, hemodynamic stabilization time (p = 0.012), duration of hospitalization (p = 0.00006), and mechanical support use (p = 0.003) significantly decreased by re-revascularization. During the mean 37.1 25.1 months of follow-up period, long-term mortality (p = 0.03) and event-free survival (p = 0.029) rates were significantly in favor of group R. Conclusion: Better short- and long-term results were observed in the re-revascularization group. [source]

    Harvesting of the Radial Artery for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Comparison of Ultrasonic Harmonic Scalpel Dissector with the Conventional Technique

    Hosam F. Fawzy M.D.
    We started routine use of the ultrasonic dissecting scalpel in harvesting radial arteries aiming to minimize harvesting time, improve graft quality, and reduce wound complications. Methods: Radial artery harvesting technique using harmonic scalpel (HS; 43 patients) was compared with the conventional technique (Hemostatic clips and scissors; 53 patients). To avoid spasm, the radial artery was not skeletonized and papaverine was used to irrigate radial artery routinely in all patients. Results: Compared to the conventional technique, radial artery harvesting using the HS has a significantly shorter harvesting time (25 minutes vs. 50 minutes, p < 0.001) and required a significantly smaller number of hemostatic clips (3 vs. 40, p < 0.001). In situ free blood flow was significantly higher in HS group (80 mL/min vs. 40 mL/min, p < 0.001). There was no forearm wound infection in the HS group. There was no graft failure, reoperation for bleeding, or hand ischemia with the use of either technique. Conclusion: Harvesting the radial artery using the HS is less time consuming and decreased the use of hemostatic clips rather atraumatic with good quality graft. [source]

    The Right Gastroepiploic Artery in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Hideki Sasaki M.D.
    Although some reports presenting good results justify its use in clinical settings, there is still much concern about using the RGEA in bypass surgery. The RGEA demonstrates different behaviors from the internal thoracic artery (ITA) in bypass surgery due to its histological characteristics and anatomical difference, which might contribute to the long-term outcome. Now that left ITA (LITA) to left anterior descending artery (LAD) is the gold standard, other grafts are expected to cover the rest of the coronary arteries. It should be elucidated how we can use other grafts and what we can expect from them. RGEA, as an arterial graft, can be used as an in situ graft or a free graft. The RGEA is mainly used to graft to the right coronary artery (RCA) because of its anatomical position, and its patency is not inferior to that of the saphenous vein (SVG). The RGEA can cover the lateral walls when its length is long enough or by making a composite graft with other grafts. However, when used to graft to the LAD, its mid-term patency is not favorable. [source]

    The Clinical Noncompliance of Oral Sotalol/Magnesium for Prophylactic Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Giovanni Mariscalco M.D.
    The present aim was to study the clinical compliance of a suggested prophylactic treatment, oral sotalol, and magnesium. Methods: Coronary-bypass patients without clinical contraindications to receive oral sotalol (80 mg twice daily) and magnesium supplementation were enrolled (n = 49) with an intention-to-treat strategy and being compared with a matched control group (n = 844). A protocol listed exclusion criteria of clinical compliance that was postoperatively evaluated prior to and during treatment. Results: Twenty-seven of the 49 enrolled patients (55%) were compliant to sustain the treatment according to the protocol. The remaining patients were postoperatively excluded, mainly because of hemodynamic reasons, of whom 14 were noncompliant to initiate any treatment. The AF occurrence in the compliant group was 7% versus 36% in noncompliant patients (p = 0.035), and 24% in the control group (p = 0.076). However, with an intention-to-treat policy the overall AF incidence became 18%. The subgroups of enrolled patients demonstrated skewing phenomena. The noncompliant group had higher requirement for inotropic support (p = 0.029) and longer aortic cross-clamp time (p = 0.048) compared to compliant patients. Further, the body weight of noncompliant patients was markedly lower than in the compliant counterpart (p = 0.015). Conclusions: The tested treatment protocol showed limited compliance among routine cardiac-surgery patients, and further, introduced a biased selection of patients that skewed the results and may have partly explained the treatment effect. [source]

