Bypass Graft Surgery (bypass + graft_surgery)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Bypass Graft Surgery

  • artery bypass graft surgery
  • coronary artery bypass graft surgery


  • Selected Abstracts


    Illness Representations According to Age and Effects on Health Behaviors Following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 3 2001
    Brooks B. Gump PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine if illness representations differ as a function of age and how these representations, in conjunction with age, predict postoperative health behaviors. DESIGN: Prospective study of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. SETTING: A large metropolitan hospital providing regional cardiac care for patients in a tri-state area, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. PARTICIPANTS: All consenting patients (N = 309) from a consecutive series of patients scheduled for CABG surgery between January 1992 and January 1994. To be eligible for participation, patients could not be scheduled for any other coincidental surgery (e.g., valve replacement), and could not be in cardiac intensive care or experiencing angina at the time of the referral. Participants were predominantly male (70%) and married (80%), and averaged 62.8 years of age. MEASUREMENTS: Postoperative self-reported health behaviors. RESULTS: Older participants awaiting CABG surgery were significantly more likely to believe old age to be the cause of their coronary heart disease (CHD) and significantly less likely to believe genetics, health-damaging behaviors, health protective behaviors, and emotions to be the cause of their CHD than were younger participants awaiting surgery. Furthermore, the older participants were significantly more likely to believe they had no control over the disease and that the disease would be gone after surgery, and reported fewer postoperative health behavior changes than did younger participants. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate significant differences in illness representations as a function of age. Furthermore, differences in postoperative health behaviors were consistent with differing illness representations. [source]


    Does the experimental design capture the effects of complementary therapy?

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 4 2007
    A study using reflexology for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery
    Aim., Our purpose was to pilot test whether reflexology may reduce anxiety in patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery in Iceland. Background., Nurses need to study the effects of complementary therapies in general and particularly those that may be beneficial to decrease patients' anxiety. It has been assumed that reflexology lessens anxiety, but research is needed to substantiate such expectations. Design., A pilot study using randomized design with experimental and control groups. Methods., Nine patients were recruited and randomly assigned into groups with five patients assigned into an experimental group receiving reflexology for 30 minutes and four patients into control group which rested for 30 minutes. Anxiety and physiological variables were measured pre- and post-reflexology sessions once a day over five days. Results., The anxiety scores were lower for patients in the control group on all measures. Systolic blood pressure lowered significantly more in the control group than in the treatment group. No significant changes were observed for other variables. Patients' comments and responses overwhelmingly suggested increased well-being due to both experimental and control intervention. Conclusion., This study showed little evidence to support reflexology as a mean of reducing anxiety in CABG patients. Several methodological problems were identified that need to be considered further. Relevance to clinical practice., It is suggested that reflexology should be tailored to individual needs and research methods used that allow for capturing its holistic nature. Further scholarly work is warranted to explore several methodological issues in studying complementary therapies in a highly complex treatment situation. [source]


    A Systematic Review of Gender Differences in Mortality after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery and Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

    CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 10 2007
    Catherine Kim M.D., M.P.H.
    Abstract Gender differences exist in outcomes, particularly early mortality, for percutaneous interventions (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Better understanding of this issue may target areas for improvement for all patients undergoing revascularization. Therefore, we summarized the evidence on gender differences in PCI and CABG outcomes, particularly early mortality, and mediators of this difference. Using the key terms "women" or "gender," "revascularization," "coronary artery bypass," "angioplasty," "stent," and "coronary intervention," we searched MEDLINE from 1985 to 2005 for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and registries reporting outcomes by gender. Bibliographies and the Web sites of cardiology conferences were also reviewed. The literature was examined to identify gender differences in outcomes and mediators of these differences. We identified 23 studies reporting outcomes by gender for CABG and 48 studies reporting outcomes by gender for PCI. The majority of studies noted greater in-hospital mortality in women than in men, with mortality differences resolving with longer follow-up. Early mortality differences were reduced but not consistently eliminated after adjustment for comorbidities, procedural characteristics, and body habitus. Power to detect gender differences after multivariate adjustment was limited by declining mortality rates and small sample size. Gender was an independent risk factor for complications after both CABG and PCI. Women experience greater complications and early mortality after revascularization. Future exploration is needed of gender differences in quality of care and benefit from combinations of stenting and antiplatelet, and anticoagulant medications in order to optimize treatment. Copyright © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Prognostic Value of 12-Lead Electrocardiogram During Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2000
    Milind R. Dhond M.D.
    The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) obtained during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in predicting subsequent cardiac events. We retrospectively analyzed 345 patients undergoing DSE in 1992,1994 and selected those patients with negative echo results for ischemia. Of the 200 patients with negative DSE results, a separate analysis of their ECG data was performed with results reported as either positive, negative, or nondiagnostic for ischemia. Follow-up was performed through a physician chart review and direct telephone contact. Event rates were determined for hard (myocardial infarction or cardiac death) and soft (hospitalization for angina and/or congestive heart failure, coronary angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery) cardiac events occurring after the negative DSE for up to 6 years after the test. Death was also determined by referencing the patients' data with mortality data available on the Internet. There were 143 patients with ECG data reported as negative and 40 patients with ECG data reported as positive for ischemia. The hard and soft event rates were 1.5% and 9% per patient per year in the ECG negative group and 2% and 11% in the ECG positive group. There were no statistical differences in event rates between the two groups during the 5-year follow-up period. Our results suggest that the ECG result obtained during DSE does not confer any incremental prognostic value over the echo result. [source]


    Aspirin reduces anticardiolipin antibodies in patients with coronary artery disease

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 12 2006
    I. Ikonomidis
    Abstract Background, Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) have been found to be elevated in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and have been associated with an adverse outcome owing to their prothrombotic activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aspirin treatment on aCL levels in patients with chronic CAD. Materials and methods, Forty patients with chronic CAD scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and 40 healthy controls participated in the study. Patients were treated with 300 mg of aspirin once daily (o.d.) for the first 12 days and placebo for the following 12 days before CABG in a double-blind, cross-over trial. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G-, IgM-, IgA-aCL and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured in the controls and at the end of each treatment period in the patients with CAD. Results, The IgA- and IgG-aCL levels were greater in patients with CAD than in the controls. Compared with the placebo, IgA, IgG subtypes and CRP levels were reduced after aspirin treatment (P = 0·001, P = 0·02, P = 0·04, respectively). The percentage reduction of IgA- and IgG-aCL was related to the percentage reduction of CRP after aspirin (P < 0·05). Conclusion, Aspirin treatment with 300 mg o.d. reduced the serum levels of IgA and IgG subtypes in patients with chronic CAD in parallel to a reduction in CRP. These findings offer an additional pathophysiological mechanism of the beneficial effects of aspirin in patients with chronic CAD. [source]


    Recovery after coronary artery bypass surgery: effect of an audiotape information programme

    JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 8 2010
    Ketsarin Utriyaprasit
    utriyaprasit k., moore s.m. & chaiseri p. (2010) Recovery after coronary artery bypass surgery: effect of an audiotape information programme. Journal of Advanced Nursing,66(8), 1747,1759. Abstract Title.,Recovery after coronary artery bypass surgery: effect of an audiotape information programme. Aim., The aim of the study was to test the effect of an audiotape giving concrete objective information and strategies to reduce symptoms, psychological distress and enhance physical functioning in patients having coronary artery bypass grafts. Background., The period following hospital discharge is stressful for patients having coronary artery bypass grafts. Evident-based interventions are needed to improve outcomes in Thai populations following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Methods., A randomized controlled trial was conducted during 2004,2005. A sample of 120 Thai patients having coronary artery bypass grafts was randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group was given an information audiotape the day prior to hospital discharge, and encouraged to listen to it as many times as necessary. Participants were interviewed using validated instruments predischarge and at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after discharge. Findings., Participants in the intervention group had statistically significantly fewer symptoms of shoulder, back or neck pain and lack of appetite, and increased physical activity after discharge, compared to the control group. This effect remained statistically significant after controlling for age, gender, co-morbidity and presurgical cardiac functional status. However, no statistically significant difference in psychological distress was observed. Conclusion., Nurses can use an audiotape containing preparatory information to improve outcomes for patients having coronary artery bypass grafts during the few weeks after discharge from hospital. Further studies are recommended to improve its effect on psychological distress. [source]


