Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of BP

  • ambulatory bp
  • cal. kyr bp
  • decreased bp
  • diastolic bp
  • ka bp
  • kyr bp
  • mean bp
  • systolic bp
  • year bp

  • Terms modified by BP

  • bp allele
  • bp change
  • bp control
  • bp deletion
  • bp downstream
  • bp duplication
  • bp encoding
  • bp fragment
  • bp ii
  • bp insertion
  • bp level
  • bp long
  • bp measurement
  • bp monitoring
  • bp open reading frame
  • bp patient
  • bp reduction
  • bp region
  • bp segment
  • bp sequence
  • bp star
  • bp upstream
  • bp value

  • Selected Abstracts

    Video completion and synthesis

    Chunxia Xiao
    Abstract This paper presents a new exemplar-based framework for video completion, allowing aesthetically pleasing completion of large space-time holes. We regard video completion as a discrete global optimization on a 3D graph embedded in the space-time video volume. We introduce a new objective function which enforces global spatio-temporal consistency among patches that fill the hole and surrounding it, in terms of both color similarity and motion similarity. The optimization is solved by a novel algorithm, called weighted priority belief propagation (BP), which alleviates the problems of slow convergence and intolerable storage size when using the standard BP. This objective function can also handle video texture synthesis by extending an input video texture to a larger texture region. Experiments on a wide variety of video examples with complex dynamic scenes demonstrate the advantages of our method over existing techniques: salient structures and motion information are much better restored. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Improvement In Blood Pressure Control With Impedance Cardiography-Guided Pharmacologic Decision Making

    Donald L. Sharman MD
    Previous reports have demonstrated improvement in blood pressure (BP) control utilizing noninvasive hemodynamic measurements with impedance cardiography (ICG). The purpose of this article is to report the effect of utilizing ICG-guided decision making to treat uncontrolled hypertension in a community generalist setting. Patient medical records were retrospectively reviewed for subjects on two antihypertensive agents with systolic blood pressure ,140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ,90 mm Hg. All subjects were treated utilizing a previously published ICG-guided treatment algorithm. Twenty-one subjects met the BP and medication criteria. BP at entry was 157.2±13.9/78.7±9.9 mm Hg. Subjects were treated for 215±85 days (5.0±2.0 visits). After ICG-guided treatment, 12/21 (57.1%) achieved sustained BP control (p<0.001). BP was lowered to 141.6±22.0 (p<0.001)/77.1±10.7 (p>0.05) mm Hg. Antihypertensive agents increased from 2.0±0.0 to 2.5±0.7 (p<0.05). In this series of subjects with uncontrolled BP taking two antihypertensive agents, ICG-guided pharmacologic decision making resulted in significant reduction in BP and improvement in BP control. [source]

    Cardiac autonomic function and baroreflex changes following 4 weeks of resistance versus aerobic training in individuals with pre-hypertension

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
    S. R. Collier
    Abstract Aim:, Cardiac autonomic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) are altered in individuals with hypertension. Aerobic exercise (AE) training has been shown to improve both measures, yet little is known about the effects of resistance exercise (RE). The purpose of this study was to examine the heart rate variability (HRV) and BRS following 4 weeks of resistance or aerobic training in a population with borderline high blood pressure (BP). Methods:, Twenty-nine mild hypertensives were recruited and randomly assigned to 4 weeks of RE or AE training. Before and after training, resting measures of HRV frequencies and BRS were obtained. Results:, There was a significant decrease in resting systolic BP for both exercise training modes (RE 136 ± 3.0 pre- to 132 ± 3.4 post-training vs. AE 142 ± 4.0 pre- to 137 ± 3.6 mmHg post-training, P = 0.019). Diastolic BP decreased significantly following both exercise training modes (RE 78 ± 1.31 pre to 74 ± 1.1 post vs. AE 80 ± 1.7 pre to 77 ± 1.6 mmHg post, P = 0.002). A significant time by training mode interaction for low frequency : high frequency (HF) ratio (P = 0.017) with AE decreasing the ratio (275.21 ± 67.28 to 161.26 ± 61.49) and RE increasing this ratio (143.73 ± 65.00 to 227.83 ± 59.41). Natural log-transformed (ln) HRV values showed a time-by-training mode interaction for ln HF (P = 0.05) as ln HF increased (4.7 ± 0.38 to 5.4 ± 0.35 ms2) following AE and decreased (5.98 ± 0.37 to 5.76 ± 0.42 ms2) following RE. BRS increased following aerobic training and decreased after resistance training (6.74 ± 1.2 to 7.94 ± 1.3 and 10.44 ± 1.2 to 9.1 ± 1.2 ms mmHg,1 respectively, P = 0.021). Conclusions:, Aerobic exercise improved the autonomic nervous system (increasing vagal tone, reducing sympathovagal balance while increasing BRS) while RE showed no improvements in cardiac autonomic tone and decreased BRS. [source]

    Twenty-four-hour non-invasive monitoring of systemic haemodynamics and cerebral blood flow velocity in healthy humans

