Bt Maize (bt + maize)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Evaluation of stress- and immune-response biomarkers in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed different levels of genetically modified maize (Bt maize), compared with its near-isogenic parental line and a commercial suprex maize

A Sagstad
Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate if genetically modified (GM) maize (Bt maize, event MON810) compared with the near-isogenic non-modified (nGM) maize variety, added as a starch source at low or high inclusions, affected fish health of post-smolt Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. To evaluate the health impact, selected stress- and immune-response biomarkers were quantified at the gene transcript (mRNA) level, and some also at the protein level. The diets with low or high inclusions of GM maize, and its near-isogenic nGM parental line, were compared to a control diet containing GM-free suprex maize (reference diet) as the only starch source. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver and distal intestine was significantly higher in fish fed GM maize compared with fish fed nGM maize and with the reference diet group. Fish fed GM maize showed significantly lower catalase (CAT) activity in liver compared with fish fed nGM maize and to the reference diet group. In contrast, CAT activity in distal intestine was significantly higher for fish fed GM maize compared with fish fed reference diet. Protein level of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in liver was significantly higher in fish fed GM maize compared with fish fed the reference diet. No diet-related differences were found in normalized gene expression of SOD, CAT or HSP70 in liver or distal intestine. Normalized gene expression of interleukin-1 beta in spleen and head-kidney did not vary significantly between diet groups. Interestingly, fish fed high GM maize showed a significantly larger proportion of plasma granulocytes, a significantly larger sum of plasma granulocyte and monocyte proportions, but a significantly smaller proportion of plasma lymphocytes, compared with fish fed high nGM maize. In conclusion, Atlantic salmon fed GM maize showed some small changes in stress protein levels and activities, but none of these changes were comparable to the normalized gene expression levels analysed for these stress proteins. GM maize seemed to induce significant changes in white blood cell populations which are associated with an immune response. [source]

An econometric analysis of regional adoption patterns of Bt maize in Germany

Nicola Consmüller
Bt maize; Genetically modified organisms (GMO); Germany; Panel data analysis Abstract In this study, our goal is to identify and explain the underlying factors that drive regional adoption of Bt maize MON810 in Germany. Since regional differences cannot be explained by the occurrence of the target pest alone, we assume that under the given regulatory framework for genetically modified (GM) crop production in Germany, farm structures as well as the sociopolitical environment have also influenced regional adoption rates during the past years. Following a description of the relevant legal and economic framework in Germany, we develop theoretical hypotheses for regional variation in Bt maize adoption and test them econometrically with unique data at the federal state (Laender) and county (Landkreis) level. According to our analysis at the federal state level, the maize acreage per farm is the main driver of Bt maize adoption. In addition, there are signs that public opposition to GM cultivation as measured by membership in the German Friends of the Earth association significantly dampens GM cultivation. At the level of Brandenburg counties, the regional infestation frequency of the European Corn Borer, the target pest of Bt-Maize, is the major determinant of adoption. Although Bt maize is a scale-neutral technology for controlling damages caused by the Corn Borer, additional fixed costs due to regulation make the technology scale dependent. [source]

Distal intestinal gene expression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed genetically modified maize

Abstract In the current experiment, RNA was isolated from the distal intestine (DI) of Atlantic salmon-fed fishmeal-based diets containing either genetically modified (GM) maize (Bt maize, Mon810®, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri, USA) or its conventional near-isogenic parental line (non-GM) for 82 days, both at 300 g kg,1 inclusion. From a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library, 192 clones with similarity to both known and novel Atlantic salmon sequences were identified. Real-time PCR was used to study the differential expression of 10 clones between the dietary groups. Expression of a clone showing high protein similarity to proton-dependent high-affinity oligopeptide transporter was significantly upregulated in fish-fed GM maize compared with fish-fed non-GM maize. No significant differences in expression were observed for the nine other clones showing similarity to the following proteins: heat shock protein 90B, procathepsin B, interferon gamma-inducible protein 30, ferritin heavy subunit, serum lectin isoform/C-type mannose-binding lectin, fatty acid-binding protein/gastrotropin, ATP synthase [H+ transporting, mitochondrial F0 complex, subunit c (ATPSYNT)], sonic hedgehog and translationally controlled tumour protein. In conclusion, only minor differences in DI transcriptional gene expression was observed between fish fed the GM and non-GM maize diets. [source]