    Transient Beneficial Effects of Glutamate-Aspartate-Enriched Cardioplegia on Ventricular Functions in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    mit Duman M.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Elective Intraaortic Balloon Counterpulsation in High-Risk Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Hunaid A. Vohra M.R.C.S.
    However, the benefits of insertion of IABP electively in high-risk off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) have not been established. Six hundred and twenty-five patients who underwent OPCAB form the study group. High-risk patients fulfilling two or more of the following: left main stem stenosis >70%, unstable angina, and poor left ventricular function, who had elective insertion of IABP preoperatively by the open technique (group I; n = 20) were compared with a similar high-risk group that did not (group II; n = 25). There were no significant differences in risk factors between the two groups (Euroscore 5.68). The mean number of grafts was similar. Postoperatively, there were no significant differences in the need for inotropes, duration of ventilation, arrhythmias, cerebrovascular, gastrointestinal, and infective complications (p = NS). There were no IABP-related complications. Acute renal failure requiring hemofiltration was higher in group II (n = 5; p < 0.05). Four patients (16%) in group II required postoperative IABP. Although intensive care stay was longer in group I (27.6 15.3 vs. 18.6 9.1 hours; p < 0.05), patients in group I were discharged earlier from hospital. There was no difference in mortality between the two groups (n = 1 in each group). In high-risk patients undergoing OPCAB, routine preoperative insertion of IABP electively reduces the incidence of acute renal failure. In addition it avoids the need for emergency insertion postoperatively and may result in earlier discharge. [source]

    Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in a Patient with Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia

    Jon G. Ryckman M.D.
    First described by Dr. Glanzmann in 1918, the disorder is characterized clinically by mucocutaneous bleeding and physiologically by absent platelet aggregation to collagen, epinephrine, and adenosine diphosphate stimulation. While there are multiple reports of patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia undergoing surgery, to our knowledge there has been no report of a patient with Glanzmann's undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. We present the first such report of a patient who successfully underwent operative coronary artery revascularization, and offer suggestions for future management of these patients. [source]

    Myocardial Protection in Reoperative Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting:

    Mortality, Toward Decreasing Morbidity
    Myocardial infarction and dysfunction contribute significantly to the increased risk of redo CABG. Results of reoperative coronary surgery have gradually improved, largely because of improvements in myocardial protection techniques. In the present review we will highlight the principles of myocardial protection in redo CABG patients with an emphasis on retrograde cardioplegia. [source]

    Compression of Mediastinal Structures Treated by Extra-Anatomic Bypass Grafting

    Lynn Fedoruk M.D.
    Here we describe the use of an extra-anatomic bypass graft from the ascending to supraceliac aorta to treat an unusual complication of compression of mediastinal structures caused by a bucket handle graft. [source]

    Multivessel Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Can Be Taught to Trainee Surgeons

    David Jenkins F.R.C.S.
    The purpose of this study was to address the reproducibility of the OPCAB in a unit where this technique is used extensively. Methods: Registry data, notes, and charts of 64 patients who were operated on by four trainee cardiac surgeons over a period of thirteen months at Harefield Hospital, were reviewed retrospectively. These trainees were part of an accredited training program for cardiothoracic training and were trained by a single consultant trainer in a cardiac unit after it had an established recent experience in performing nonselective OPCAB for all in-coming patients. Five (7.8%) patients (with 17 distal anastomoses) consented and underwent early postoperative angiography to check the quality of the grafts and anastomoses. Results: The mean age of the study patients was 65.6 and the mean Parsonnet score was 9.4. There was a mean of 2.9 grafts per patient and circumflex territory anastomoses were performed in 48 (75%) patients. No operation required conversion to Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB). Angiography of the five patients revealed 17 satisfactory (100%) distal anastomoses. Conclusion: With appropriate training, it is possible for trainees to learn OPCAB and perform multivessel revascularization in relatively high-risk patients with good results. [source]

    Teaching Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting to Cardiothoracic Trainees

    Hassan Yazdian Tehrani M.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Effect of Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting on Risk-Adjusted and Cumulative Sum Failure Outcomes After Coronary Artery Surgery

