Bypass Graft (bypass + graft)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Bypass Graft

  • artery bypass graft
  • coronary artery bypass graft
  • coronary bypass graft

  • Terms modified by Bypass Graft

  • bypass graft surgery

  • Selected Abstracts


    Temporary Epicardial Ventricular Stimulation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Acute Effects of Ventricular Pacing Site on Bypass Graft Flows

    JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 4 2009
    Navid Madershahian M.D.
    This study aimed to evaluate the optimal epicardial ventricular pacing site in patients with AF following coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Methods: In 23 consecutive patients (mean age = 69.2 1.9 years, gender = 62% male, ejection fraction [EF]= 50.4 2.1%) monoventricular stimulations (VVI) were tested with a constant pacing rate of 100 bpm. The impact of ventricular pacing on bypass graft flow (transit-time flow probe) and pulsatility index (PI) were measured after lead placement on the mid paraseptal region of the right (RVPS) and the left (LVPS) ventricle, on the right inferior wall (RVIW), and on the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). In addition, hemodynamic parameters were measured. Patients served as their own control. Results: Comparison of all tested pacing locations revealed that RVOT stimulation provided the highest bypass grafts flows (59.9 6.1 mL/min) and PI (2.2 0.1) when compared with RVPS (51.3 4.7 mL/min, PI = 2.6 0.2), RVIW (54.0 5.1 mL/m; PI = 2.4 0.2), and LVPS (53.1 4.5 mL/min; PI = 2.3 0.1), respectively (p < 0.05). When analyzing patients according to their preoperative LV function (group I = EF > 50%; group II = EF < 50%), higher bypass graft flows were observed with RVOT pacing in patients with lower EF (p = n.s.). Conclusions: Temporary RVOT pacing facilitates optimal bypass graft flows when compared with other ventricular pacing sites and should be the preferred method of temporary pacing in cardiac surgery patients with AF. Especially in patients with low EF following CABG, RVOT pacing may improve myocardial oxygen conditions for the ischemic myocardium and enhance graft patency in the early postoperative period. [source]


    Mitral Valve Replacement with the Beating Heart Technique in a Patient with Previous Bypass Graft from Ascending to Descending Aorta due to Aortic Coarctation

    JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 2 2008
    Ferit Cicekcioglu M.D.
    In this case, MVR was performed with on-pump beating heart technique without cross-clamping the aorta because of the diffuse adhesion around the ascending aorta, and tube graft presence between ascending and descending aortas. Methods: A 47-year-old female patient had aorto-aortic bypass graft from ascending aorta to descending aorta with median sternotomy and left thoracotomy in single stage because of aortic coarctation 2 years ago in our cardiac center. She was admitted to the hospital with palpitation and dyspnea on mild exertion. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed 4th degree mitral insufficiency. Results: MVR was carried out through remedian sternotomy with on-pump beating heart technique without cross-clamping the aorta. Conclusions: MVR with on-pump beating heart technique offers a safe approach when excessive dissection is required to place cross-clamp on the ascending aorta. [source]


    Myocardial Revascularization: PCI/Stent or Coronary Artery Bypass Graft,What Is Best for Our Patients?

    CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 11 2009
    C. Richard Conti MD, MACC Editor-in-Chief
    In my opinion, decisions regarding which type of revascularization is to be performed on a specific patient depends on vessel anatomic pathology, (ie, coronary lesion complexity). Thus, for proper decision-making regarding the selection of the revascularization procedure, the details of the coronary angiogram, not just the number of vessels involved, must be discussed by the interventional cardiologist as well as the cardiovascular surgeon. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Limitations of Right Internal Thoracic Artery to Left Anterior Descending Artery Bypass: A Comparative Quantitative Study of Postoperative Angiography of the Bilateral Internal Thoracic Artery Bypass Grafts

    JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 4 2008
    Mizuho Imamaki M.D.
    Methods: The 111 subjects underwent graft angiography after bypass grafting of the left or right internal thoracic artery (ITA) to the LAD. The vascular caliber was measured at the origin of the ITA, at an ITA site adjacent to the anastomotic site, and at an LAD site immediately below the anastomotic site, regarding the outer diameter of the catheter as a reference. Results: The caliber of the ITA immediately above the anastomotic site of the LAD was significantly lower in the RITA group. In the left internal thoracic artery (LITA) group, no patient showed a caliber of less than 1.25 mm, but five patients (7.8%) did in the RITA group. The preoperative cardio-thoracic ratio was significantly higher than that in patients in whom the caliber of the ITA immediately above the anastomotic site was 1.25 mm or more, and the height was significantly lower. Conclusions: In many patients, the RITA is appropriate as a graft material to the LAD. However, in patients with a high cardio-thoracic ratio and those with a low height, the RITA may not reach the LAD in a favorable state, and the LITA should be anastomosed to the LAD in some patients. [source]


    Improving the Clinical Patency of Prosthetic Vascular and Coronary Bypass Grafts: The Role of Seeding and Tissue Engineering

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 4 2002
    Alexander M. Seifalian
    Abstract: In patients requiring coronary or peripheral vascular bypass procedures, autogenous vein is currently the conduit of choice. If this is unavailable, then a prosthetic material is used. Prosthetic graft is liable to fail due to occlusion of the graft. To prevent graft occlusion, seeding of the graft lumen with endothelial cells is undertaken. Recent advances have also looked at developing a completely artificial biological graft engineered from the patient's cells with properties similar to autogenous vessels. This review encompasses the developments in the two principal technologies used in developing hybrid coronary and peripheral vascular bypass grafts, that is, seeding and tissue engineering. [source]


    The metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes: When does it matter?

    DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Issue 6 2006
    J. Wong
    Aims:, Young adults with type 2 diabetes (T2Dm) present the clinician with the problem of when to start therapies for the primary prevention of vascular disease and how to identify those at most vascular risk. We examine whether the metabolic syndrome (MetS) can be a useful clinical tool to stratify vascular risk in this context. Methods:, Data were collected from 5928 subjects with T2Dm, and subjects were categorized as having MetS by World Health Organization criteria (body mass index criteria modified for Asians using >23 kg/m2). The prevalence of macrovascular disease was examined by MetS status and age. Results:, The overall MetS prevalence was 72.3%. MetS was associated with an increased prevalence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) (17.2% MetS vs. 11.6% no MetS, p < 0.0001), coronary artery bypass graft (7.6 vs. 4.7%, p < 0.0003), peripheral vascular disease (PVD) (4.7 vs. 3.7%, p = 0.08) and stroke (6 vs. 3.9%, p = 0.002) across all age groups. MetS subjects had an IHD prevalence equivalent to that seen in subjects who were one decade older without MetS. The most significant impact of MetS was for the age group of 40,49 years with much lesser impact seen with progressively increasing age [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1 for IHD in MetS compared with no MetS at age 40,50 years, p < 0.05; falling progressively to OR = 1.5 at age >70 years, p > 0.05]. Similar trends were seen for coronary artery by-pass graft (CABG) and PVD. There was a strong relationship between the number of MetS risk factors and IHD prevalence (r = 0.99, p = 0.0001). Conclusions:, These data suggest that MetS is particularly useful in stratifying vascular risk in younger T2Dm patients and in those with a high number of MetS components. For patients with MetS, especially those with a full house of MetS risk factors, commencing risk-lowering interventions 10 years earlier than their MetS-free counterparts could be considered. [source]


    Potential use of insulin as an anti-inflammatory drug

    DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, Issue 3 2008
    Paresh Dandona
    Abstract Acute hyperglycemia worsens morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. The control of hyperglycemia with insulin improves clinical outcomes in patients with a stay of more than 3,5 days in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients. However, clinical benefits of insulin infusion have not been seen consistently in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Since all previous studies in the ICU have centered on the normalization of glycemia, we still do not know whether insulin exerts beneficial effects over and above those observed with reduction of blood glucose concentrations. The regimens used in acute coronary syndromes infuse fixed doses of insulin with high rates of glucose and are usually associated with hyperglycemia; this may neutralize the beneficial effects of insulin. In this article, we discuss data demonstrating an anti-inflammatory effect of insulin and a pro-inflammatory effect of glucose. We provide a mechanistic justification for the benefits of maintaining euglycemia with insulin infusions in the hospitalized patients. To investigate the clinical benefits of the anti-inflammatory effects of insulin, we also suggest further investigations directed toward optimization of insulin infusion regimens to determine whether restoration of glucose levels toward normal with higher infusion rates and concentrations of insulin will lead to further improvement in outcomes in the critical care and acute coronary syndromes. Drug Dev Res 69:101,110, 2008 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Haem oxygenase-1 genotype and cardiovascular adverse events in patients with peripheral artery disease

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 12 2005
    P. Dick
    Abstract Background, A functional GT dinucleotide length polymorphism in the haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene promoter is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Short (< 25) (GT)n repeats are suggested to facilitate enhanced HO-1 up-regulation in response to injury and confer potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. Materials and methods, We investigated the association between the HO-1 GT-polymorphism and cardiovascular outcome in 472 patients with advanced peripheral artery disease. Cardiovascular risk profile and DNA samples for determination of the HO-1 genotype (carrier vs. noncarrier of a short (GT)n repeat allele) were obtained at baseline, and patients were followed for median 21 months for the occurrence of coronary events (myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary interventions and coronary artery bypass graft), cerebrovascular events (stroke or carotid revascularization) and all-cause mortality. Results, Coronary events occurred in 48 patients (9%), cerebrovascular events in 40 patients (9%) and 59 patients (13%) died. In total, 173 major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) occurred in 133 patients (28%). Carriers of the short (GT)n repeat allele had a 046-fold reduced adjusted hazard ratio for coronary events (P = 0016) as compared to noncarriers. No significant difference was found for cerebrovascular events, mortality and overall MACE. Conclusion, Apparently, the HO-1 genotype exerts potentially protective effects against coronary adverse events in patients with peripheral artery disease. Homozygous and heterozygous carriers of < 25 (GT)n repeats had lower rates of myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary interventions and coronary bypass operations compared to patients with longer (GT)n repeats. [source]


    Haemosuccus pancreaticus: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges

