By Industry (by + industry)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Waste Minimisation Clubs: a cost-efficient policy instrument?

Stefan Henningsson
The total amount of solid waste generated in Europe is estimated to grow by 10% every year and there is increased concern over the associated environmental impacts. As a result, the minimization of waste at source in business and industry is a top priority in the European Community's waste strategy. In the UK, regional Waste Minimisation Clubs (WMCs) have been established to promote sustainable waste management in business and industry. The company clusters taking part in these clubs have reported financial savings combined with reductions in environmental impact. These results are disseminated to encourage further savings by the UK industry. This paper examines the savings as well as the costs involved in ten WMCs. It finds that there is a lack of standardization in the reporting of WMC results. This makes it difficult to evaluate the influence of WMCs, whilst also having an adverse effect on the credibility of waste minimization in business. Despite these problems, the paper finds that there is still strong evidence to suggest that these ten WMCs have been efficient in stimulating cost savings by industry, with an average rate of return on investment of 170%. It also finds that the financial benefits for companies are key outcomes of WMCs and that these benefits significantly exceed the estimated social benefits of the reduced environmental burden. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

Acute and chronic toxicity of imidazolium-based ionic liquids on Daphnia magna

Randall J. Bernot
Abstract Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are considered to be green chemicals that may replace volatile organic solvents currently used by industry. However, IL effects on aquatic organisms and ecosystems are currently unknown. We studied the acute effects of imidazolium-based ILs on survival of the crustacean Daphnia magna and their chronic effects on number of first-brood neonates, total number of neonates, and average brood size. Lethal concentrations of imidazolium ILs with various anions (X,) ranged from a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 8.03 to 19.91 mg L,1, whereas salts with a sodium cation (Na+ X,) were more than an order of magnitude higher (NaPF6 LC50, 9,344.81 mg L,1; NaBF4 LC50, 4765.75 mg L,1). Thus, toxicity appeared to be related to the imidazolium cation and not to the various anions (e.g., CI,, Br,, PF,6, and BF,4). The toxicity of imidazolium-based ILs is comparable to that of chemicals currently used in manufacturing and disinfection processes (e.g., ammonia and phenol), indicating that these green chemicals may be more harmful to aquatic organisms than current volatile organic solvents. We conducted 21-d chronic bioassays of individual D. magna exposed to nonlethal IL concentrations at constant food-resource levels. Daphnia magna produced significantly fewer total neonates, first-brood neonates, and average neonates when exposed to lower concentrations (0.3 mg L,1) of imidazolium-based ILs than in the presence of Na-based salts at higher concentrations (400 mg L,1). Such reductions in the reproductive output of Daphnia populations could cascade through natural freshwater ecosystems. The present study provides baseline information needed to assess the potential hazard that some ILs may pose should they be released into freshwater ecosystems. [source]

Present status, and social and economic significance of inland fisheries in Germany

H. Wedekind
The Federal Republic of Germany is situated in the central part of Europe and covers an area of 358 000 km2. The climate is maritime in the north and continental in the south with precipitation varying between 600 and 2000 mm year,1. Lakes and farm ponds are common in the north-eastern part of the country and in the alpine and pre-alpine regions to the south. A great number of small natural and artificial water bodies exist all over the country. There are about 800 000 ha of inland waters. The population of 82 million people are concentrated around a number of large conurbations. Over the last 150 years, intense use of the water resources by industry led to pollution and a severe decrease in river and lake fisheries. Only 587 inland fishing enterprises still existed in the early 1990s. Catches from commercial fisheries are decreasing with a total of 3469 t being caught in 1998. The Lake Constance fishery, which landed about 840 t in 1998, is an exception to the general trend. Strong competition for the aquatic resource is affecting commercial fisheries, whilst recreational fisheries have gained increasing importance over the last decades. Recent studies provided basic information on anglers' habits, social structure and economic significance as well as their effects on the waters. Aquaculture mainly produces rainbow trout, Oncoryhnchus mykiss (Walbaum) 20 000 t and carps (12 000 t) e.g. Cyprinus carpio L. Despite pressures from industry and conservation movements, regional support for fisheries and their development has intensified, leading to improved water quality. There are even attempts to re-establish abandoned fisheries. Co-operation with conservationists provides an opportunity for the future survival and development of fisheries. The fisheries and aquaculture sectors changed drastically after the reunification of Germany. The collapse of the infrastructure in the eastern part of Germany led to a decline in production and to a special investigation on recent developments of this sector. [source]