    Combined Cardiac Surgery and Excision of a Retrosternal Thyroid Mass: A Case Report

    JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 3 2006
    Gilbert H. L. Tang M.D.
    We describe a combined thyroidectomy, aortic valve replacement, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery on a patient with an asymptomatic retrosternal thyroid mass. [source]


    Using the cardiac depression scale in men recovering from coronary artery bypass surgery

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 11 2009
    Kathryn M King
    Aims., To examine the utility and validate the use of the Cardiac Depression Scale in patients who had first-time coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Background., The Beck Depression Inventory, though frequently used, may not be sufficiently sensitive for use in cardiac patients. The Cardiac Depression Scale has been shown to identify the range of depression in medical cardiac patients. Design., Survey. Methods., The Beck Depression Inventory and Cardiac Depression Scale were administered to 120 men at hospital discharge, as well as six, 12 and 36 weeks postoperatively. Cronbach's , scores were calculated for the measures at each point. Changes in scores over time were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Associations between the measures scores were calculated using Pearson product,moment correlations. Agreement between the measures' dichotomised scores (depression/no depression) was examined using Cohen's Kappa statistic. Results., Internal consistency was similar for the Beck Depression Inventory (0·793,0·904) and Cardiac Depression Scale (0·859,0·910). Depression scores decreased over time with the Beck Depression Inventory [F(2·50, 175·29) = 22·27, p < 0·001] and Cardiac Depression Scale [F(2·68, 190·37) = 13·18, p < 0·001]. The measures had similar power [Cohen's f = 0·65 (Beck Depression Inventory) and 0·43 (Cardiac Depression Scale)] to reveal changes over time. The continuous scores were highly correlated at each point [0·737 (p < 0·001),0·819 (p < 0·001)]. However, when dichotomised scores were compared, the chance corrected level of agreement was less impressive [0·198 (p = 0·014),0·381 (p < 0·001)]. Conclusions., The Cardiac Depression Scale may have utility for use with surgical cardiac patients. However, continued examination of this measure of depression is warranted. Relevance to clinical practice., Given the prevalence of depression and its negative impact on coronary artery disease, it is important to identify even mild depression in cardiac patients. Using a measure of depression specifically for cardiac patients, rather than a generic measure, may best accomplish this goal. [source]


    Direct Coronary Stenting in Noncomplex and Noncalcified Lesions: Immediate and Mid-term Results of a Prospective Registry

    JOURNAL OF INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 4 2000
    MARC BEDOSSA M.D.
    Stenting of coronary arteries is currently used in clinical practice. The aim of this prospective registry was to assess the feasibility and the safety of stent implantation without balloon predilatation in noncomplex and noncalcifed lesions. One hundred six stents were implanted in 85 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PTCA) of native vessels (n = 95) or bypass grafts (n = 11). The lesions were type A (21%) or B1 (79%). The stent was a tubular or a coil stent in 71 ± and 29% of the cases, respectively. The angiographic success rate was 94%. The maximal pressure was 12.1 ± 2.1 atm. In only 7 cases, it was not possible to cross the stenosis with the stent, necessitating retrieval of it and predilation with a balloon before stent implantation. Three dissections after stent implantation were treated by a second stent implantation. The primary success rate was 98% (no acute closure or myocardial infarction). A clinical follow-up was obtained in 98% of patients with a mean delay of 6 ± 0.5 months. Eighty-one percent of patients were asymptomatic. The target lesion revascularization rate was 9.4%. Four patients underwent a new PTCA and four patients a coronary artery bypass graft surgery. This technique of stent implantation appears to be safe with good immediate and midterm results. A prospective randomized trial comparing this technique to the standard technique of stent delivery in noncomplex lesions is currently ongoing with an intravascular ultrasound substudy. [source]


    Combined sciatic, femoral and obturator nerve blocks for an infra-inguinal arterial bypass graft surgery

    ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 1 2009
    A. Yazigi
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Ultra-sound guided sciatic nerve block combined with lumbar plexus block for infra-inguinal artery bypass graft surgery

    ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 5 2008
    Y. Asakura
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: Postoperative pericardial effusion in patients receiving anticoagulants for deep vein thrombosis after coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS, Issue 10 2005
    M. AMBROSETTI
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Randomized trial of a home recovery intervention following coronary artery bypass surgery

    RESEARCH IN NURSING & HEALTH, Issue 2 2001
    Shirley M. Moore
    Abstract For this study a randomized clinical trial was designed to test the effects of an early home recovery information intervention on physical functioning, psychological distress, and symptom frequency 1 month following coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Recovery outcomes were compared between two groups: those receiving an audiotape of information on expected physical sensations and their management (Cardiac Home Information Program [CHIP]) in addition to the usual care, and those receiving the usual cardiac discharge information protocol. A nonprobability sample of 180 patients (84 women and 96 men; mean age,=,62 years) was equally distributed between the two study groups. When controlling for age, comorbidity, and cardiac functional status, the results showed positive effects on physical functioning in women and psychological distress, vigor and fatigue in men. Consistent with other studies, women had worse physical functioning and more symptom frequency than men. These findings indicate that the CHIP intervention is an effective method to prepare CABG patients for home recovery. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Res Nurs Health 24: 93,104, 2001 [source]


    Clopidogrel and platelet transfusion in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery,

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 6 2003
    E. G. Pivalizza
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Delirium after coronary artery bypass graft surgery and late mortality

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Rebecca F. Gottesman MD
    Objective Delirium is common after cardiac surgery, although under-recognized, and its long-term consequences are likely underestimated. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether patients with delirium after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery have higher long-term out-of-hospital mortality when compared with CABG patients without delirium. Methods We studied 5,034 consecutive patients undergoing CABG surgery at a single institution from 1997 to 2007. Presence or absence of neurologic complications, including delirium, was assessed prospectively. Survival analysis was performed to determine the role of delirium in the hazard of death, including a propensity score to adjust for potential confounders. These analyses were repeated to determine the association between postoperative stroke and long-term mortality. Results Individuals with delirium had an increased hazard of death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38,1.97) up to 10 years postoperatively, after adjustment for perioperative and vascular risk factors. Patients with postoperative stroke had a HR of 2.34 (95% CI, 1.87,2.92). The effect of delirium on subsequent mortality was the strongest among those without a prior stroke (HR 1.83 vs HR 1.11 [with a prior stroke] [p -interaction = 0.02]) or who were younger (HR 2.42 [<65 years old] vs HR 1.49 [,65 years old] [p -interaction = 0.04]). Interpretation Delirium after cardiac surgery is a strong independent predictor of mortality up to 10 years postoperatively, especially in younger individuals and in those without prior stroke. Future studies are needed to determine the impact of delirium prevention and/or treatment in long-term patient mortality. ANN NEUROL 2010;67:338,344 [source]


    Long QT Syndrome in Patients over 40 Years of Age: Increased Risk for LQTS-Related Cardiac Events in Patients with Coronary Disease

    ANNALS OF NONINVASIVE ELECTROCARDIOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Edward Sze B.A.
    Background: Previous studies of long QT syndrome (LQTS) have focused primarily on the clinical course of affected patients up to 40 years of age to avoid the confounding influence of acquired heart disease on LQTS-related cardiac events in this genetic disorder. Methods: Patients were identified as having coronary disease if they had a history of hospitalization for myocardial infarction, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, or were treated with medication for angina. LQTS-related cardiac events included the first occurrence of syncope, aborted cardiac arrest, or sudden cardiac death without evidence suggestive of an acute coronary event. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to analyze the independent contribution of coronary disease to LQTS-related cardiac events. Results: Time-dependent coronary disease was associated with an increased risk of LQTS-related cardiac events (hazard ratio 2.24, 95% confidence interval 1.23,4.07, P = 0.008) after adjustment for syncopal history before age 40, QTc, and gender. Factors such as diabetes and hypertension that increase the risk for coronary disease were not associated with an increased risk for LQTS-related cardiac events. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that coronary disease augments the risk for LQTS-related cardiac events in LQTS. The findings highlight the need for more focused preventive therapy in LQTS patients above the age of 40. [source]