    HPB, Issue 4 2009
    Velayutham Vimalraj
    Abstract Background:, Haemosuccus pancreaticus (HP) is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The objective of our study was to highlight the challenges in the diagnosis and management of HP. Methods:, The records of 31 patients with HP diagnosed between January 1997 and June 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. Results:, Mean patient age was 34 years (11,55 years). Twelve patients had chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, 16 had tropical pancreatitis, two had acute pancreatitis and one had idiopathic pancreatitis. Selective arterial embolization was attempted in 22 of 26 (84%) patients and was successful in 11 of the 22 (50%). Twenty of 31 (64%) patients required surgery to control bleeding after the failure of arterial embolization in 11 and in an emergent setting in nine patients. Procedures included distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, central pancreatectomy, intracystic ligation of the blood vessel, and aneurysmal ligation and bypass graft in 11, two, six and one patients, respectively. There were no deaths. Length of follow-up ranged from 6 months to 10 years. Conclusions:, Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with a history of chronic pancreatitis could be caused by HP. Diagnosis is based on investigations that should be performed in all patients, preferably during a period of active bleeding. These include upper digestive endoscopy, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) and selective arteriography of the coeliac trunk and superior mesenteric artery. Contrast-enhanced CT had a high positive yield comparable with that of selective angiography in our series. Therapeutic options consist of selective embolization and surgery. Endovascular treatment can control unstable haemodynamics and can be sufficient in some cases. However, in patients with persistent unstable haemodynamics, recurrent bleeding or failed embolization, surgery is required. [source]


    Bleeding risk with AZD6140, a reversible P2Y12 receptor antagonist, vs. clopidogrel in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in the DISPERSE2 trial

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 4 2009
    S. Husted
    Summary AZD6140, the first reversible oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist, exhibits greater and more consistent inhibition of platelet aggregation than the irreversible thienopyridine clopidogrel. As a result of its reversible effect, AZD6140 may pose less risk for bleeding when antiplatelet treatment cannot be stopped at least 5 days before coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery or other invasive procedures. The Dose conflrmation Study assessing anti-Platelet Effects of AZD6140 vs. clopidogRel in NSTEMI (DISPERSE2) trial showed overall comparable bleeding rates with antiplatelet treatment with AZD6140 90 mg twice daily or 180 mg twice daily vs. clopidogrel 75 mg once daily in 984 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes. A post hoc exploratory analysis of bleeding outcomes in the subset of 84 patients undergoing CABG in DISPERSE2 suggests reduced risk for total bleeding (41% and 58% vs. 62%), all major bleeding (38% and 50% vs. 62%), and life-threatening bleeding (22% and 38% vs. 54%) with AZD6140 90 mg (n = 32) and 180 mg (n = 26) vs. clopidogrel (n = 26) respectively. Trends suggested that major bleeding rates were reduced with AZD6140 (combined groups) vs. clopidogrel when treatment was stopped , 5 days prior to surgery (39% vs. 63%, p = 0.15) but not when treatment was stopped > 5 days before surgery (50% vs. 60%). This observation is consistent with the reversible binding of AZD6140 to the P2Y12 receptor. Further prospective studies are planned to assess the relationship between this potential clinical benefit of AZD6140 and the reversibility of its antiplatelet effects. [source]


    Effect of enhanced external counterpulsation on medically refractory angina patients with erectile dysfunction

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 5 2007
    W. E. Lawson
    Summary Patients with refractory angina often suffer from erectile dysfunction. Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) decreases symptoms of angina, and increases nitric oxide release. This study evaluated the effect of EECP on sexual function in men with severe angina. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) was used to assess erectile function of severe angina patients enroled in the International EECP Patient Registry. Their symptom status, medication use, adverse clinical events and quality of life were also recorded before and after completing a course of EECP. A cohort of 120 men (mean age 65.0 9.7) was enroled. The men had severe coronary disease with 69% having a prior myocardial infarction, 90% prior coronary artery bypass graft or percutaneous coronary intervention, 49% with three vessel coronary artery disease, 86% were not candidates for further revascularisation, 71% hypertensive, 83% dyslipidaemia, 42% diabetes mellitus, 75% smoking and 68% using nitrates. Functional status was low with a mean Duke Activity Status Inventory score of 16.6 14.8. After 35 h of EECP anginal status improved in 89%, and functional status in 63%. A comparison of the IIEF scores pre- and post-EECP therapy demonstrated a significant improvement in erectile function from 10.0 1.0 to 11.8 1.0 (p = 0.003), intercourse satisfaction (4.2 0.5 to 5.0 0.5, p = 0.009) and overall satisfaction (4.7 0.3 to 5.3 0.3, p = 0.001). However, there were no significant changes in orgasmic function (4.2 0.4 to 4.6 0.4, p = 0.19) or sexual desire (5.3 0.2 to 5.5 0.2). The findings suggest that EECP therapy is associated with improvement in erectile function in men with refractory angina. [source]