Role of habitat degradation in determining fish distribution and abundance along the lowland Warta River, Poland

A. Kruk
Summary The distribution and abundance of fish collected in 1996,1998 are compared in three river sections X, Y and Z in the 808-km-long Warta River, Poland. The upper section, X, was least human-modified, the middle section, Y, was the most polluted by industry and regulated, and the downstream section, Z, was moderately disturbed. The differences between X and Y in concentrations of dissolved oxygen, volatile phenols and nitrite nitrogen, and in the index of availability of hiding places, were highly significant because these parameters were several times worse in the Y section; in the Z section they assumed intermediate values. Although the abundance of certain fish species was changing along the downstream river gradient (i.e. differed the most between X and Z), both the Kohonen artificial neural network (SOM) and assemblage indices showed the biggest differences between X and Y, thus confirming the crucial role of the degradation of aquatic environment in shaping fish assemblages. The latter result ensued from the reaction of the rheophilic burbot, stone loach, gudgeon, chub and dace, which were most abundant in X, almost absent in Y and reoccurring in Z (although less numerous when compared with X). The opposite was recorded for mud loach, tench, ide and silver bream, which were most abundant in the degraded section Y, probably because of weak competition with the almost-absent rheophils. The abundance of two generalists, roach and pike, was similar in all three sections, i.e. changed neither along the downstream nor in the degradation gradient. [source]

Physicochemical, Nutritional, and Functional Characterization of Fruits Xoconostle (Opuntia matudae) Pears from Central-México Region

Salvador H. Guzmán-Maldonado
Abstract:, Xoconostle cv. Cuaresmeño (Opuntia matudae) has attracted domestic and international industry attention; however, variations of composition from xoconostle structures have not been evaluated. Industries discard the pulp (endocarp) and peel (pericarp) as wastes and utilize the skin (mesocarp), which is the edible portion. The physicochemical, nutritional, and functional characterization of structures from xoconostle pear from 3 major sites of production in Mexico were assessed. Skin yield ranged from 58% to 64% and was higher to that of peel (22% to 24%) and pulp (12% to 18%) yields. pH, °Brix, and acidity were similar among xoconostle structures. Total fiber showed by peel (18.23% to 20.37%) was 2-fold higher than that of skin. Protein and ether extract were higher in xoconostle pulp compared to that showed by peel and skin. Iron content of xoconostle peel (6 to 9.6 mg/100 g, DWB) was higher to that of skin and pulp and prickly pear pulp. Soluble phenols of peel (840 to 863 mg GAE/100 g, DWB) were almost similar to that of skin (919 to 986 mg GAE/100 g, dry weigh basis); meanwhile, ascorbic acid concentration of skin was 2-fold higher compared to that of peel. The phenolic fraction of xoconostle structures consisted of gallic, vanillic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids; catechin, epicatechin, and vanillin were also identified by high-performance liquid chromatography,didoe array detection (HPLC-DAD). Xoconostle peel showed higher antioxidant activity (TEAC) compared to that of skin (2-fold) and pulp (6-fold) of commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. The potential of xoconostle peel and pulp for the production of feed or food is promissory. Practical Application:, Outstanding nutritional and functional properties of xoconostle cv. Cuaresmeño fruits are demonstrated. Increased consumption could contribute positively to improve the diet of rural and urban consumers. The high fiber, mineral, and antioxidant components of xoconostle peel and pulp suggest that these fruit structures, which are currently discarded as waste, have promissory use as feed or food by industry. [source]

The GMO food arena in the EU (1998,2001)

