By Doing (by + doing)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of By Doing

  • learning by doing


  • Selected Abstracts


    LEARNING BY DOING IN THE PRESENCE OF AN OPEN ACCESS RENEWABLE RESOURCE: IS GROWTH SUSTAINABLE?

    NATURAL RESOURCE MODELING, Issue 1 2005
    CAROL McAUSLAND
    ABSTRACT. We examine the relationship between growth, resource abundance and trade when the natural resource is renewable and open access and there is inter-industry learning by doing. We find growth is not sustainable in the closed economy and can be sustained in the open economy only so long as the labor forced engaged in resource extraction shrinks over time. Comparisons of steady state welfare in autarky and free trade reveal that for very high or low world prices of the resource-based good, it is possible for the economy to gain from trade. However if the price is intermediate, it may instead lose. [source]


    Optimal Stabilization Policy in the Presence of Learning by Doing

    JOURNAL OF PUBLIC ECONOMIC THEORY, Issue 2 2000
    Philippe Martin
    This paper analyses the optimal stabilization policy when growth is driven by learning by doing. If benefits of learning by doing are not fully internalized, the optimal policy is to tax labor during expansions and to subsidize it during recessions. The long-term impact of this policy depends critically on initial conditions: If stabilization starts during an expansion, it has a positive effect on long-term production. When stabilization starts during a recession, its long-term effect is negative. The paper makes a methodological contribution in its analytical derivation of the optimal policy along the transition path as well as in the steady state. [source]


    Learning and skills formation in the new economy: evidence from Greece

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2002
    Stella Zambarloukos
    In today's knowledge,driven economy, education and training are considered major factors affecting a society's level of economic attainment and growth. Lack of information,related knowledge and skills, in particular, are among the prime factors likely to delay a country's progress towards the information society. Experience, however, has shown that an educated labour force does not automatically translate into dynamic economic development and technological innovation. The human resource potential is not a simple outcome of the education system but it is a much more complex process that involves tacit knowledge, learning by doing and on,the,job training. This means that skills and knowledge acquired depend not only on the educational system but on firm organisation and culture as well as ties between organisations. The present study examines the relationship between skill supply, firm organisation and learning by means of interviews in 23 firms in Greece. It shows that a major problem faced by SMEs in peripheral European countries is the lack of in,house capabilities and knowledge which limits the amount and type of learning that takes place. Finally, the article argues that policy,makers should institute educational policies and training programmes that will compensate for the inability of Greek firms to provide a learning environment. [source]


    Optimal Stabilization Policy in the Presence of Learning by Doing

    JOURNAL OF PUBLIC ECONOMIC THEORY, Issue 2 2000
    Philippe Martin
    This paper analyses the optimal stabilization policy when growth is driven by learning by doing. If benefits of learning by doing are not fully internalized, the optimal policy is to tax labor during expansions and to subsidize it during recessions. The long-term impact of this policy depends critically on initial conditions: If stabilization starts during an expansion, it has a positive effect on long-term production. When stabilization starts during a recession, its long-term effect is negative. The paper makes a methodological contribution in its analytical derivation of the optimal policy along the transition path as well as in the steady state. [source]


    LEARNING BY DOING IN THE PRESENCE OF AN OPEN ACCESS RENEWABLE RESOURCE: IS GROWTH SUSTAINABLE?

    NATURAL RESOURCE MODELING, Issue 1 2005
    CAROL McAUSLAND
    ABSTRACT. We examine the relationship between growth, resource abundance and trade when the natural resource is renewable and open access and there is inter-industry learning by doing. We find growth is not sustainable in the closed economy and can be sustained in the open economy only so long as the labor forced engaged in resource extraction shrinks over time. Comparisons of steady state welfare in autarky and free trade reveal that for very high or low world prices of the resource-based good, it is possible for the economy to gain from trade. However if the price is intermediate, it may instead lose. [source]


    Learning by viewing versus learning by doing: Evidence-based guidelines for principled learning environments

    PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT, Issue 9 2008
    Ruth Colvin Clark
    A learner-centered approach is a central feature of instruction based on a constructivist learning model. However, there is some confusion regarding the requirement for behavioral activity as a prerequisite for a learner-centered environment. We offer evidence in this article that some types of behavioral activity can interfere with cognitive learning processes. We recommend that instructional professionals focus on cognitive activity and summarize evidence-based methods that support appropriate cognitive activity in behaviorally passive and active learning environments. [source]