    Illness Representations According to Age and Effects on Health Behaviors Following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 3 2001
    Brooks B. Gump PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine if illness representations differ as a function of age and how these representations, in conjunction with age, predict postoperative health behaviors. DESIGN: Prospective study of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. SETTING: A large metropolitan hospital providing regional cardiac care for patients in a tri-state area, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. PARTICIPANTS: All consenting patients (N = 309) from a consecutive series of patients scheduled for CABG surgery between January 1992 and January 1994. To be eligible for participation, patients could not be scheduled for any other coincidental surgery (e.g., valve replacement), and could not be in cardiac intensive care or experiencing angina at the time of the referral. Participants were predominantly male (70%) and married (80%), and averaged 62.8 years of age. MEASUREMENTS: Postoperative self-reported health behaviors. RESULTS: Older participants awaiting CABG surgery were significantly more likely to believe old age to be the cause of their coronary heart disease (CHD) and significantly less likely to believe genetics, health-damaging behaviors, health protective behaviors, and emotions to be the cause of their CHD than were younger participants awaiting surgery. Furthermore, the older participants were significantly more likely to believe they had no control over the disease and that the disease would be gone after surgery, and reported fewer postoperative health behavior changes than did younger participants. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate significant differences in illness representations as a function of age. Furthermore, differences in postoperative health behaviors were consistent with differing illness representations. [source]


    Temporary Epicardial Ventricular Stimulation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Acute Effects of Ventricular Pacing Site on Bypass Graft Flows

    JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 4 2009
    Navid Madershahian M.D.
    This study aimed to evaluate the optimal epicardial ventricular pacing site in patients with AF following coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Methods: In 23 consecutive patients (mean age = 69.2 1.9 years, gender = 62% male, ejection fraction [EF]= 50.4 2.1%) monoventricular stimulations (VVI) were tested with a constant pacing rate of 100 bpm. The impact of ventricular pacing on bypass graft flow (transit-time flow probe) and pulsatility index (PI) were measured after lead placement on the mid paraseptal region of the right (RVPS) and the left (LVPS) ventricle, on the right inferior wall (RVIW), and on the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). In addition, hemodynamic parameters were measured. Patients served as their own control. Results: Comparison of all tested pacing locations revealed that RVOT stimulation provided the highest bypass grafts flows (59.9 6.1 mL/min) and PI (2.2 0.1) when compared with RVPS (51.3 4.7 mL/min, PI = 2.6 0.2), RVIW (54.0 5.1 mL/m; PI = 2.4 0.2), and LVPS (53.1 4.5 mL/min; PI = 2.3 0.1), respectively (p < 0.05). When analyzing patients according to their preoperative LV function (group I = EF > 50%; group II = EF < 50%), higher bypass graft flows were observed with RVOT pacing in patients with lower EF (p = n.s.). Conclusions: Temporary RVOT pacing facilitates optimal bypass graft flows when compared with other ventricular pacing sites and should be the preferred method of temporary pacing in cardiac surgery patients with AF. Especially in patients with low EF following CABG, RVOT pacing may improve myocardial oxygen conditions for the ischemic myocardium and enhance graft patency in the early postoperative period. [source]


    Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Patients with Malignancy: A Single-Center Study with Comparison to Patients Without Malignancy

    JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 2 2009
    Nezihi Kucukarslan M.D.
    In this study, we compared the outcome of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in such patients with those without malignancy. Methods: The patients were selected from those who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery in the last decade. The study group (group I) included the patients with malignancy in remission. The control group comprised those patients who were selected randomly from those without any malignancy. The patients were retospectively examined with regard to preoperative, operative, and postoperative data from personal files, computerized recording system, and operation reports. Results: Group I included 48 patients (age 48 to 69; 29 male) while group II included 50 patients (age = 38 to 73; 35 male). In group I, comorbidity rates were: renal dysfunction in 12 (25%), obstructive lung disease 10 (21%), congestive failure in four (8%) patients. The malignancy rates were: lung in 15 (31%), breast in 10 (21%), stomach in five (10%), colon in four (8%), renal in one (2%), Hodgkin's lyphoma in three (6%), leukemia in two (4%), ovarian in three (6%), and prostate in five (10%) patients. In group II, the comorbidity rates were: diabetes mellitus 18 (36%), renal dysfunction in five (10%) and obstructive lung disease in 13 (26%) patients. In group I, chemotherapy and radiotherapy were performed in 38 and 34 patients, respectively. In groups I and II, the CABG was elective in 47 (98%) and in 45 patients (90%); the off-pump surgery was performed in 27 (56%) and 12 (24%) patients, respectively. The total duration of bypass was 37 6 minutes and 44 5 minutes; the duration of aortic clamp was 26 4 and 29 7 minutes, respectively, in groups I and II. Posoperative complication rates were: infection in 12 (25%), bleeding in eight (17%), acute renal insufficiency in eight (17%), prolonged air escape in five (10%), and prolonged entubation in 17 (35%) patients in group I and atrial fibrillation in 11 (22%) patients in group II. Mortality rates in both groups were two (4%). Conclusion: CABG in patients with comorbid malignancy is as safe as the other patients. In patients with full remission of malignancy, the surgeons should be encouraged about the safety of CABG. [source]


    Mitral Valve Replacement with the Beating Heart Technique in a Patient with Previous Bypass Graft from Ascending to Descending Aorta due to Aortic Coarctation

    JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 2 2008
    Ferit Cicekcioglu M.D.
    In this case, MVR was performed with on-pump beating heart technique without cross-clamping the aorta because of the diffuse adhesion around the ascending aorta, and tube graft presence between ascending and descending aortas. Methods: A 47-year-old female patient had aorto-aortic bypass graft from ascending aorta to descending aorta with median sternotomy and left thoracotomy in single stage because of aortic coarctation 2 years ago in our cardiac center. She was admitted to the hospital with palpitation and dyspnea on mild exertion. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed 4th degree mitral insufficiency. Results: MVR was carried out through remedian sternotomy with on-pump beating heart technique without cross-clamping the aorta. Conclusions: MVR with on-pump beating heart technique offers a safe approach when excessive dissection is required to place cross-clamp on the ascending aorta. [source]


    Midterm Results of Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in 136 Patients: An Angiographic Control Study

    JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 1 2006
    Hakki Kazaz M.D.
    This study summarizes the midterm results of 136 off-pump bypass surgery patients. Methods: Between January 2000 and March 2002, out of 178 surgical myocardial revascularizations, 136 (76.4%) were off-pump bypass surgery. Complete revascularization was done and especially arterial grafts were used. All patients were followed clinically and with treadmill test for 2 years. Average control angiography was performed at the end of 2-year follow-up. Results: Of all the patients, 56.7% were male and the mean age of the patients was 63.6 7.4 years. A total of 481 anastomoses were performed,136 (28.27%) to the left anterior descending artery (LAD), 135 (28.07%) to the circumflex coronary artery (Cx) branches, 102 (21.20%) to the right coronary artery (RCA), 108 (22.46%) to the D,. The mean graft number was 3.46. We used 96.6% of patients' left internal mammarian artery (LITA), 29.2% radial artery (RA), 4.4% right internal thoracic artery (RITA), and 100% saphenous vein. There were ischemic changes within 12 patients. All ischemic changes came back to normal within 4 and 18 hours, postoperatively. Mean extubation time was 5.36 2.23 hours, mean stay in intensive care unit was 17.53 3.15 hours, mean hospital stay was 5.03 1.29 days. The LITA patency was 99.25%, RA patency was 97.84%, RITA patency was 100%, and saphenous vein patency was 91.79% with control angiography. Conclusion: Off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is efficient procedure with lower index of mortality, morbidity, ICU stay, hospital stay, good wound healing, early socialization, and results in lower costs. [source]


    Compression of Mediastinal Structures Treated by Extra-Anatomic Bypass Grafting

    JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 4 2004
    Lynn Fedoruk M.D.
    Here we describe the use of an extra-anatomic bypass graft from the ascending to supraceliac aorta to treat an unusual complication of compression of mediastinal structures caused by a bucket handle graft. [source]


    How do nurses record pedagogical activities?

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 10 2007
    Nurses' documentation in patient records in a cardiac rehabilitation unit for patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass surgery
    Aims., To describe the use of pedagogically related keywords and the content of notes connected to these keywords, as they appear in nursing records in a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery rehabilitation unit. Background., Nursing documentation is an important component of clinical practice and is regulated by law in Sweden. Studies have been carried out in order to evaluate the educational and rehabilitative needs of patients following CABG surgery but, as yet, no study has contained an in-depth evaluation of how nurses document pedagogical activities in the records of these patients. Methods., The records of 265 patients admitted to a rehabilitation unit following CABG surgery were analysed. The records were structured in accordance with the VIPS model. Using this model, pedagogically related keywords: communication, cognition/development and information/education were selected. The analysis of the data consisted of three parts: the frequency with which pedagogically related keywords are used, the content and the structure of the notes. Results., Apart from the term ,communication', pedagogically related keywords were seldom used. Communication appeared in all records describing limitations, although no explicit reference was made to pedagogical activities. The notes related to cognition/development were grouped into the following themes: nurses' actions, assessment of knowledge and provision of information, advice and instructions as well as patients' wishes and experiences. The themes related to information were the provision of information and advice in addition to relevant nursing actions. The structure of the documentation was simple. Conclusions., The documentation of pedagogical activities in nursing records was infrequent and inadequate. Relevance to clinical practice., The patients' need for knowledge and the nurses' teaching must be documented in the patient records so as to clearly reflect the frequency and quality of pedagogical activities. [source]


    Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Versus Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation in Patients with Multivessel Coronary Disease

