By Decade (by + decade)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Posttraumatic stress disorder as a risk factor for obesity among male military veterans

W. V. R. Vieweg
Objective:, Obesity is a significant public health problem in the United States, particularly among military veterans with multiple risk factors. Heretofore, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has not clearly been identified as a risk factor for this condition. Method:, We accessed both a national and local database of PTSD veterans. Results:, Body mass index (BMI) was greater (P < 0.0001) among male military veterans (n = 1819) with PTSD (29.28 ± 6.09 kg/m2) than those veterans (n = 44 959) without PTSD (27.61 ± 5.99 kg/m2) in a sample of randomly selected veterans from the national database. In the local database of male military veterans with PTSD, mean BMI was in the obese range (30.00 ± 5.65) and did not vary by decade of life (P = 0.242). Conclusion:, Posttraumatic stress disorder may be a risk factor for overweight and obesity among male military veterans. [source]

Life expectancy among people with cerebral palsy in Western Australia

E Blair PhD
This report describes trends, predictors, and causes of mortality in persons with cerebral palsy (CP)using individuals identified by the Western Australian Cerebral Palsy Register and born between 1958 and 1994. Two thousand and fourteen people were identified (1154 males, 860 females), of whom 225 had died by 1 June 1997. Using date-of-death data, crude and standardized mortality rates were estimated and predictors of mortality sought using survival analysis stratified by decade of birth, description of impairments, and demographic and perinatal variables. For those born after 1967, the cause of death profile was examined over time. Mortality exceeded 1% per annum in the first 5 years and declined to age 15 years after which it remained steady at about 0.35% for the next 20 years. The strongest single predictor was intellectual disability, but all forms of disability contributed to decreased life expectancy. Half of those with IQ/DQ score <20 survived to adulthood, increasing to 76% with IQ/DQ score 20,34, and exceeding 92% for higher scores. Severe motor impairment primarily increased the risk of early mortality. Despite there being 72 persons aged from 25 to 41 years with severe motor impairment in our data set, none had died after the age of 25 years. Infants born after more than 32 weeks'gestation were at significantly higher risk of mortality than very preterm infants, accounted for by their higher rates of intellectual disability. No improvements in survival of persons with CP were seen over the study period despite advances in medical care, improved community awareness, and the increasing proportion of very preterm births among people with CP. This may be the result of improved neonatal care enabling the survival of infants with increasingly severe disabilities. [source]

