Bt Protein (bt + protein)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

BTB and TAZ domain scaffold proteins perform a crucial function in Arabidopsis development

Hélène S. Robert
Summary In Arabidopsis, bric-a-brac, tramtrack and broad (BTB) domain scaffold proteins form a family of 80 proteins that have involvement in various signaling pathways. The five members of the subfamily of BTB AND TAZ DOMAIN proteins (BT1,BT5) have a typical domain structure that is only observed in land plants. Here, we present a functional analysis of the BT family, of which at least four members are encoded by auxin-responsive genes. BT1 is a short-lived protein that is characteristically targeted for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Expression pattern, gene structure and sequence analyses indicate that BT1 and BT2 are closely related. They both localize to the nucleus and the cytosol, whereas the remaining BT proteins were determined as cytosolic proteins. Detailed molecular and phenotypic analysis of plants segregating for null mutations in the BT family revealed substantial redundancy among the BT members, and highlighted that BT proteins perform crucial roles in both male and female gametophyte development. BT2 seems to be the predominant gene in this process, in which it is functionally replaced by BT3 and BT1 through reciprocal transcription regulation. Compensational expression alters the steady-state mRNA levels among the remaining BT family members when other BT members are lost, and this contributes towards functional redundancy. Our data provide a surprising example of functional redundancy among genes required during gametophyte development, something that could not be detected in the current screens for gametophyte mutants. [source]

Subacute effects of transgenic Cry1Ab Bacillus thuringiensis corn litter on the isopods Trachelipus rathkii and Armadillidium nasatum

Bryan W. Clark
Abstract Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the subacute effects of transgenic Cry1Ab corn leaf material containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein on the terrestrial isopods Trachelipus rathkii and Armadillidium nasatum. Survival and growth were measured for eight weeks in isopods fed leaf material of two Bt11 corn varieties, two Monsanto 810 (Mon810) corn varieties, and the isolines of each. Total lipid and protein content of the organisms was measured to examine effects on energetic reserves. Armadillidium nasatum individuals in all treatments responded similarly. For T. rathkii, no statistically significant effect of Bt was observed, but statistical differences were observed in growth between hybrids. Protein and sugar content of the food were found to be correlated with the differences in growth for T. rathkii. Total protein content was higher in T. rathkii and A. nasatum fed material with higher protein and sugar content. A trend toward less growth in T. rathkii on Bt corn varieties versus their isolines triggered a concentration-response assay with purified Cry1Ab protein. No adverse effects of purified Bt protein were observed. These results indicate that little hazard to T. rathkii and A. nasatum from Bt corn leaf material from these hybrids exists. However, nutritional differences in corn hybrids contributed to differences in isopod growth. [source]

Determination of baseline susceptibility to Cry1Ab protein for Asian corn borer (Lep., Crambidae)

K. He
Abstract:, Although transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn can provide a new tool for control of the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), concern has been raised regarding the possibility of the target insect evolving resistance to the Bt protein under intensive selection pressure from Bt corn. Therefore, it is necessary to establish baseline data to enable detection of changes in susceptibility in field populations after prolonged exposure to Bt corn. Susceptibility to purified Cry1Ab protein from Bt was determined for 10 populations of ACB from the major corn-growing regions of China, ranging geographically from Heilongjiang Province in the northeast to Shaanxi Province in the east-central part. Neonate ACB were exposed to semi-artificial diet incorporated with increasing Cry1Ab protein concentrations, and mortality and growth inhibition were evaluated after 7 days. The range of LC50 (50% lethal concentration) among the populations was 0.10 to 0.81 ,g/g (Cry1Ab protein/diet). Differences (P < 0.05) in susceptibility among the populations were significant. LC50s generated from the Huanghuaihai Summer Corn Region were higher than those from the Spring Corn Regions. Bt was one of the significant natural biomortality factors of overwintering generation ACB. There was a significant correlation between percentage of the larvae infected with Bt and their LC50 values to Cry1Ab protein in geographic distinct populations (r = 0.7350*, d.f. = 8, r0.05 = 0.632). Based on the background of Bt formulations used for corn insect pests control in these areas, these differences were not caused by prior exposure to Bt insecticides. Instead, the small differences likely reflect natural Bt selection pressure. Because the variation in susceptibility to Cry1Ab was small (<10-fold), the ACB apparently is susceptible to Cry1Ab across its range within China. [source]

Expression of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protein in cotton plants, acquisition by pests and predators: a tritrophic analysis

Jorge B. Torres
Abstract 1.,Studies have shown that Cry proteins of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis expressed in transgenic plants can be acquired by nontarget herbivores and predators. A series of studies under field and controlled conditions was conducted to investigate the extent to which Cry1Ac protein from Bt transgenic cotton reaches the third trophic level and to measure the amount of protein that herbivores can acquire and expose to predators. 2.,Levels of Cry1Ac in Bt cotton leaves decreased over the season. Among herbivores (four species), Cry1Ac was detected in lepidopteran larvae and the amount varied between species. Among predators (seven species), Cry1Ac was detected in Podisus maculiventris and Chrysoperla rufilabris. 3.,In the greenhouse, only 14% of the Cry1Ac detected in the prey (Spodoptera exigua larvae) was subsequently found in the predator P. maculiventris. Detection of Cry1Ac protein in Orius insidiosus, Geocoris punctipes and Nabis roseipennis was probably limited by the amount of prey consumed that had fed on Bt cotton. 4.,Purified Cry1Ac was acquired by the small predatory bug G. punctipes but at much higher concentration than found in plants or in lepidopteran larvae. 5.,Bt protein was shown to move through prey to the third trophic level. Predatory heteropterans acquired Cry1Ac from prey fed Bt cotton, but acquisition was dependent on the concentration of Cry1Ac conveyed by the prey and the amount of prey consumed. The type and availability of prey capable of acquiring the protein, coupled with the generalist feeding behaviour of the most common predators in the cotton ecosystem, probably constrain the flow of Cry1Ac through trophic levels. [source]