Rinus van Schendelen
Abstract A highly politicised arena in the EU has been caused by the 1998 Commission legislative proposal with regard to genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The debate over different interests became more intense. During the EU decision-making process concerning GMOs, two larger coalitions cutting across institutions and countries waged the fight: one was led by industry and was in favour of GMOs and the other was against and mainly rooted in nongovernmental lobby groups. In mid-2001, the ,anti' movement had gained a (temporary) winning position. In an attempt to explain this, it was concluded that the industrial lobby has been nonchalant in its preparatory work for public affairs management, by not carefully studying the various stakeholders, issues, time developments and the boundaries of this arena. With the benefit of hindsight it can be seen that the industrial lobby itself has missed opportunities and made unforced errors. Copyright © 2003 Henry Stewart Publications [source]


ABSTRACT Papaya is a popular fruit among Brazilian consumers, but one problem is that fruit ripens quickly due to the high temperatures of the country. Irradiation is an effective way of slowing down ripening, hereby increasing shelf-life, but consumer acceptance of this novel technology is paramount for its successful introduction by industry. Using conjoint analysis, this research measures consumer acceptance of irradiated papaya fruit in a sample of urban Brazilian consumers. The study assesses the joint influence of product appearance, price and information about the use of irradiation for consumer choice. Real fruit was used and consumer responses were collected through intercept interviews in supermarkets. These two empirical aspects add external validity to the research. The responses from a convenience sample of 168 consumers from Rio de Janeiro revealed that the product appearance, as a proxy for product quality, was the most important factor influencing decision to purchase papaya. Price was of lesser importance. The participants in this study did not reject papaya due to the labelled information about the use of irradiation. This suggests irradiation as a viable alternative for fruit producers. Consumers demonstrated no knowledge about food irradiation, and education initiatives may be useful as a strategy to aid commercial introduction of irradiated papaya in Brazil. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This study has important practical implications for Brazilian agribusinesses because it contributes to our understanding of the relationship between market changes, consumer behavior, food products and processing technologies. It has shown that sensory appearance was the key factor influencing Brazilian consumers' choice of papaya, however, more education and information regarding irradiation technology should be provided. The results suggest that irradiation could be used in Brazil and provide a viable alternative to fruit producers. As a consequence, these results are useful for strategic planning of consumer education regarding food irradiation (with emphasis on the benefits of processing and addressing the myths), something which could, eventually, contribute to a more favorable consumer response to the technology. [source]

Evaluation and standardisation of small-scale canning methods for small white beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) canned in tomato sauce

Daleen van der Merwe
Abstract Canning and evaluation procedures should be standardised to ensure that beans selected, based on canning quality, meet the requirements set by the market and processors. For the purpose of evaluating the canning qualities of small white beans in tomato sauce, three small-scale canning techniques were evaluated, one of which was found to deliver a product with quality parameters similar to those of international standards. Using South African small white bean cultivars and the selected method, Teebus, the cultivar used by industry as the standard to indicate acceptable canning quality, displayed better visual appearance and less split beans than with the other two methods. The percentage washed drained weight and texture values of Teebus were also in agreement with international standards. The evaluation procedure for the small white beans after canning was also optimised, by comparing two procedures, which identified texture, visual appearance (scale 1 to 10), splits (scale 1 to 10), hydration coefficient, clumping, size and colour as the statistically most suitable quality parameters. With the aid of the developed method, it was possible to define standard values for South African ,choice' and ,standard' grade beans, which previously was based only on ,visual inspection' by a trained inspection panel. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Lessons learned by participants of distributed software development

Seija Komi-Sirviö
The maturation of the technical infrastructure has enabled the emergence and growth of distributed software development. This has created tempting opportunities for companies to distribute their software development, for example, to economically favourable countries so as to gain needed expertise or to get closer to customers. Nonetheless, such distribution potentially creates problems that need to be understood and addressed in order to make possible the gains offered. To clarify and understand the most difficult problems and their nature, a survey of individuals engaged in distributed software development was conducted. The purpose of this survey was to gather and share lessons learned in order to better understand the nature of the software development process when operating in a distributed software development environment and the problems that may be associated with such distributed processes. Through a clear appreciation of the risks associated with distributed development it becomes possible to develop approaches for the mitigation of these risks. This paper presents the results of the survey, focusing on the most serious problems raised by the respondents. Some practical guidelines that have been developed by industry to overcome these problems are also briefly summarized. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Duality Theory and Long,Period Price Systems