Characteristics of skin aging in Korean men and women

J. H. Chung
Introduction Korea is located between Japan and Mainland China. The people of these three countries have similar appearances and it is difficult to differentiate between them. Although the population of Asia is more than half of the total population of the Earth, the inherent characteristics of Asian skin have not been well investigated. Commercial markets for cosmetics and drugs for photoaged skin are rapidly expanding in many Asian countries. Therefore, many investigators in the field of dermatology and cosmetology have become interested in brown Asian skin. Clinical characteristics of skin aging and photoaging in Asians Skin aging can be divided into two basic processes: intrinsic aging and photoaging [1]. Intrinsic aging is characterized by smooth, dry, pale, and finely wrinkled skin, whereas photoaging, which indicates premature skin aging in chronically photodamaged skin, is characterized by severe wrinkling and irregular pigmentation. The pattern of wrinkling in Asians seems to differ from that in Caucasians. Asians have coarser, thicker and deep wrinkles, particularly in the forehead, perioral and Crow's foot areas. In contrast, Caucasians usually have relatively fine cheek and Crow's foot wrinkles. The reasons for these differences are not known and need further investigation. There are racial, ethnic and genetic differences, and differences of skin structure and function, between the brown skin of Asians and the white skin of Caucasians. As Asian skin is more pigmented, acute and chronic cutaneous responses to UV irradiation differ from those in white skin. Many people believe, based on clinical impressions, that the main process of photoaging in Asians involves pigmentary changes, rather than wrinkling. However, no study has been performed to confirm this belief. Risk factors for skin wrinkles and their relative risks in Korean skin [2] Various factors such as age, sun-exposure, and smoking are known to be important risk factors for wrinkles. However, the relative risks of each factor on wrinkles in the brown skin of Asians have not been investigated, and they could differ from those in Caucasians. An evaluation system for skin wrinkling is necessary for Asian skin [3]. Thus, we developed an eight-point photographic scale for assessing wrinkles in both Korean genders [2]. This scale can probably be applied to the populations of other Asian countries, at least to the Japanese and Chinese. The pattern of wrinkles in both genders appears to be similar. Age Age is an important risk factor for wrinkling in Asians, as in Caucasians. Korean subjects in their 60s showed a 12-fold increased risk of wrinkling, while subjects in their 70s have a 56-fold increased risk compared with young age group. UV light It is well known that the UV component in sunlight can cause and accelerate photoaging. The pigmented skin of Asian may better protect skin from acute and chronic UV damage. However, we found a strong association between sun-exposure and the development of wrinkling in Koreans. It was found that sun exposure of more than 5 h per day was associated with a 4.8-fold increased risk in wrinkling versus less than 2 h of sun-exposure in Koreans. Estrogen deficiency Korean females have more wrinkles than men, after controlling for age, sun exposure, and smoking, it was found that they have a 3.6-fold increased risk of developing wrinkles than their male counterparts [2]. It has also been reported, that the relative risk for wrinkling in women is higher than in men as for in white Caucasians [4]. The reason why women show more wrinkles remains to be determined. It is possible that a reduction in skin collagen because of estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal woman may aggravate wrinkling severity. Korean women with more than 10 years since menopause showed a 3.9-fold higher risk of wrinkling than the women 5 years of beyond menopause [5]. We demonstrated that women with a history of HRT have a significantly lower risk, more specifically, one fifth of the risk of facial wrinkling relative to those who had no history of HRT. Interestingly, we found that wrinkle severity significantly increased with an increasing number of full term pregnancies. The relative risk for severe wrinkling is increased by approximately 1.8-fold per full term pregnancy. Smoking It is known that smoking causes skin wrinkling in Caucasians, and that it plays no role in Blacks [6, 7]. Koreans with have a smoking history of more than 30 pack years showed a more than 2.8-fold increased risk of wrinkles [2]. The relative risks of wrinkles associated with a 30,50 pack-years history of smoking were 2.8- and 5.5-fold, respectively. Dyspigmentation in Asian skin To follow pigmentary changes, six photographic standards for both genders were developed for Korean skin, to produce a 6-point scale [2, 8]. Hyperpigmented spots, mostly lentigines, were prominent among women, while seborrheic keratosis tended to be more prominent in men. Seborrheic keratosis in Korean men Seborrheic keratoses (SKs) are benign cutaneous tumors. They have diverse clinical and histopathological appearances and are very common in the elderly (over 50 years old). The etiology of SKs is not well understood, although patients with a great number of lesionsshow a familial trait with an autosomal dominant pattern, and human papilloma virus has been suggested as possible cause because of verrucous appearance of the lesions. Exposure to sunlight has been suggested to be a risk factor for SKs. However, there is still some debate in terms of the role of sunlight. Recently, we have investigated the clinical characteristics of SKs and relationship between SKs and sunlight exposure in Korean males [9]. The prevalence of SKs in Koreans increases with age; it rose from 78.9% at 40 years, to 93.9% at 50 years and 98.7% in those over 60 years. Exposed areas, i.e. the face, neck and dorsum of the hands, demonstrate a significant increase in the prevalence of SKs by decade, whereas partly exposed areas, although SKs tended to increase in prevalence with age, this trend was not significant. When the estimated body surface area (BSA) is taken into account, the number of SKs on both the face and dorsum of the hands (0.51 ± 0.08 per 1% BSA) was over-represented compared with the trunk. SKs were also concentrated on the neck (0.38 ± 0.07 per 1% BSA) and in the V-area (0.47 ± 0.09 per 1% BSA). Outer forearms also showed 3-fold more SKs per unit area than neighboring arms and inner forearms, which are classified as partly exposed area (0.09 ± 0.02, 0.03 ± 0.01, respectively). The total area covered by SKs on exposed area also became significantly larger with aging than on intermittently exposed areas. These results indicate that exposure to sunlight might be related to SK growth. Our results indicated that excessive sun exposure is an independent risk factor of SKs. After controlling for age, smoking, and skin type, subjects with a sun exposure history of more than 6 hours per day showed a 2.28-fold increased risk of having severe SKs (n , 6) compared with those exposed for less that 3 h per day. These findings indicated that sun-exposure may play an important role in SK development. In summary, SKs are very common in Korean males and represent one of the major pigmentary problems. SKs concentrate on exposed skin, especially on the face and dorsum of the hands. Both age and lifetime cumulative sunlight exposure are important contributing factors and may work in a synergistic manner. Conclusion Many people tend to believe that wrinkles are not a prominent feature of Asian photoaged skin, and that dyspigmentation is a major manifestation in Asian skin. Contrary to this impression, wrinkling is also a major problem in the photoaged skin of Asians, and Korean people showing severe pigmentary changes usually tend to have severe wrinkles. In conclusion, the wrinkling patterns and pigmentary changes of photoaged skin in East Asians differ from those of Caucasians, and the relative risks of aggravating factors may be different from those of Caucasian skin. References 1.,Gilchrest, B.A. Skin aging and photoaging: an overview. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 21, 610,613 (1989). 2.,Chung, J.H. et al. Cutaneous photodamage in Koreans: influence of sex, sun exposure, smoking, and skin color. Arch. Dermatol. 137, 1043,1051 (2001). 3.,Griffiths, C.E. et al. A photonumeric scale for the assessment of cutaneous photodamage. Arch. Dermatol. 128, 347,351 (1992). 4.,Ernster, V.L. et al. Facial wrinkling in men and women, by smoking status. Am. J. Public Health. 85, 78,82 (1995). 5.,Youn, C.S. et al. Effect of pregnancy and menopause on facial wrinkling in women. Acta Derm. Venereol. 83, 419,424 (2003). 6.,Kadunce, D.P. et al. Cigarette smoking: risk factor for premature facial wrinkling. Ann. Intern. Med. 114, 840,844 (1991). 7.,Allen, H.B., Johnson, B.L. and Diamond, S.M. Smoker's wrinkles? JAMA. 225, 1067,1069 (1973). 8.,Chung, J.H. Photoaging in Asians. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 19, 109,121 (2003). 9.,Kwon, O.S. et al. Seborrheic keratosis in the Korean males: causative role of sunlight. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 19, 73,80 (2003). [source]