    Relationship between elevated preoperative troponin T and adverse outcomes following cardiac surgery

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 1-2 2003
    William J. Lyon
    Background: The prognostic value of troponin T (TnT) has been demonstrated in patients following a myocardial infarction. There are limited data regarding the prognostic utility of preoperative TnT in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The aim of the present study was to determine if elevated preoperative TnT is a predictor of more complex recovery outcomes in the cardiac surgical setting. Methods: A single preoperative TnT measurement was assessed in 696 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Elevated preoperative TnT levels were classified as ,0.2 ng/mL. Preoperative, intraoperative, intensive care and postoperative events were prospectively recorded for all patients, and retrospectively reviewed for the present study. Results: Elevated preoperative TnT levels were detected in 10% (71/696) of patients. Compared to patients with normal TnT levels, elevated preoperative TnT increased the risk of mortality at 30 days (7%vs 1%, P = 0.004, odds ratio (OR) = 6.7) and 2 years (14%vs 3%, P < 0.001, OR = 5.0), and resulted in prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stays (P < 0.001) and longer postoperative hospitalization (P < 0.001). Elevated preoperative TnT was also associated with an increased need for perioperative and postoperative cardiovascular support, early ischaemic change and postoperative congestive cardiac failure. In multivariate analyses preoperative TnT was a significant independent predictor of 30-day and 2-year mortality, and duration of ICU stay. Conclusions: Elevated preoperative TnT highlights a subgroup of cardiac surgical patients who are more likely to have a post­operative course with increased morbidity and mortality. [source]


    Systemic lupus erythematosus in a multiethnic US cohort: XXXIV.

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 6 2006
    Deficient mannose-binding lectin exon 1 polymorphisms are associated with cerebrovascular but not with other arterial thrombotic events
    Objective To study the association between deficient mannose-binding lectin (MBL) genotypes and arterial thrombotic events in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Patients with SLE of Hispanic, African American, and Caucasian ethnicity from LUMINA (LUpus in MInorities, NAture versus nurture), a multiethnic, longitudinal study of outcome, were studied. Arterial thrombotic events (myocardial infarction, angina, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, stroke, claudication, gangrene, or tissue loss and/or peripheral arterial thrombosis) that occurred after diagnosis were recorded. Genotyping for MBL gene polymorphisms was performed and their distribution was compared between patients who did and did not have thrombotic events. Results There were 58 events (21 cardiovascular, 27 cerebrovascular, and 10 peripheral vascular) in 48 patients. Patients who had thrombotic events were older and were more likely to be smokers, to have more severe disease, and to have accrued more damage overall. Also, a larger proportion of these patients had C-reactive protein values in the highest quintile of distribution. No significant difference in arterial thrombotic events was found in patients homozygous for MBL-deficient alleles compared with others. Similar results were seen within ethnic groups. Caucasians who developed potential thrombotic events exhibited a higher frequency of MBL-deficient alleles, but the difference was not statistically significant for all events together or for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events combined. However, when only the cerebrovascular events were considered, the difference became statistically significant. Conclusion Age, smoking, and measures of activity and damage were associated with arterial thrombotic events in patients with SLE, but MBL-deficient genotypes were not, with cerebrovascular events in Caucasians being the exception. The relationship between MBL-variant alleles and arterial thrombotic events may exist only within select ethnic groups and event types. [source]


    Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System Dialysis for Liver Insufficiency and Sepsis Following Right Ventricular Assist Device after Cardiac Surgery