    JOURNAL OF INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    ZHEN KUN YANG M.D.
    Background: Drug-eluting stents (DES) constitute a major breakthrough in restenosis prevention after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study compared the clinical outcomes of PCI using DES versus coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (MVD) in real-world. Methods: From January 2003 to December 2004, 466 consecutive patients with MVD underwent revascularization, 235 by PCI with DES and 231 by CABG. The study end-point was the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) at the first 30 days after procedure and during follow-up. Results: Most preoperative characteristics were similar in the two groups, but left main disease (24.7% vs 2.6%, P<0.001) and three-vessel disease (65% vs 54%, P = 0.02) were more prevalent in CABG group. The number of coronary lesions was also greater in CABG group (3.7 1.1 vs 3.3 1.1, P<0.001). Despite higher early morbidity (3.9% vs 0.8%, P = 0.03) associated with CABG, there were no significant differences in composite MACEs at the first 30 days between the two groups. During follow-up (mean 258 months), the incidence of death, myocardial infarction, or cerebrovascular event was similar in both groups (PCI 6.3% vs CABG 5.6%, P = 0.84). However, bypass surgery still afforded a lower need for repeat revascularization (2.8% vs 10.4%, p = 0.001). Consequently, overall MACE rate (14.5% vs 7.9%, P = 0.03) remained higher after PCI. Conclusion: PCI with DES is a safe and feasible alternative to CABG for selected patients with MVD. The reintervention gap was further narrowed in the era of DES. Aside from restenosis, progression of disease needs to receive substantial emphasis. [source]


    Diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility during CABG surgery

    ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2 2003
    T. Girard
    A 55-year-old man presented for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Malignant hyperthermia (MH) was suspected in his family. This case report describes a diagnostic approach to obtain a definite MH diagnosis by performing an in vitro contracture test at the time of CABG surgery in combination with molecular genetic investigations. [source]


    Diagnostic value of pleural fluid N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels in patients with cardiovascular diseases

    RESPIROLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Huai LIAO
    Background and objective: The diagnosis of the cause of pleural effusions caused by cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure (CHF) and acute pulmonary embolism is sometimes difficult. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the utility of pleural fluid levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in differentiating pleural effusions due to CHF, pulmonary embolism and post-coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: The levels of pleural fluid NT-proBNP were measured by ELISA in a total of 40 patients: 10 with CHF, 10 with pulmonary embolism, 10 post-CABG and 10 with carcinoma. Results: The median level of NT-proBNP in the pleural fluid of patients with CHF was 5390 pg/mL (25th to 75th percentiles, 4566 to 8158 pg/mL), which was significantly higher than that in patients with post-CABG effusions (424 pg/mL, 352 to 873), with pulmonary embolism (311 pg/mL, 212 to 1159), or with carcinoma (302 pg/mL, 208 to 626) (P < 0.001, CHF group vs all other groups). In receiver-operating curve analysis, an NT-proBNP level of ,2220 pg/mL demonstrated a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96.7% for the identification of CHF. Conclusions: Measurement of the NT-proBNP level in pleural fluid is accurate in diagnosing the etiology of the effusion as CHF. Pleural fluid levels above 2220 pg/mL are essentially diagnostic that the pleural effusion is due to CHF. [source]


    Successful Salvage of Kidney Allografts Threatened by Ureteral Stricture Using Pyelovesical Bypass

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 6 2010
    R. A. Azhar
    Ureteral stricture is the most common urologic complication after renal transplantation. When endourologic management fails, open ureteral reconstruction remains the standard treatment. The complexity of some of these procedures makes it necessary to explore other means of repair. This study evaluated the intermediate-term outcome of subcutaneous pyelovesical bypass graft (SPBG) on renal transplant recipients. We reviewed 8 patients (6 male and 2 female; mean age 52 years) with refractory ureteral strictures postrenal transplantation, who received SPBG as salvage therapy. All patients failed endourologic management and half failed open management of their strictures. After a mean follow-up of 19.4 months, 7 out of 8 renal grafts have good function with mean GFR of 58.5 mL/min/1.73 m2, without evidence of obstruction or infection. One patient lost his graft due to persistent infection of the SPBG and one patient developed a recurrent urinary tract infection managed with long-term antibiotics. SPBG offers a last resort in the treatment of ureteral stricture after renal transplantation refractory to conventional therapy. [source]


    Peri-operative management of an adult patient with type 2N von Willebrand's disease scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 4 2007
    V. Gerling
    Summary We describe a patient with type 2N von Willebrand's disease scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass graft for severe three-vessel coronary artery disease with involvement of the left main stem. He was given a pre-operative bolus of 3000 IU factor VIII/Willebrand factor concentrate (, 40 IU.kg,1), followed by a continuous infusion of 3 IU.h,1 (228 IU.h,1) before undergoing coronary surgery with full heparinisation and cardiopulmonary bypass. There were no intra-operative bleeding complications and only one unit of packed red blood cells was required postoperatively. Thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular weight heparin and aspirin was given and the infusion of factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrate continued for 2 days. As a result of haematological monitoring, heparin therapy was changed from prophylactic to therapeutic on day 5,6 and stopped on day 7. [source]