Circadian Profile of Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Modulation in Healthy Subjects:

Differing Effects of Aging, Gender on Heart Rate Variability
Introduction: Although heart rate variability (HRV) has been established as a tool to study cardiac autonomic activity, almost no data are available on the circadian patterns of HRV in healthy subjects aged 20 to 70 years. Methods and Results: We investigated 166 healthy volunteers (81 women and 85 men; age 42 ± 15 years, range 20,70) without evidence of cardiac disease. Time-domain HRV parameters were determined from 24-hour Holter monitoring and calculated as hourly mean values and mean 24-hour values. All volunteers were fully mobile, awoke around 7 A.M., and had 6 to 8 hours of sleep. Circadian profiles of vagus-associated HRV parameters revealed a marked day-night pattern, with a peak at nighttime and a plateau at daytime. The characteristic nocturnal peak and the day-night amplitude diminished with aging by decade. Estimates of overall HRV (geometric triangular index [TI], SD of NN intervals [SDNN]) and long-term components of HRV (SD of the averages of NN intervals for all 5-min segments [SDANN]) were low at nighttime and increased in the morning hours. There was a significant decline of 24-hour values of all HRV parameters (P < 0.001) and a strong negative correlation (P < 0.001) with increasing age. Mean 24-hour RR interval (P < 0.001), SDNN, mean SD of NN intervals for all 5-minute intervals (SDNNi), and SDANN (all P < 0.01) were significantly higher in men. Younger men also exhibited significantly higher values for vagus-associated parameters (root mean square successive difference [rMSSD], P < 0.05; SDNNi, P < 0.01); however, gender differences diminished with increasing age. Conclusion: Normal aging is associated with a constant decline of cardiac vagal modulation due to a significant decrease of nocturnal parasympathetic activity. The significant gender-related difference of HRV decreases with aging. These findings emphasize the need to determine age-, gender-, and nycthemeral-dependent normal ranges for HRV assessment. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 14, pp. 791-799, August 2003) [source]

Prevalence and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus among apparently healthy individuals in Mongolia: a population-based nationwide study

Oidov Baatarkhuu
Abstract Background and Aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Mongolia. However, there are no data concerning nationwide prevalence of HCV infection in Mongolia. We intended to investigate the population-based prevalence of HCV infection and genotype distribution among 1512 apparently healthy individuals in this country. Methods: Between April 2003 and December 2005, sera from 1512 residents of Ulaanbaatar and 12 provinces were collected by two-stage cluster random sampling, and anti-HCV was tested. Anti-HCV-positive samples were tested for HCV RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and HCV genotype was determined. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 46.2±17.8 years, and 812 (53.7%) were male. Overall, the prevalence of anti-HCV was 15.6% (236/1512) and HCV RNA was detected in 167 subjects (11.0%), with the most common genotype being 1b (165/167, 98.8%). When the HCV RNA-positive subjects were categorized by decade of age, the prevalence in each age group was as follows: 2.5% in subjects ,10 years of age, 4.5% in teens, 10.1% in 20's, 12.5% in 30's, 24.2% in 40's, 29.0% in 50's and 32.6% in subjects ,61 years of age. The seroprevalence of anti-HCV in a risk group, nurses, was not significantly different from the general population in each decade of age (P>0.05). Conclusions: Approximately 11.0% of apparently healthy population had detectable HCV RNA in Mongolia, and the predominant genotype of HCV was 1b. Preventive and therapeutic strategies for chronic hepatitis C are urgently warranted in this HCV-endemic area. [source]