    Richard J. Novick M.D.
    We therefore applied CUSUM, as well as standard statistical techniques, to analyze a surgeon's experience with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) and on-pump procedures to determine whether the two techniques have similar or different outcomes. Methods: In 320 patients undergoing nonemergent, first time coronary artery bypass grafting, preoperative patient characteristics, rates of mortality and major complications, and ICU and hospital lengths of stay were compared between the on-pump and OPCAB cohorts using Fisher's exact tests and Wilcoxon two sample tests. Predicted mortality and length of stay were determined using previously validated models of the Cardiac Care Network of Ontario. Observed versus expected ratios of both variables were calculated for the two types of procedures. Furthermore, CUSUM curves were constructed for the on-pump and OPCAB cohorts. A multivariable analysis of the predictors of hospital length of stay was also performed to determine whether the type of coronary artery bypass procedure had an independent impact on this variable. Results: The predicted mortality risk and predicted hospital length of stay were almost identical in the 208 on-pump patients ( 2.2 3.9% ; 8.2 2.5 days) and the 112 OPCAB patients ( 2.0 2.2% ; 7.8 2.1 days). The incidence of hospital mortality and postoperative stroke were 2.9% and 2.4% in on-pump patients versus zero in OPCAB patients (p= 0.09 and 0.17, respectively). Mechanical ventilation for greater than 48 hours was significantly less common in OPCAB (1.8%) than in on-pump patients (7.7%, p= 0.04). The rate of 10 major complications was 14.9% in on-pump versus 8.0% in OPCAB patients (p= 0.08). OPCAB patients experienced a hospital length of stay that was a median of 1.0 day shorter than on-pump patients (p= 0.01). The observed versus expected ratio for length of stay was 0.78 in OPCAB patients versus 0.95 in on-pump patients. On CUSUM analysis, the failure curve in OPCAB patients was negative and was flatter than that of on-pump patients throughout the duration of the study. Furthermore, OPCAB was an independent predictor of a reduced hospital length of stay on multivariable analysis. Conclusions: OPCAB was associated with better outcomes than on-pump coronary artery bypass despite a similar predicted risk. This robust finding was documented on sensitive CUSUM analysis, using standard statistical techniques and on a multivariable analysis of the independent predictors of hospital length of stay.(J Card Surg 2002;17:520-528) [source]

    PEEP Therapy for Patients With Pleurotomy During Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Susumu Ishikawa M.D.
    We studied the efficacy of intraoperative positive end-expiratory airway pressure (PEEP) therapy for the prevention of postoperative pulmonary oxygenation impairment. A total of 66 patients with solitary CABG procedure were included in this study. The pleural cavity was intraoperatively opened in 44 patients and not opened in 22. PEEP therapy was not used in any patient before May 1996 (referred to herein as the former period) and was used more recently in eight patients with pleurotomy (referred to herein as the latter period). PEEP was initiated immediately after pleurotomy during the harvest of the internal mammary artery graft. Without PEEP therapy, values of PaO2, A-aDO2, and respiratory index (RI) were worse in patients with pleurotomy than in those without pleurotomy. Meanwhile, there were no major differences in these values between patients with or without pleurotomy after the induction of PEEP therapy. Respiratory insufficiency (A-aDO2 > 400 mmHg and RI > 1.5) was detected in six patients with pleurotomy in the former period. Three of these six patients required over 1 week of long-term mechanical respiratory support. No respiratory insufficiency occurred in patients of the latter period. In conclusion, PEEP therapy, which is initiated just after pleurotomy, may prevent oxygen impairment and pulmonary atelectasis after extracorporeal circulation (ECC) and is recommended for patients with pleurotomy, especially for patients with preoperative low respiratory function. [source]