Arrigo Opocher
This paper concerns duality between long,period price systems in Sraffian models of production and the technologies of the various industries. We present a ,principle of duality between prices and technique' referred to a system of production, due to Bidard and Salvadori, and compare it with the usual textbook duality between cost and production functions, referred to firms/industries. We argue that the principle of duality for the system of production can be obtained, industry by industry, on the basis of the usual duality theory and that, in so doing, both ,dualities' are given a formulation more appropriate to firms/industries in long,period equilibrium. [source]

Predictive mechanical performance evaluation of consumer food cans using stereolithography models

D. Karalekas
Abstract The development of new metal food containers can be a technologically challenging and costly process. Understanding the interplay between the major design characteristics and requirements affecting the product's final structural capability is paramount to achieving an optimum design proposition. As a result, computer-based simulation has been employed by industry to assess a container's performance under a variety of load conditions, including axial load and panelling of cans. In this paper, the feasibility of a new approach for addressing the effects of design parameters on the structural performance of containers under development is investigated. The evaluation methodology is based on structural testing of stereolithography-built physical prototypes of a rigid metal container used for coffee packaging. It is shown that the experimentally obtained findings are in accordance to those resulting from computational simulation. This method can be used to support the development of existing and new metal containers. Copyright ©2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Prevalence of asthma by industry and occupation in the U.S. working population

Michelle K. McHugh MS
Abstract Background Workers are potentially exposed to asthmagens daily. Our study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of asthma among working adults in the U.S. by industry and occupation. Methods Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001,2004), multiple logistic regression was used to investigate associations between industry and occupation and current asthma as defined by positive responses to "Has a doctor or other health professional ever told you that you have asthma?" and "Do you still have asthma?" Results Workers in mining (17.0%), health-related industries (12.5%), teaching (13.1%), or in health-related occupations (12.6%) had the highest prevalence of asthma. As compared to construction industry workers, workers in mining (aOR,=,5.2, 95% CI: 1.1,24.2) or health-related (aOR,=,2.3, 95% CI: 1.1,4.8) industries had significantly higher odds of asthma. Conclusion Our study adds to the increasing evidence that miners, healthcare workers and teachers remain high-risk working populations and appropriate evaluation and control measures are needed to protect these workers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:463,475, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Costs by industry and diagnosis among musculoskeletal claims in a state workers compensation system: 1999,2004

Kari K. Dunning PhD
Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a tremendous burden on industry in the United States. However, there is limited understanding of the unique issues relating to specific industry sectors, specifically the frequency and costs of different MSDs. Methods Claim data from 1999 to 2004 from the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation were analyzed as a function of industry sector (NAICS industry-sector categories) and anatomical region (ICD-9 codes). Results Almost 50% of the claims were lumbar spine (26.9%) or hand/wrist (21.7%). The majority of claims were from manufacturing (25.1%) and service (32.8%) industries. The industries with the highest average costs per claim were transportation, warehouse, and utilities and construction. Across industries, the highest costs per claim were consistently for the lumbar spine, shoulder, and cervical spine body regions. Conclusion This study provides insight into the severity (i.e., medical and indemnity costs) of MSDs across multiple industries, providing data for prioritizing of resources for research and interventions. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:276,284, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Optimum survey methods when interviewing employed women

Kari Dunning PhD
Abstract Background While survey studies have examined bias much is unknown regarding specific subpopulations, especially women workers. Methods A population based phone, Internet, and mail survey of workplace falls during pregnancy was undertaken. Participation by industry and occupation and survey approach and bias, reliability, and incomplete data were examined. Results Of the 3,997 women surveyed, 71% were employed during their pregnancy. Internet responders were most likely to be employed while pregnant and to report a workplace fall at 8.8% compared to 5.8% and 6.1% for mail and phone respondents. Internet responders had the most missing employment data with company name missing for 17.9% compared to 1.3% for phone responders. Mail surveys were best for recruiting those employed in eight of nine industries, and this was especially true for service occupations. Conclusions To decrease bias and increase participation, mixed approaches may be useful with particular attention for collecting occupational data. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:105,112, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Potential work-related bloodborne pathogen exposures by industry and occupation in the United States Part I: An emergency department-based surveillance study,,

