Bt Crops (bt + crop)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Spatial and temporal variability in host use by Helicoverpa zea as measured by analyses of stable carbon isotope ratios and gossypol residues

Graham Head
Summary 1.,A high dose/refuge strategy has been adopted in the USA to manage the risk of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) resistance in target pests such as the cotton bollworm (CBW), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) in transgenic Bt cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. Structured refuges, consisting of non-Bt cotton, have been a mandated part of this strategy to produce non-selected insects that are temporally and spatially synchronous with insects from the Bt crop, diluting Bt resistance alleles through mating. However, the bollworm is highly polyphagous and exploits a large number of crop and weedy hosts concurrently with Bt cotton. 2.,A study was carried out in five major US cotton-producing states during 2002 and 2003 using the ratios of 13C to 12C in bollworm moths to estimate the proportions of the population originating from C3 or C4 plants. A separate study measured gossypol residues in moths from four states in 2005 and 2006, enabling the identification of moths whose natal hosts were cotton rather than other C3 hosts. 3.,C4 hosts served as the principal source of bollworm moths from mid-to-late June to early September, depending on the state. Beginning in late August/early September and lasting 1,4 weeks, the majority of moths exhibited isotopic compositions characteristic of C3 hosts. During this period, however, the minimum percentage of moths that developed as larvae on C4 hosts was typically >25%. By mid-September and through October and November, the majority of the bollworm population exhibited C4 isotopic compositions. 4.,Between late June and early August, cotton-derived bollworm moths (moths with gossypol residues) comprised <1% of moths in all states, and remained below this level throughout the season in North Carolina. In other states, cotton-derived moths increased between early August and early September to peak at an average of 19·1% of all moths. 5.,Synthesis and applications.,Data on 13C/12C ratios and gossypol residues in CBW moths were used to assess the importance of structured non-Bt cotton refuges for the management of Bt resistance risk in H. zea. Weekly estimates of bollworm breeding on cotton, C3 plants other than cotton and C4 plants showed that, throughout the season, the majority of bollworm moths caught in pheromone traps adjacent to cotton fields did not develop as larvae on cotton. This result implies that management practices in cotton such as the use of structured cotton refuges will play a relatively minor role , particularly compared with maize Zea mays L. , in managing potential resistance to Bt cotton in populations of the CBW in the US Cotton Belt. [source]

Evaluation of dietary effects of transgenic corn pollen expressing Cry3Bb1 protein on a non-target ladybird beetle, Coleomegilla maculata

Jian J. Duan
Abstract A transgenic corn event (MON 863) has been recently developed by Monsanto Company for control of corn rootworms, Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). This transgenic corn event expresses the cry3Bb1 gene derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), which encodes the insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein for corn rootworm control. A continuous feeding study was conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the dietary effect of MON 863 pollen expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein on the survival, larval development, and reproductive capacity of the non-target species, Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). First instar C. maculata (less than 24 h old) and newly emerging adults (less than 72 h old) were fed individually on a diet mixture containing 50% of MON 863 pollen, non-transgenic (control) corn pollen, bee pollen (a component of normal rearing diet), or potassium arsenate-treated control corn pollen. In the larval tests, 96.7%, 90.0%, and 93.3% of C. maculata larvae successfully pupated and then emerged as adults when fed on MON 863 pollen, non-transgenic corn pollen, and bee pollen (normal rearing) diets, respectively. Among the larvae completing their development, there were no significant differences in the developmental time to pupation and adult emergence among the transgenic corn pollen, non-transgenic corn pollen, and bee pollen diet treatments. All larvae fed on arsenate treated corn pollen diet died as larvae. For tests with adults, 83.3%, 80.0%, and 100% of adult C. maculata survived for the 30 days of the test period when reared on diets containing 50% of MON 863 pollen, non-transgenic corn pollen, and bee pollen respectively. While the adult survival rate on MON 863 pollen diet was significantly less than that on the bee pollen diet, there was no significant difference between the MON 863 and non-transgenic corn pollen treatments. During the period of adult testing, an average of 77, 80, and 89 eggs per female were laid by females fed on the MON 863 pollen, control corn pollen, and bee pollen, respectively; no significant differences were detected in the number of eggs laid among these treatments. These results demonstrate that when offered at 50% by weight of the dietary component, transgenic corn (MON 863) pollen expressing Cry3Bb1 protein had no measurable negative effect on the survival and development of C. maculata larvae to pupation and adulthood nor any adverse effect on adult survival and reproductive capacity. Relevance of these findings to ecological impacts of transgenic Bt crops on non-target beneficial insects is discussed. [source]

Evolutionary ecology of insect adaptation to Bt crops

Yves Carrière
Abstract Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are used worldwide to control major pests of corn and cotton. Development of strategies to delay the evolution of pest resistance to Bt crops requires an understanding of factors affecting responses to natural selection, which include variation in survival on Bt crops, heritability of resistance, and fitness advantages associated with resistance mutations. The two main strategies adopted for delaying resistance are the refuge and pyramid strategies. Both can reduce heritability of resistance, but pyramids can also delay resistance by reducing genetic variation for resistance. Seasonal declines in the concentration of Bt toxins in transgenic cultivars, however, can increase the heritability of resistance. The fitness advantages associated with resistance mutations can be reduced by agronomic practices, including increasing refuge size, manipulating refuges to increase fitness costs, and manipulating Bt cultivars to reduce fitness of resistant individuals. Manipulating costs and fitness of resistant individuals on transgenic insecticidal crops may be especially important for thwarting evolution of resistance in haplodiploid and parthenogenetic pests. Field-evolved resistance to Bt crops in only five pests during the last 14 years suggests that the refuge strategy has successfully delayed resistance, but the accumulation of resistant pests could accelerate. [source]