    Preoperative Electrocardiographic Risk Assessment of Atrial Fibrillation After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Ph.D., YI GANG M.D.
    Introduction: This study evaluated the role of surface ECG in assessment of risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). Methods and Results: One hundred fifty-one patients (126 men and 25 women; age 65 10 years) without a history of AF undergoing primary elective and isolated CABG were studied. Standard 12-lead ECGs and P wave signal-averaged ECG (PSAE) were recorded 24 hours before CABG using a MAC VU ECG recorder. In addition to routine ECG measurements, two P wave (P wave complexity ratio [pCR]; P wave morphology dispersion [PMD]) and six T wave morphology descriptors (total cosine R to T [TCRT]; T wave morphology dispersion of ascending and descending part of the T wave [aTMD and dTMD], and others), and three PSAE indices (filtered P wave duration [PD]; root mean square voltage of terminal 20 msec of averaged P wave [RMS20]; and integral of P wave [Pi]) were investigated. During a mean hospital stay of 7.3 6.2 days after CABG, 40 (26%) patients developed AF (AF group) and 111 remained AF-free (no AF group). AF patients were older (69 9 years vs 64 10 years, P = 0.005). PD (135 9 msec vs 133 12 msec, P = NS) and RMS20 (4.5 1.7 ,V vs 4.0 1.6 ,V, P = NS) in AF were similar to that in no AF, whereas Pi was significantly increased in AF (757 230 ,Vmsec vs 659 206 ,Vmsec, P = 0.007). Both pCR (32 11 vs 27 10) and PMD (31.5 14.0 vs 26.4 12.3) were significantly greater in AF (P = 0.012 and 0.048, respectively). TCRT (0.028 0.596 vs 0.310 0.542, P = 0.009) and dTMD (0.63 0.03 vs 0.64 0.02, P = 0.004) were significantly reduced in AF compared with no AF. Measurements of aTMD and three other T wave descriptors were similar in AF and no AF. Significant variables by univariate analysis, including advanced age (P = 0.014), impaired left ventricular function (P = 0.02), greater Pi (P = 0.012), and lower TCRT (P = 0.007) or dTMD, were entered into multiple logistic regression models. Increased Pi (P = 0.038), reduced TCRT (P = 0.040), and lower dTMD (P = 0.014) predicted AF after CABG independently. In patients <70 years, a linear combination of increased pCR and lower TCRT separated AF and no AF with a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 62% (P = 0.005). Conclusion: ECG assessment identifies patients vulnerable to AF after CABG. Combination of ECG parameters assessed preoperatively may play an important role in predicting new-onset AF after CABG. [source]

    Underutilization of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators Post Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with Systolic Dysfunction

    Background: Evaluation of the need for prophylactic internal cardiac defibrillators among patients with ischemic cardiomyopathies should be deferred until at least 3 months after revascularization procedures to allow adequate time for recovery of ventricular function. Methods: Among patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the proportion of patients who are risk stratified postoperatively with reassessment of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is unknown. Results: One hundred and six patients with LVSD (LVEF < 40%) who underwent CABG during 2004,2006 and survived 3 months post CABG were evaluated. Follow-up was assessed by chart review and telephone contact. LVEF was not reassessed in 24% (25/106) of the population, none of whom underwent internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Of those with LVEF reassessed, persistent LVSD was present in 20/81 (25%), 12 of whom were referred for prophylactic ICD placement. Conclusion: One-fourth of patients with LVSD who undergo CABG do not have LVEF reassessed postoperatively which may lead to underutilization of ICDs. (PACE 2010; 33:727,733) [source]

    Feasibility Of Temporary Biventricular Pacing In Patients With Reduced Left Ventricular Function After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Background and Methods: Biventricular pacing improves hemodynamics after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with severely reduced left ventricular (LV) function undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We examined the feasibility of temporary biventricular pacing for 96 hours postoperatively. Unipolar epicardial wires were placed on the roof of the right atrium (RA), the right ventricular (RV) outflow tract, and the LV free lateral wall and connected to an external pacing device in 51 patients (mean LV ejection fraction 35 4%). Pacing and sensing thresholds, lead survival and incidence of pacemaker dysfunction were determined. Results: Atrial and RV pacing thresholds increased significantly by the 4th postoperative day, from 1.6 0.2 to 2.5 0.3 V at 0.5 ms (P = 0.03) at the RA, 1.4 0.3 V to 2.7 0.4 mV (P = 0.01) at the RV, and 1.9 0.6 V to 2.9 0.7 mV (P = 0.3) at the LV, while sensing thresholds decreased from 2.0 0.2 to 1.7 0.2 mV (P = 0.18) at the RA, 7.2 0.8 to 5.1 0.7 mV (P = 0.05) at the RV, and 9.4 1.3 to 5.5 1.1 mV (P = 0.02) at the LV. The cumulative overall incidence of lead failure was 24% by the 4th postoperative day, and was similar at the RV and LV. We observed no ventricular proarrhythmia due to pacing or temporary pacemaker malfunction. Conclusions: Biventricular pacing after CABG using a standard external pacing system was feasible and safe. [source]

    Beating-Heart Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting With Miniaturized Cardiopulmonary Bypass Results in a More Complete Revascularization When Compared to Off-Pump Grafting