    Delirium after coronary artery bypass graft surgery and late mortality

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Rebecca F. Gottesman MD
    Objective Delirium is common after cardiac surgery, although under-recognized, and its long-term consequences are likely underestimated. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether patients with delirium after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery have higher long-term out-of-hospital mortality when compared with CABG patients without delirium. Methods We studied 5,034 consecutive patients undergoing CABG surgery at a single institution from 1997 to 2007. Presence or absence of neurologic complications, including delirium, was assessed prospectively. Survival analysis was performed to determine the role of delirium in the hazard of death, including a propensity score to adjust for potential confounders. These analyses were repeated to determine the association between postoperative stroke and long-term mortality. Results Individuals with delirium had an increased hazard of death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38,1.97) up to 10 years postoperatively, after adjustment for perioperative and vascular risk factors. Patients with postoperative stroke had a HR of 2.34 (95% CI, 1.87,2.92). The effect of delirium on subsequent mortality was the strongest among those without a prior stroke (HR 1.83 vs HR 1.11 [with a prior stroke] [p -interaction = 0.02]) or who were younger (HR 2.42 [<65 years old] vs HR 1.49 [,65 years old] [p -interaction = 0.04]). Interpretation Delirium after cardiac surgery is a strong independent predictor of mortality up to 10 years postoperatively, especially in younger individuals and in those without prior stroke. Future studies are needed to determine the impact of delirium prevention and/or treatment in long-term patient mortality. ANN NEUROL 2010;67:338,344 [source]


    Safety and Efficacy of Bivalirudin in High-risk Patients Admitted Through the Emergency Department

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 8 2009
    Chadwick D. Miller MD
    Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to assess the safety and efficacy of bivalirudin monotherapy in patients with high-risk acute coronary syndrome (ACS) presenting to the emergency department (ED). Methods:, Data from the Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage StrategY (ACUITY) trial were used to conduct a post hoc subgroup analysis of high-risk ACS patients (cardiac biomarker elevation or ST-segment deviation) who initially presented to the ED. The ACUITY trial randomized patients to receive heparin (unfractionated [UFH] or enoxaparin) plus glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition (GPI), bivalirudin plus GPI, or bivalirudin monotherapy. Endpoints included composite ischemia, major bleeding (not coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) related), and net clinical outcome (major bleeding plus composite ischemia). Results:, Of 13,819 participants in the ACUITY trial, 6,441 presented initially to the ED, met high-risk criteria, and were included in the primary analysis. Bivalirudin alone when compared to heparin plus GPI, after adjusting for covariates, was associated with an improvement in net clinical outcome (12.3% vs. 14.3%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66 to 0.99), similar composite ischemia (9.3% vs. 9.1%, adjusted OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.77 to 1.24), and less major bleeding (4.0% vs. 6.8%, adjusted OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.42 to 0.75). Bivalirudin plus GPI when compared to heparin plus GPI had similar net clinical outcome (13.8% vs. 14.3%, adjusted OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.75 to 1.11), composite ischemia (8.8% vs. 9.1%, adjusted OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.69 to 1.11), and major bleeding (6.8% vs. 6.8%, adjusted OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.79 to 1.30). Conclusions: Bivalirudin monotherapy decreases major bleeding while providing similar protection from ischemic events compared to heparin plus GPI in patients with high-risk ACS admitted through the ED. [source]


    RISK FACTORS FOR SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION AND BACTERAEMIA FOLLOWING CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS SURGERY

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 1 2000
    Denis W. Spelman
    Background: There has been no consensus from previous studies of risk factors for surgical wound infections (SWI) and postoperative bacteraemia for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: Data on 15 potential risk factors were prospectively collected on all patients undergoing CABG surgery during a 12-month period. Results: Of 693 patients, 62 developed 65 SWI using the Centres for Disease Control definition: 23 were sternal wound infections and 42 were arm or leg wound infections at the site of conduit harvest. There were 19 episodes of postoperative bacteraemia. Multivariate analysis revealed that: (i) diabetes, obesity and previous cardiovascular procedure were independent predictors of SWI; and (ii) obesity was an independent risk factor for postoperative bacteraemia. Conclusions: These findings suggest that improved diabetic control and pre-operative weight reduction may result in a decrease in the incidence of SWI. But further prospective studies need to be undertaken to examine (i) whether the increased SWI risk in diabetes occurs with both insulin- and non-insulin-requiring diabetes, and whether improved peri-operative diabetes control decreases SWI; and (ii) what degree of obesity confers a risk of SWI and postoperative bacteraemia, and whether pre-operative weight reduction, if a realistic strategy in this patient group, results in a decrease in SWI. [source]


    Inflammatory rheumatic disease and smoking are predictors of aortic inflammation: A controlled study of biopsy specimens obtained at coronary artery surgery,

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 6 2007
    Ivana Hollan
    Objective Several inflammatory rheumatic diseases are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis may result from systemic and/or local vascular inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of chronic inflammatory infiltrates in the aortas of patients with and those without inflammatory rheumatic disease who had undergone coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, and to assess the relationship between the infiltrates and other factors thought to play a role in atherosclerosis, such as smoking. Methods Aortic specimens routinely removed during CABG surgery in 66 consecutive patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease and 51 control patients without inflammatory rheumatic disease were examined by light microscopy for the occurrence, location, and severity of chronic inflammatory infiltrates and atherosclerotic lesions. Results Mononuclear cell infiltrates in the inner adventitia (apart from those localized along the epicardium) were more frequent in the group of patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease (47% versus 20%; P = 0.002, odds ratio [OR] OR 3.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.6,8.5), and the extent of these infiltrates was greater. Multivariate analyses revealed that the occurrence of mononuclear cell infiltrates was associated with inflammatory rheumatic disease (OR 2.99, P = 0.020) and current smoking (OR 3.93, P = 0.012), and they were observed in 6 of 7 patients with a history of aortic aneurysm. Inflammatory infiltrates in the media were seen only in patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease. The frequency of atherosclerotic lesions, inflammation within the plaques, and epicardial inflammatory infiltrates in the 2 groups was equal. Conclusion Among aortic samples collected during CABG surgery, those obtained from patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease had more pronounced chronic inflammatory infiltration in the media and inner adventitia than those obtained from control patients. Current smoking was an independent predictor of chronic inner adventitial infiltrates. The infiltrates may represent an inflammatory process that promotes atherosclerosis and formation of aneurysms. [source]