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 8 2004
    Otrud Vargas Hein
    Abstract:, We report a case of right heart failure (RHF) and sepsis with liver insufficiency in a 70-year-old patient after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Three hours after surgery the patient suddenly developed therapy refractory cardiac arrest caused by RHF. He had to have emergency surgery, under which the graft to the right coronary artery was revised and a right ventricular assist device was implanted. Heart function recovered and the assist device was explanted on day 1 after surgery. Thoracic closure was performed on day 5 after surgery. The patient went into septic shock on day 11. Liver dysfunction developed postoperatively and worsened the course of sepsis. Therefore, MARS (molecular adsorbents recirculating system) dialysis was performed once on day 20 after surgery. Liver function improved after MARS therapy and the patient recovered from sepsis. On day 46 the patient was transferred from the ICU of another hospital to one of the peripheral wards, to be finally discharged on day 67. [source]


    A Generalized Estimator of the Attributable Benefit of an Optimal Treatment Regime

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2010
    Jason Brinkley
    Summary For many diseases where there are several treatment options often there is no consensus on the best treatment to give individual patients. In such cases, it may be necessary to define a strategy for treatment assignment; that is, an algorithm that dictates the treatment an individual should receive based on their measured characteristics. Such a strategy or algorithm is also referred to as a treatment regime. The optimal treatment regime is the strategy that would provide the most public health benefit by minimizing as many poor outcomes as possible. Using a measure that is a generalization of attributable risk (AR) and notions of potential outcomes, we derive an estimator for the proportion of events that could have been prevented had the optimal treatment regime been implemented. Traditional AR studies look at the added risk that can be attributed to exposure of some contaminant; here we will instead study the benefit that can be attributed to using the optimal treatment strategy. We will show how regression models can be used to estimate the optimal treatment strategy and the attributable benefit of that strategy. We also derive the large sample properties of this estimator. As a motivating example, we will apply our methods to an observational study of 3856 patients treated at the Duke University Medical Center with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery and further heart-related problems requiring a catheterization. The patients may be treated with either medical therapy alone or a combination of medical therapy and percutaneous coronary intervention without a general consensus on which is the best treatment for individual patients. [source]


    Contemporary use of embolic protection devices in saphenous vein graft interventions: Insights from the stenting of saphenous vein grafts trial,

    CATHETERIZATION AND CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Issue 2 2010
    Neeraj Badhey MD
    Abstract Background: We sought to evaluate the contemporary use of embolic protection devices (EPDs) in saphenous vein graft (SVG) interventions. Methods: We examined EPD use in the stenting of saphenous vein grafts (SOS) trial, in which 80 patients with 112 lesions in 88 SVGs were randomized to a bare metal stent (39 patients, 43 grafts, and 55 lesions) or paclitaxel-eluting stent (41 patients, 45 grafts, and 57 lesions). Results: An EPD was used in 60 of 112 lesions (54%). A Filterwire (Boston Scientific) was used in 70% of EPD-treated lesions, Spider (ev3, Plymouth, Minnesota) in 12%, Proxis (St. Jude, Minneapolis, Minnesota) in 12%, and Guardwire (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, California) in 7%. Of the remaining 52 lesions, an EPD was not utilized in 13 lesions (25%) because the lesion was near the distal anastomosis, in 14 lesions (27%) because of an ostial location, in one lesion (2%) because of small SVG size, in two in-stent restenosis lesions (4%) because of low distal embolization risk, and in 22 lesions (42%) because of operator's preference even though use of an EPD was feasible. Procedural success was achieved in 77 patients (96%); in one patient a Filterwire was entrapped requiring emergency coronary bypass graft surgery and two patients had acute stent thrombosis. Conclusion: In spite of their proven efficacy, EPDs were utilized in approximately half of SVG interventions in the SOS trial. Availability of a proximal protection device could allow protection of ,25% of unprotected lesions, yet operator discretion appears to be the major determinant of EPD use. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery in multivessel disease?