Guang X. Chen
Abstract Background Since the early 1990s, researchers have attempted to assess the magnitude of potential work-related bloodborne pathogen (BBP) exposures in the U.S. The only data-derived estimate of 385,000 needlestick and other sharps injuries per year was reported in 2004. The estimate was derived from a convenience sample and did not include exposures outside of hospitals. This study seeks to understand the magnitude and distribution of the exposures across all industries and occupations. Methods Data were from the 1998 to 2000 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), a stratified probability-based sample of U.S. hospital emergency departments (EDs). NEISS covers all industries and occupations. National estimates of exposures and exposure rates (the number of exposures/1,000 full-time equivalents (FTE)) were computed. Results An estimated 78,100 potential work-related exposures to BBP were treated in hospital EDs annually in the U.S. While hospitals accounted for 75% of all these exposures, 11 other industries had a substantial number of exposures. While registered nurses accounted for 36% of all exposures, 13 other occupations had a substantial number of exposures. Hospitals had the highest exposure rate of 11.3/1,000 FTE, followed by nursing homes (2.8), and residential care facilities without nursing (1.9). Registered nurses had the highest exposure rate of 15.3/1,000 FTE, followed by clinical laboratory technologists and technicians (13.9), and physicians (7.1). Conclusions While this study begins to more completely describe the problem of potential BBP exposure in the workplace, it is but a first step in further understanding the complex issues surrounding workplace BBP exposures. Am. J. Ind. Med. 50: 183,190, 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The impact of occupational injury reduction on the U.S. economy,

Eduard Zaloshnja PhD
Abstract Background Preventing occupational injuries reduces labor and fringe benefit costs to employers. The related savings filter through the economy, impacting its performance. This study is a first attempt to measure the impact of occupational injury reduction on national economic output, gross domestic product, national income, and employment by using an input,output model of the U.S. economy. Methods Occupational injury costs by industry for 1993 were used as a baseline for an input,output model, and the impact of the 38% injury rate reduction between 1993 and 2002 was measured. All computations are in year 2000 dollars. Results Declining occupational injury between 1993 and 2002 increased employment by an estimated 550,000 jobs. The increase in gross domestic product (GDP) was $25.5 billion or 9% of the average annual GDP increase from 1993 to 2002. Conclusions These estimates represent the benefits of injury rate reduction but ignore associated prevention costs. Am. J. Ind. Med. 49:719,727, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Slow crack growth-notches-pressurized polyethylene pipes

Norman Brown
A general method for predicting the lifetime of a polyethylene structure that fails by slow crack growth was applied to the case of externally notched pressurized pipes. An analysis of experimental data indicated that the residual stress must be taken into account. The critical notch depths associated with a given lifetime were calculated as a function of pipe size, PENT value of the resin, and temperature. The results were tabulated to serve as practical guide lines for deciding whether a pipe should be discarded if the notch is too deep. The current 10% of the thickness rule now used by industry was found to be invalid. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 47:1951,1955, 2007. © 2007 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

Organizational factors that influence safety,

Patrick Killimett
For the past 20 years the author and his associates have worked with over 1600 organizations to improve safety performance. In the course of this work, we have discovered that organizations optimize their efforts when they provide and support strong roles at each of three levels: the front-line employee, supervisory, and senior manager levels. These three roles, when appropriately engaged, make up a cord of three strands that is not easily broken. Of these three areas, the leadership role has proved not only to have the greatest impact on safety improvement but also the most complex to understand and influence. One striking example of this is seen in the study of sites using the same improvement methodology. Even when compared by industry, site size, and systems, some organizations achieve steady improvement whereas others consistently struggle. More than any other factor, the quality of the organization's leadership,in particular its influence on the organizational culture,determined the level of success achieved. By organizational culture we mean the shared common values that drive organizational performance, more commonly defined as "the way we do things here." Culture applies to many areas of functioning, is generally unstated, in the background, and slow to change. Even though it is generally recognized that leadership is important to performance, the "how" of that leadership is often debated. What makes a leader effective at influencing and improving safety? What are the qualities of such a leader? What are the key tasks that a leader must perform to generate desired results? Although this paper focuses on these questions with respect to senior leaders, the principles discussed are applicable to all levels in the organization. © 2006 Behavior Science Technology, Inc. (BST), 2006 [source]