    PCI versus CABG for multivessel coronary disease in diabetics,

    CATHETERIZATION AND CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Issue 1 2009
    Giuseppe Tarantini MD
    Abstract Objectives: To explore the clinical performance of a strategy of revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES) in diabetic patients with multivessel disease (MVD) compared with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), when it is based on clinical judgment. Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for poor outcome after PCI. However, PCI may result in better outcome if the choice of revascularization (PCI versus CABG) is based on the physician decision, rather than randomization. Limited experiences have compared revascularization by DES-PCI versus CABG in DM patients with MVD. Methods: From August 2004 to August 2005, 220 consecutive DM patients with MVD underwent DES-PCI (93) or CABG (127) at our Institution. The type of revascularization was dependent on patient and/or physician choice. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) included death, myocardial infarction, repeat coronary revascularization, and stroke. Results: Compared with PCI patients, CABG patients had higher prevalence of 3-vessel disease (P < 0.001), significant LAD involvement (P < 0.001), presence of total occlusions (P = 0.04), collateral circulation (P < 0.001). At 2-year follow-up, MACCE were not different between CABG group and DES-PCI group (OR 1.2; P = 0.6) and, only when the clinical judgment on the revascularization choice was excluded at propensity analysis, DES-PCI increased the risk of 24-month MACCE in total population (OR 1.8; P = 0.04). Conclusions: For patients with DM and MVD, a clinical judgment-based revascularization by DES-PCI is not associated with worse 2-year outcome compared with CABG. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Postpartum dissection of the left main coronary artery

    CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    Ian S. Rogers M.D., M.B.A.
    Abstract Peripartum coronary artery dissection is rare, but it is an increasingly recognized risk to women of childbearing age. Literature reviews reveal that about 80% of the population with spontaneous coronary artery dissections (SCAD) are female, and approximately 25,33% of cases occurred while the woman was pregnant or in the peripartum phase. Most cases have presented within 2 weeks of delivery. The left anterior descending is the most commonly affected vessel. The etiology is poorly understood, but many reports suggest that SCAD occurs as a result of protease release secondary to an eosinophilic vasculitis resulting in vessel lysis. Many investigators have examined the correlation between peripartum SCAD and estrogen levels; however, case studies have shown conflicting results regarding estrogen levels as the putative causative factor. Optimal treatment remains controversial. Presently, stenting appears to be best employed in the patients who have single-vessel dissection not involving the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Surgical revascularization via coronary artery bypass graft remains the optimal therapy in patients whose dissection involves the LMCA, in patients with concurrent multi-vessel dissection, and in patients with disease refractory to medical management. It is important to consider coronary artery dissection in the differential of any young woman who presents with signs or symptoms consistent with acute coronary syndrome, particularly if she is peripartum. Furthermore, once suspected, it is imperative that a definitive diagnostic study, that is, coronary angiography, be completed prior to the initiation of treatment whenever possible. [source]


    Characteristics of contemporary patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease

    CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 10 2004
    Rhonda M. Cooper-DeHoff PHARM.D.
    Abstract Background: Despite a high prevalence of hypertension in the population with CAD, there are limited data describing the clinical characteristics and treatments, as well as their interrelations in these patients. This is particularly true for black and Hispanic patients who have been underrepresented in randomized CAD trials. Hypothesis: There exist racial and ethnic differences that define the characteristics of patients with both coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension. Methods: This report describes the characteristics of Caucasian, Hispanic, and black patients enrolled in the International Verapamil SR/trandolapril Study (INVEST), a prospective trial undertaken exclusively in patients with CAD and hypertension. Results: In all, 10,925 Caucasian, 8,045 Hispanic, and 3,029 black patients are described. An abnormal angiogram or documented myocardial infarction was observed more frequently in Caucasian patients (73%), while angina pectoris was more prevalent in Hispanic patients (87%). Diabetes and left ventricular hypertrophy were most common in black patients (33 and 29%, respectively), while hypercholesterolemia and prior revascularization (coronary artery bypass graft or angioplasty) were most common in Caucasian patients (64 and 41%, respectively). More than 60% of Hispanic and black patients were women,a unique characteristic for randomized CAD trials. Comparing race/ethnic cohorts, there were significant differences for all characteristics. More than 80% of patients in all race/ethnic groups were receiving antihypertensive therapy; however, only fewer than 25% had controlled blood pressure according to guidelines from the sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Conclusions: This high-risk population of hypertensive patients with CAD has been undertreated and does not have well-controlled B P. Race/ethnic differences were observed for clinical characteristics and medication use. [source]