    CATHETERIZATION AND CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Issue 2 2004
    A tailored approach based on coronary pressure measurement
    Abstract The optimal revascularization strategy, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), for patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (MVD) remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to compare the long-term outcomes after selective PCI of only hemodynamically significant lesions (fractional flow reserve, or FFR < 0.75) to CABG of all stenoses in patients with MVD. In 150 patients with MVD referred for CABG, FFR was determined in 381 coronary arteries considered for bypass grafting. If the FFR was less than 0.75 in three vessels or in two vessels including the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery, CABG was performed (CABG group). If only one or two vessels were physiologically significant (not including the proximal LAD), PCI of those lesions was performed (PCI group). Of the 150 patients, 87 fulfilled the criteria for CABG and 63 for PCI. There were no significant differences in the angiographic or other baseline characteristics between the two groups. At 2-year follow-up, no differences were seen in adverse events, including repeat revascularization (event-free survival 74% in the CABG group and 72% in the PCI group). A similar number of patients were free from angina (84% in the CABG group and 82% in the PCI group). Importantly, the results in both groups were as good as the surgical groups in previous studies comparing PCI and CABG in MVD. In patients with multivessel disease, PCI in those with one or two hemodynamically significant lesions as identified by an FFR < 0.75 yields a similar favorable outcome as CABG in those with three or more culprit lesions despite a similar angiographic extent of disease. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2004;63:184,191. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Early ostial saphenous vein graft stenosis associated with the use of Symmetry sutureless aortic proximal anastomosis device: Successful percutaneous revascularization

    CATHETERIZATION AND CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Issue 2 2004
    Sharon L. Cline MD
    Abstract A recent advance in technology permits the creation of sutureless proximal aortic anastomosis during coronary artery bypass graft surgery. This new tool has significant potential benefit by minimizing aortic manipulation with subsequent reduction in neuroembolization. Implantation of a nitinol-based proximal aortic connector (Symmetry) has a potential to elicit intimal hyperplastic reaction analogous to restenosis after coronary stent placement. We report cases of early vein graft stenosis in association with the use of the Symmetry device. Three patients suffered from severe ostial stenosis within 6 months of bypass surgery with symptomatic presentation. Of these three patients, two underwent successful percutaneous revascularization. Fluoroscopic star-shaped appearance of the metallic Symmetry allows device recognition during angiography. We review current data regarding graft patency with the use of Symmetry device and discuss technical issues to address specific problems during percutaneous revascularization. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2004;62:203,208. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    A Systematic Review of Gender Differences in Mortality after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery and Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

    CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 10 2007
    Catherine Kim M.D., M.P.H.
    Abstract Gender differences exist in outcomes, particularly early mortality, for percutaneous interventions (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Better understanding of this issue may target areas for improvement for all patients undergoing revascularization. Therefore, we summarized the evidence on gender differences in PCI and CABG outcomes, particularly early mortality, and mediators of this difference. Using the key terms "women" or "gender," "revascularization," "coronary artery bypass," "angioplasty," "stent," and "coronary intervention," we searched MEDLINE from 1985 to 2005 for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and registries reporting outcomes by gender. Bibliographies and the Web sites of cardiology conferences were also reviewed. The literature was examined to identify gender differences in outcomes and mediators of these differences. We identified 23 studies reporting outcomes by gender for CABG and 48 studies reporting outcomes by gender for PCI. The majority of studies noted greater in-hospital mortality in women than in men, with mortality differences resolving with longer follow-up. Early mortality differences were reduced but not consistently eliminated after adjustment for comorbidities, procedural characteristics, and body habitus. Power to detect gender differences after multivariate adjustment was limited by declining mortality rates and small sample size. Gender was an independent risk factor for complications after both CABG and PCI. Women experience greater complications and early mortality after revascularization. Future exploration is needed of gender differences in quality of care and benefit from combinations of stenting and antiplatelet, and anticoagulant medications in order to optimize treatment. Copyright © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Trials and tribulations associated with angina and traditional therapeutic approaches

    CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue S1 2007
    Prakash C. Deedwania M.D.
    Abstract Ischemic heart disease is the foremost cause of death in the United States and the developed countries. Stable angina is the initial manifestation of ischemic heart disease in one half of the patients and becomes a recurrent symptom in survivors of myocardial infarction (MI) and other forms of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). There are multiple therapeutic modalities currently available for treatment of anginal symptoms in patients with stable CAD. These include anti-anginal drugs and myocardial revascularization procedures such as coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABGS), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Anti-anginal drug therapy is based on treatment with nitrates, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers. A newly approved antianginal drug, ranolazine, is undergoing phase III evaluation. Not infrequently, combination therapy is often necessary for adequate symptom control in some patients with stable angina. Howerever, there has not been a systematic evaluation of individual or combination antianginal grug therapy on hard clinical end points in patients with stable angina. Most revascularization trials that have evaluated treatment with CABGS, PTCA, or PCI in patients with chronic CAD and stable angina have not shown significant improvement in survival or decreased incidence of non-fatal MI compared to medical treatment. In the CABGS trials, various post-hoc analyses have identified several smaller subgroups at high-risk in whom CABGS might improve clinical outcomes. However, there are conflicting findings in different reports and these findings are futher compromised due to the heterogeneous groups of patients in these trials. Moreover, no prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) has confirmed an advantage of CABGS, compared to medical treatment, in reduction of hard clinical outcomes in any of the high-risk subgroups. Based on the available data, it appears reasonable to conclude that for most patients (except perhaps in those with presence of left main disease > 50% stenosis) there is no apparent survival benefit of CABGS compared to medical therapy in stable CAD patients with angina. Although these trial have reported better symptom control associated with the revascularization intervention in most patients, this has not been adequately compared using modern medical therapies. Available data from recent studies also suggest treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), a statin and a regular exercise regimen in patients with stable CAD and angina pectoris. Copyright © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Staged revascularization in critically ill patients with coronary artery disease

    CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 5 2001
    Nasser Jowhar Hayat M.D., Ph.D.
    Abstract Background: Critically ill patients undergoing bypass surgery experience a higher mortality and morbidity. Hypothesis: The study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and value of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) as a bridge to coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in high-risk patients with refractory unstable angina or cardiogenic shock. Methods: We present 11 seriously unstable patients with severe multivessel coronary artery disease undergoing culprit vessel PTCA. Angioplasty was performed not as a definitive procedure but rather as a bridge to surgical revascularization. All the patients had sustained at least one myocardial infarction prior to catheterization, all had refractory unstable angina, eight patients had only a single patent coronary artery, and five patients were in cardiogenic shock. Results: Following PTCA, all patients enjoyed a stable in-hospital period. One patient died 12 weeks after successful PTCA while awaiting second CABG. Seven patients subsequently underwent CABG and are doing well. The remaining three patients were also advised to undergo CABG, but elected to continue medical management. Conclusions: Coronary angioplasty of the culprit vessel may play a role as a bridge to surgery in critically ill patients. [source]


    Clinical and demographic determinants of heart rate variability in patients post myocardial infarction: Insights from the cardiac arrhythmia suppression trial (CAST)

    CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    Phyllis K. Stein PH.D.
    Abstract Background: Clinical and demographic determinants of heart rate variability (HRV), an almost universal predictor of increased mortality, have not been systematically investigated in patients post myocardial infarction (MI). Hypothesis: The study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between pretreatment clinical and demographic variables and HRV in the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST). Methods: CAST patients were post MI and had , 6 ventricular premature complexes/h on pretreatment recording. Patients in this substudy (n = 769) had usable pretreatment and suppression tapes and were successfully randomized on the first antiarrhythmic treatment. Tapes were rescanned; only time domain HRV was reported because many tapes lacked the calibrated timing signal needed for accurate frequency domain analysis. Independent predictors of HRV were determined by stepwise selection. Results: Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) after the qualifying MI was the strongest determinant of HRV. The markedly decreased HRV associated with CABG was not associated with increased mortality. Ejection fraction and diabetes were also independent predictors of HRV. Other predictors for some indices of HRV included beta-blocker use, gender, time from MI to Holter, history of CABG before the qualifying MI, and systolic blood pressure. Decreased HRV did not predict mortality for the entire group. For patients without CABG or diabetes, decreased standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDANN) predicted mortality. Clinical and demographic factors accounted for 31% of the variance in the average of normal-to-normal intervals (AVGNN) and 13,26% of the variance in other HRV indices. Conclusions: Heart rate variability post MI is largely independent of clinical and demographic factors. Antecedent CABG dramatically reduces HRV. Recognition of this is necessary to prevent misclassification of risk in patients post infarct. [source]