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 3 2010
    Delawer Reber
    Abstract The technique of miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass (M-CPB) for beating-heart coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is relatively new and has potential advantages when compared to conventional cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). M-CPB consists of less tubing length and requires less priming volume. The system is phosphorylcholine coated and results in minimal pump-related inflammatory response and organ injury. Finally, this technique combines the advantages of the off-pump CABG (OPCAB) with the better exposure provided by CPB to facilitate complete revascularization. The hypothesis is that CABG with M-CPB has a better outcome in terms of complete coronary revascularization and perioperative results as that compared to off-pump CABG (OPCAB). In a retrospective study, 302 patients underwent beating-heart CABG, 117 (39%) of them with the use of M-CPB and 185 (61%) with OPCAB. After propensity score matching 62 patients in both groups were demographically similar. The most important intra- and early-postoperative parameters were analyzed. Endpoints were hospital mortality and complete revascularization. Hospital mortality was comparable between the groups. The revascularization was significantly more complete in M-CPB patients than in patients in the OPCAB group. Beating-heart CABG with M-CPB is a safe procedure and it provides an optimal operative exposure with significantly more complete coronary revascularization when compared to OPCAB. Beating-heart CABG with the support of a M-CPB is the operation of choice when total coronary revascularization is needed. [source]

    Beneficial Effect of Preventative Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping in High-Risk Patients Undergoing First-Time Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting,A Single Center Experience

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 8 2009
    Qingcheng Gong
    Abstract Although intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) has been used widely as a routine cardiac assist device for perioperative support in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the optimal timing for high-risk patients undergoing first-time CABG using IABP is unknown. The purpose of this investigation is to compare preoperative and preventative IABP insertion with intraoperative or postoperative obligatory IABP insertion in high-risk patients undergoing first-time CABG. We reviewed our IABP patients' database from 2002 to 2007; there were 311 CABG patients who received IABP treatment perioperatively. Of 311 cases, 41 high-risk patients who had first-time on-pump or off-pump CABG (presenting with three or more of the following criteria: left ventricular ejection fraction less than 0.45, unstable angina, CABG combined with aneurysmectomy, or left main stenosis greater than 70%) entered the study. We compared perioperatively the clinical results of 20 patients who underwent preoperative IABP placement (Group 1) with 21 patients who had obligatory IABP placement intraoperatively or postoperatively during CABG (Group 2). There were no differences in preoperative risk factors, except left ventricular aneurysm resection, between the two groups. There were no differences in indications for high-risk patients between the two groups. The mean number of grafts was similar. There were no significant differences in the need for inotropes, or in cerebrovascular, gastrointestinal, renal, and infective complications postoperatively. There were no IABP-related complications in either group. Major adverse cardiac event (severe hypotension and/or shock, myocardial infarction, and severe hemodynamic instability) was higher in Group 2 (14 [66.4%] vs. 1 [5%], P < 0.0001) during surgery. The time of IABP pumping in Group 1 was shorter than in Group 2 (72.5 28.9 h vs. 97.5 47.7 h, P < 0.05). The duration of ventilation and intensive care unit stay in Group 1 was significantly shorter than in Group 2, respectively (22.0 1.6 h vs. 39.6 2.1 h, P < 0.01 and 58.0 1.5 h vs. 98.5 1.9 h, P < 0.005). There were no differences in mortality between the two groups (n = 1 in Group 1 and n = 3 in Group 2). Preoperative and preventative insertion of IABP can be performed safely in selected high-risk patients undergoing CABG, with results comparable to those in patients who received obligatory IABP intraoperatively and postoperatively. Therefore, earlier IABP support as part of surgical strategy may help to improve the outcome in high-risk first-time CABG patients. [source]

    Cooling Device for Bradycardia Based on Peltier Element for Accurate Anastomosis of Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 10 2002
    Yukio Kuniyoshi
    Abstract: Upon introducing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the indications for CABG were expanded to include patients who previously had no operative indications. For accurate anastomosis, various devices and methods have been developed. Bradycardia is easily induced by drug administration. However, this method of achieving bradycardia also has adverse effects on cardiac function. We have developed a new device to decrease the heart rate by regional cooling of the sino-atrial node. The new device is incorporated with Peltier's element, which uses an electric charge to create a temperature gradient on both of its surfaces. In terms of the cooling ability of this device, its cooling surface is chilled from 25C to 0C within 30 s. During in vivo animal experiments, this device has been shown to decrease the myocardial temperature around the sino-atrial node to 15C and suppress sino-atrial node activity, resulting in bradycardia to 60 beats/min level. In summary, the simple and easily applicable device for local cooling in combination with the application of diltiazem for effective heart rate reduction may be very helpful for the surgeon and may avoid disadvantages for critically ill patients. [source]

    Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting for Hemodialysis- Dependent Patients

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 4 2001
    Hitoshi Hirose
    Abstract: Patients with end-stage renal disease carry a risk of coronary atherosclerosis. This study was performed to evaluate the perioperative and remote data of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in hemodialysis dependent patients. We retrospectively analyzed the results of isolated CABG performed at Shin-Tokyo Hospital between June 1, 1993 and May 31, 2000. Preoperative, perioperative, and follow-up data of the patients on hemodialysis (Group HD, n = 37) were collected and compared with those of control patients (Group C, n = 1,639). Group HD consisted of 26 males and 11 females with a mean age of 59.9 8.1 years, and the mean number of bypasses was 2.5 1.1. Group HD had a longer postoperative intubation time, ICU stay, and hospital stay than Group C. The postoperative major complication rate in Group HD (18.9%) was not significantly different from that in Group C (11.3%). However, the inhospital mortality rate in Group HD (5.4%) was higher than Group C (0.6%). At the mean follow-up of 2.4 years, the actuarial 3-year survival of Groups HD and C were 90.6% and 97.6%, respectively (p < 0.001), excluding hospital mortality. The actuarial 3-year cardiac event-free rates were 84.3% in Group HD and 88.8% in Group C, showing no difference. Patients on chronic hemodialysis carry a significant risk of prolonged inhospital care and hospital death. Once successful surgical revascularization was completed, their long-term cardiac events could be controlled as effectively. The increased distant death rates was probably associated with the nature of renal disease. [source]

    Safety of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Use Prior to Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Glen L. Xiong MD
    Background Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been shown to increase bleeding risks. This study examined the association of perioperative coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) bleeding risks and SSRI use prior to CABG. Hypothesis SSRI may be associated with increased bleeding risks after CABG resulting in elevated reoperation rates due to bleeding complications. Methods Patients who underwent CABG between 1999 and 2003 (n = 4794) were identified in a tertiary medical center. SSRI use (n = 246) was determined using inpatient pharmacy records. Outcomes included primary end point of reoperation due to bleeding complications and other secondary measures. Multivariate regression models were constructed to adjust for baseline differences between SSRI and control groups. Results Reoperation due to bleeding complications among SSRI users was not significantly different (odds ratio [OR]: 1.14 (0.52,2.47); P = 0.75) compared to the control group. Other secondary outcomes and 30-day mortality (2.0% in SSRI vs 2.1% in control group; P = 0.92) between the 2 groups were similar. However, the adjusted total volume of postoperative red blood cell (RBC) units transfused was higher in the SSRI group. Conclusion We conclude that there is no compelling evidence to limit the use of SSRIs among patients with coronary artery disease who undergo CABG given the current evidence. Further research may be needed on individual SSRI medications. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Nontransplant Surgical Options for Congestive Heart Failure

    Aftab R. Kherani MD
    A wide array of surgical options are currently available for the treatment of congestive heart failure ranging from traditional coronary artery bypass grafting to total artificial heart implantation. The indications for each procedure depend on the severity of disease and the individual patient's desires. Some surgical options are indicated for patients with moderate disease and prevent worsening heart failure, whereas other procedures are limited to patients who will only survive with high-risk surgery. Ongoing technologic advances are increasing the number of patients that benefit from the reparative surgical treatment of congestive heart failure. [source]

    Single-beat estimation of the left ventricular end-systolic pressure,volume relationship in patients with heart failure