Experimental determinations of factors affecting the sink rates of baited hooks to minimize seabird mortality in pelagic longline fisheries

Graham Robertson
Abstract 1.An experiment was conducted in Australia's pelagic longline fishery to establish a scientific basis for the introduction of line weighting to reduce seabird mortality. The experiment examined the effects of different bait species (blue mackerel, yellow-tail mackerel and squid), bait life status (dead or alive), weight of leaded swivels (60,g, 100,g and 160,g) and leader length (distance between leaded swivel and hooks: 2,m, 3,m and 4,m) on the sink rates of baited hooks from 0,6,m deep. 2.On average, live bait sank much more slowly than dead bait. The sink rates of individual live bait were highly variable: many were <2,m underwater 18,s after deployment, including some on the heaviest swivels, and some were <10,m deep after 120,s. 3.Within the dead bait group, all three swivel weights on 3,m and 4,m leaders sank at similar rates. Initial sink rates (e.g. 0,2,m) were 2,3 times slower than final rates (e.g. 4,6,m) for all combinations of swivel weight and leader length. The fastest initial and final sink rates were associated with heavy swivels placed close to hooks. 4.The results show that (a) compared with dead bait, live bait greatly increases the exposure of baited hooks to seabirds; (b) initial sink rates of dead bait are increased by placing leaded swivels close to hooks and final rates by increasing the weight of the swivels; (c) adding weight to long leaders makes little difference to sink rates; and (d) the small (incremental) changes to swivel weights and leader lengths typically preferred by industry will be difficult to detect at sea and unlikely to substantially reduce seabird mortality. 5.We suggest that experiments designed to reduce seabird mortality from that associated with 60,g swivels and ,3.5,m leaders (the preferred option by industry) should aim to expedite the initial sink rates as well as rates to deeper depths. This objective could be achieved by including branch lines with ,120,g swivels ,2,m in comparative assessments of the effectiveness of line weighting regimes in reducing seabird mortality. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Updating an input,output table for use in policy analysis

Benjamin L. Buetre
The long lag in the publication of input,output tables is one of the central constraints in applied general equilibrium analysis. Model builders often use out-dated databases leading to analyses that are inappropriate for the policy questions being addressed. This occurs particularly when there exists a significant structural change in the economy. We discuss the updating of an input,output table of the Philippines by simulation technique. A detailed computable general equilibrium model of the Philippine economy with comparative static and forecasting capabilities is utilised. The data are drawn from known percentage changes of macroeconomic variables such as those in the national accounts and structural variables such as employment and output by industry. [source]

Precautionary wealth accumulation: evidence from Canadian microdata

Sule Alan
Wealth information is obtained from the master files of the new Canadian Survey of Financial Security 1999 (SFS). Labour income risk proxies are constucted by industry using the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) between 1996 and 2001. The empirical results suggest the presence of a strong precautionary saving motive among Canadian households for broad definitions of wealth. Furthermore, consistent with the buffer-stock-saving model, the level of precautionary funds significantly increases when households face liquidity constraints. Ce texte calcule l'effet de l'incertitude du revenu de travail sur l'accumulation de la richesse à l'aide de deux sources de données. Les données sur la richesse sont tirées des résultats de l'Enquête sur la sécurité financière (ESF) de 1999. Les coefficients de risque attachés aux diverses industries sont développés à partir des résultats de l'Enquête sur la dynamique du travail et du revenu (EDTR) entre 1996 et 2001. Les résultats empiriques suggèrent la présence d'une forte motivation des ménages canadiens àépargner aux fins de précaution, si l'on accepte des définitions assez compréhensives de la richesse. De plus, d'une manière qui correspond au modèle d'épargne pour stockage tampon, le niveau des fonds aux fins de précaution s'accroît de manière significative à proportion que les ménages font face à des contraintes de liquidité. [source]