Geographical differences in physiques of male youth of age 18,20 years in China

Shang Lei
Three national surveys on the physical status of 18-, 19-, and 20-year-old male candidates for military service were carried out in six geographic regions of China in 1955, 1974, and 2001. Data from these surveys for 72,000 individuals were compared by region, by time, and by age, and estimates of incremental changes by decade were made. Overall, at all time points, males in the north and northeast areas were larger and heavier than males in the southwest. Similarly, the proportion of males in the north and northeast who were overweight was greater than in the other areas. The proportion classified as "thin" was highest in the south, southwest, and northwest, reaching 42.6% in the northwest. When urban and rural areas were compared, the mean value of every measure in every region was higher for urban youth, with all but two comparisons reaching significance (P<0.05). Differences of chest circumference among age groups were significant, as were differences in height, weight, and body mass index for 18-year-olds compared to 20-year-olds. Overall, height increments per decade were greatest for males in the southwest (average of age groups 1.79 cm, 1974 to 2001) and least in the northeast (1.08), indicating some tendency toward convergence over time. Weight increments per decade over the same time were greatest in north China (1.37 kg) and least in the northwest region (0.58 kg). Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:141,148, 2006. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Secular trend in peak oxygen consumption among United States youth in the 20th century

Joey C. Eisenmann
The purpose of this study was to examine secular change in peak oxygen consumption (Vo2) in U.S. boys and girls using available data from the 20th century. Studies were primarily identified from review articles and a Medline search. To be included in the analysis, studies must have included direct measurement of peak Vo2 on healthy (free from overt disease) United States children and youth from the general population separated by sex. Data (mean values) were divided by decade and separated into three age groups: 6,12, 13,15, and 16,18 years for boys, and 6,11, 12,14, and 15,18 years for girls. Peak Vo2 values were expressed as related to bipedal locomotion; therefore, cycle ergometry values were corrected by a factor of 1.075. Mean values were fit by least squares, goodness-of-fit regression lines. Results indicate that absolute (L·min,1) and relative (ml·kg,1·min,1) peak Vo2 have remained relatively stable among boys and young girls. In adolescent girls, particularly those 15 years of age and older, peak Vo2 has decreased by approximately 20% over the past few decades. The available data indicate that aerobic fitness has not decreased in United States youth except in adolescent girls over the past few decades. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 14:699,706, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Floristic changes in the British Isles: comparison of techniques for assessing changes in frequency of plants with time

Botanical recording data are often used to assess changes in the frequencies of plant species over time, but are subject to marked variations in recording activity. We compare and evaluate some general methods that can be used to detect changes in species' frequencies taking into account the recording variations. Models for 15 species that have been studied in detail previously were compared using the numbers of individual records, sites, hectads, or vice-counties at different time scales (year, decade, moving averages, and pre-/post- specific dates), with or without correction for recording variation. The best methods had a correction for the amount of recording over time, summarized records by decade or moving average, and used an extrapolation between first and last records for sites or hectads. Increasing the geographical and temporal scales can decrease the influence of recording variations, but leads to a loss of sensitivity and under-estimates the true extent of change. The choice between sites and hectads will depend on the detail of the records available; cruder data sets should use the latter. © 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 152, 279,301. [source]

Longterm visual prognosis in Usher syndrome types 1 and 2

André M. Sadeghi
Abstract. Purpose:, To estimate the age at diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa and to determine visual acuity deterioration, visual field impairment and the frequency of cataracts in Usher syndrome types 1 and 2. Methods:, We carried out a retrospective study of 328 affected subjects with Usher syndrome types 1 and 2. Study subjects were divided into seven different age groups by decade. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, general linear model anova and survival analysis. Results:, Retinitis pigmentosa was diagnosed significantly earlier in subjects with Usher syndrome type 1 than in those with type 2. Visual acuity was significantly more impaired in affected subjects with Usher syndrome type 1 than in those with type 2 from 50 years of age onwards. Survival analysis revealed a significant difference in visual field loss (, 10 degrees) between the two groups, with type 2 subjects tending to be more impaired, while comparison indicated no significant differences between the groups in any of the other visual field categories. Cataract was found to be generally more common in Usher syndrome type 1 than type 2. Conclusions:, Progressive loss of visual acuity and visual field begins to be substantial between the second and third decades of life in both Usher types. The rate of degeneration varies between individuals in both groups. The data are useful for the counselling of affected subjects with Usher syndrome types 1 and 2. [source]