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2010
    E. A. Ten Brinke
    Abstract Aim:, The end-systolic pressure,volume relationship (ESPVR) constructed from multiple pressure,volume (PV) loops acquired during load intervention is an established method to asses left ventricular (LV) contractility. We tested the accuracy of simplified single-beat (SB) ESPVR estimation in patients with severe heart failure. Methods:, Nineteen heart failure patients (NYHA III-IV) scheduled for surgical ventricular restoration and/or restrictive mitral annuloplasty and 12 patients with normal LV function scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting were included. PV signals were obtained before and after cardiac surgery by pressure-conductance catheters and gradual pre-load reductions by vena cava occlusion (VCO). The SB method was applied to the first beat of the VCO run. Accuracy was quantified by the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) between ESPVRSB and gold-standard ESPVRVCO. In addition, we compared slopes (EES) and intercepts (end-systolic volume at multiple pressure levels (70,100 mmHg: ESV70,ESV100) of ESPVRSB vs. ESPVRVCO by Bland,Altman analyses. Results:, RMSE was 1.7 1.0 mmHg and was not significantly different between groups and not dependent on end-diastolic volume, indicating equal, high accuracy over a wide volume range. SB-predicted EES had a bias of ,0.39 mmHg mL,1 and limits of agreement (LoA) ,2.0 to +1.2 mmHg mL,1. SB-predicted ESVs at each pressure level showed small bias (range: ,10.8 to +9.4 mL) and narrow LoA. Two-way anova indicated that differences between groups were not dependent on the method. Conclusion:, Our findings, obtained in hearts spanning a wide range of sizes and conditions, support the use of the SB method. This method ultimately facilitates less invasive ESPVR estimation, particularly when coupled with emerging noninvasive techniques to measure LV pressures and volumes. [source]

    A Large Saphenous Vein Graft Aneurysm Presenting as a Right Atrial Mass: A Case Report

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2006
    Shemy Carasso M.D.
    An aneurysm of a saphenous vein graft (SVG) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We describe a case of a large SVG aneurysm (7 6 cm) compressing the right atrium. The patient presented with chest pain, dyspnea and desaturation, and a right intra-atrial mass was revealed on echocardiography. The differential diagnosis of intracardiac masses revealed by echocardiography should include extrinsic lesions. Due to its potential lethal complications, an SVG aneurysm should be considered in a post-CABG patient presenting with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure. [source]

    Increased infiltration of Chlamydophila pneumoniae in the vessel wall of human veins after perfusion

    K. Kupreishvili
    ABSTRACT Background Several studies have suggested an association between Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Cp) infection and atherosclerosis. A recent study detected Cp DNA in the saphenous vein of 12% of all patients before bypass grafting and in 38% of failed grafts. We used a system in which human veins were perfused with autologous blood under arterial pressure. Materials and methods, Veins were surplus segments of saphenous veins of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients. Vein grafts were perfused with the blood of the same patient after CABG procedures. Veins were analysed for Cp -specific membrane protein using immunohistochemical and PCR analysis. Veins were analysed before and after perfusion (up to 4 h). The number of Cp positive cells was then quantified in the vein layers. Results Cp protein was detected within macrophages only. In non-perfused veins, Cp was present in the adventitia in 91% of all patients, in the circular (64%) and longitudinal (23%) layer of the media. No positivity was found in the intima. Perfusion subsequently resulted in a significant increase of Cp positive cells within the circular layer of the media that, however, differed strongly between different patients. Cp DNA was not detected by PCR in those specimens. Conclusion Cp protein was present in 91% of veins, but the number of positive cells differed remarkably between patients. Perfusion of veins resulted in increased infiltration of Cp into the circular layer. These results may point to a putative discriminating role of Cp with respect to graft failure between different patients. [source]

    Structural myocardial changes after coronary artery surgery

    F. Eberhardt
    Background Postoperative contractile dysfunction or ,myocardial stunning' has been described after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). In the present study we sought to determine if and to what extent clinical, structural and histochemical evidence of myocardial changes associated with stunning could be found in patients after CABG and cold crystalloid cardioplegia. Materials and methods Left ventricular (LV) biopsies were obtained from CABG patients (n = 10) prior to and at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). These biopsies were immunostained for the inducible heat-shock protein 70 (HSP-70i), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and actin. ATP was measured by bioluminescence. Results Biopsies pre-CPB showed no evidence of myocardial damage as HSP-70i was absent and a regular actin cross-striation pattern and only constitutive ICAM-1-expression were present. After CPB we found significantly increased HSP-70i and ICAM-1 levels as well as a deranged actin cross-striation pattern with a widening of actin bands. ATP levels declined from 10 mmol L,1 pre-CPB to 4.9 mmol L,1 after CPB. Correspondingly, coronary sinus effluent showed a significant lactate production. Although, cardiac function determined by transoesophageal echocardiography did not deteriorate, significant inotropic support was necessary to maintain cardiac output. Conclusions Our results present clinical and structural evidence of ,myocardial stunning' after CABG and cold crystalloid cardioplegia. Increased HSP-70i and ICAM-1 expression, as well as a deranged actin cross-striation pattern, might be structural markers to determine ,myocardial stunning' in clinical settings. [source]