    Foundation for problem-based gaming

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    Kristian Kiili
    Educational games may offer a viable strategy for developing students' problem-solving skills. However, the state of art of educational game research does not provide an account for that. Thus, the aim of this research is to develop an empirically allocated model about problem-based gaming that can be utilised to design pedagogically meaningful games. The proposed model was evaluated through a business simulation game. The interviews indicated that authenticity, collaboration and learning by doing were found to be the most important characteristics of effective educational games. Results also showed that the proposed model describes well the problem-based gaming process in which the reflection phase seems to be a vital factor. The outcome of the reflection phase may be personal synthesis of knowledge, validation of hypothesis laid or a new playing strategy to be tested. However, because of the small sample size of this study, more research on the topic is recommended. Especially, ways to support reflection in games needs to be studied. [source]


    Teaching software engineering by means of computer-game development: Challenges and opportunities

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    Nergiz Ercil Cagiltay
    Software-engineering education programs are intended to prepare students for a field that involves rapidly changing conditions and expectations. Thus, there is always a danger that the skills and the knowledge provided may soon become obsolete. This paper describes results and draws on experiences from the implementation of a computer game-development course whose design addresses problems in software-engineering education by improving students' abilities in four areas: (1) problem solving; (2) the application of previously learned knowledge; (3) the use of independent learning; and (4) learning by doing. In order to better understand this course's effect on students' performance in a software-development project, I investigated 125 students' performance in a 1-year senior-project course. Results of this study show that the students who had taken the computer game-development course became more successful in the senior-project course than the students who had not taken it. [source]


    Aid, non-traded goods, and growth

    CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS, Issue 2 2010
    Takumi Naito
    Abstract We examine the effects of foreign aid in a small recipient country with two traded goods, one non-traded good, and two factors. Learning by doing and intersectoral knowledge spillovers contribute to endogenous growth. We obtain two main results. First, a permanent increase in untied aid raises (or lowers) the growth rate if and only if the non-traded good is more capital intensive (or effective labour intensive) than the operating traded good. Second, a permanent increase in untied aid raises welfare if the non-traded good is more capital intensive than the operating traded good; otherwise, it may raise or lower welfare. On examine les effets de l'aide étrangère sur un petit pays récipiendaire où il y a deux biens transigés internationalement (un bien capital et un bien de consommation), un qui ne l'est pas, et deux facteurs de production. L'apprentissage sur le tas et les effets de retombée intersectoriels de la connaissance alimentent la croissance endogène. On obtient deux résultats principaux. D'abord, il appert qu'un accroissement permanent d'aide libre de tous liens accroît (ou réduit) le taux de croissance si et seulement si le bien non-transigé a une plus forte intensité capitalistique (ou une intensité effective du facteur travail) que le bien transigé dans le secteur qui reste en opération. Ensuite, il appert qu'un accroissement permanent d'aide libre de tous liens accroît le bien-être si le bien non-transigé a une plus grande intensité capitalistique que le bien transigé dans le secteur qui reste en opération; autrement, un tel accroissement peut accroître ou réduire le bien-être. [source]


    Comparing Multiple Paths to Mastery: What is Learned?

    COGNITIVE SCIENCE - A MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL, Issue 5 2005
    Timothy J. Nokes
    Abstract Contemporary theories of learning postulate one or at most a small number of different learning mechanisms. However, people are capable of mastering a given task through qualitatively different learning paths such as learning by instruction and learning by doing. We hypothesize that the knowledge acquired through such alternative paths differs with respect to the level of abstraction and the balance between declarative and procedural knowledge. In a laboratory experiment we investigated what was learned about patterned letter sequences via either direct instruction in the relevant patterns or practice in solving letter-sequence extrapolation problems. Results showed that both types of learning led to mastery of the target task as measured by accuracy performance. However, behavioral differences emerged in how participants applied their knowledge. Participants given instruction showed more variability in the types of strategies they used to articulate their knowledge as well as longer solution times for generating the action implications of that knowledge as compared to the participants given practice. Results are discussed regarding the implications for transfer, generalization, and procedural application. Learning theories that claim generality should be tested against cross-scenario phenomena, not just parametric variations of a single learning scenario. [source]