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2002
    ABSTRACT Acute short-term changes in blood pressure (BP) and cardiac output (CO) affect cerebral blood flow (CBF) in healthy subjects. As yet, however, we do not know how spontaneous fluctuations in BP and CO influence cerebral circulation throughout 24 h. We performed simultaneous monitoring of BP, systemic haemodynamic parameters and blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAV) in seven healthy subjects during a 24-h period. Finger BP was recorded continuously during 24 h by Portapres and bilateral MCAV was measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD) during the first 15 min of every hour. The subjects remained supine during TCD recordings and during the night, otherwise they were seated upright in bed. Stroke volume (SV), CO and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were determined by Modelflow analysis. The 15 min mean value of each parameter was assumed to represent the mean of the corresponding hour. There were no significant differences between right vs. left, nor between mean daytime vs. night time MCAV. Intrasubject comparison of the twenty-four 15-min MCAV recordings showed marked variations (P < 0.001). Within each single 15-min recording period, however, MCAV was stable whereas BP showed significant short-term variations (P < 0.01). A day,night difference in BP was only observed when daytime BP was evaluated from recordings in the seated position (P < 0.02), not in supine recordings. Throughout 24 h, MCAV was associated with SV and CO (P < 0.001), to a lesser extent with mean arterial pressure (MAP; P < 0.005), not with heart rate (HR) or TPR. These results indicate that in healthy subjects MCAV remains stable when measured under constant supine conditions but shows significant variations throughout 24 h because of activity. Moreover, changes in SV and CO, and to a lesser extent BP variations, affect MCAV throughout 24 h. [source]

    Hemidesmosome protein dynamics in live epithelial cells

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 2 2003
    Daisuke Tsuruta
    Abstract Hemidesmosomes mediate stable anchorage of epithelial cells to laminin-5 in the basement membrane zone and have been likened to spot-welds. Indeed, it has been assumed that hemidesmosomes are not dynamic, at least when compared to other matrix adhesion sites including focal contacts. We tested this notion by monitoring the fate of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged human integrin ,4 subunit (GFP-h,4) and GFP-tagged 180-kD human bullous pemphigoid (BP) autoantigen (GFP-BP180) in live cultures of 804G cells that assemble numerous mature hemidesmosomes. In subconfluent 804G cells, both GFP-h,4 and GFP-BP180 protein clusters are not stable but assemble into and disassemble out of cat paw,like arrays at a relatively rapid rate. In confluent populations of 804G cells, although some cat paw,like clusters of both GFP-h,4 and GFP-BP180 are stable over periods of >60 min, other GFP-h,4 and GFP-BP180 protein arrays form and/or disappear during the same time period. Moreover, individual labeled particles show considerable motility in the plane of the membrane. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analyses provide a further indication of the dynamics of hemidesmosome proteins. In particular, bleached GFP-h,4 protein clusters in confluent cells recover signal within about 30 min, indicating that there is a relatively rapid turnover of hemidesmosome components in protein arrays clustered along the substratum attached surface of a cell. The rate of recovery is dependent on an intact microfilament system. In sharp contrast, bleached GFP-BP180 protein clusters in confluent cells fail to recover signal even when observed for longer than 60 min. To evaluate hemidesmosome protein dynamics in motile cells, we monitored GFP-h,4 and GFP-BP180 in 804G cells populating scrape wound sites in vitro. In these migratory cells, which lack mature hemidesmosomes, integrin ,4 subunit and BP180 protein clusters progressively assemble and disassemble into linear and cat-paw arrays. In summary, hemidesmosome protein clusters, like their counterparts in focal contacts, are dynamic. We discuss these results in relation to hemidesmosome functions. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 54:122,134, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability in OCD with and without comorbid social anxiety disorder: preliminary findings,

    Franklin R. Schneier M.D.
    Abstract Dopamine D2 receptor availability in the striatum has been reported to be low in generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) and obsessive,compulsive disorder (OCD), but it has not been studied in persons with comorbid OCD and GSAD (OCD+GSAD). D2 receptor availability was assessed in 7 subjects with OCD+GSAD, 8 with OCD, and 7 matched healthy comparison (HC) subjects, all unmedicated adults. D2 receptor availability was assessed with single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) to measure binding potential (BP) of the D2 receptor radiotracer [123I] iodobenzamide ([123I]IBZM). Mean striatal [123I]IBZM BP was significantly lower in the OCD+GSAD group (72.58 mL/g, SD=18.17) than in the HC group (118.41 mL/g, SD=45.40; P=.025). Mean BP in the OCD group (93.08 mL/g, SD=36.90) did not differ significantly from the HC group (P=.247). Trait detachment, as measured by the Detachment subscale of the Karolinska Scales of Personality, was negatively correlated with D2 availability across all subjects (rs=,.55, P=.013). Comorbid GSAD and OCD may be associated with decreased availability of D2 receptors in the striatum, consistent with prior findings in GSAD. Prior findings of decreased D2 receptor availability in noncomorbid OCD were not confirmed. Decreased D2 receptor availability was also associated with trait detachment, supporting prior findings in samples of healthy subjects. Depression and Anxiety 0:1,7, 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Linear and nonlinear measures of blood pressure variability: Increased chaos of blood pressure time series in patients with panic disorder

    Vikram K. Yeragani M.B.B.S.
    Abstract Arterial blood pressure (BP) variability increases progressively with the development of hypertension and an increase in BP variability is associated with end organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity. On the other hand, a decrease in heart rate (HR) variability is associated with significant cardiovascular mortality. There is a strong association between cardiovascular mortality and anxiety. Several previous studies have shown decreased HR variability in patients with anxiety. In this study, we investigated beat-to-beat variability of systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) in normal controls and patients with panic disorder during normal breathing and controlled breathing at 12, and 20 breaths per minute using linear as well as nonlinear techniques. Finger BP signal was obtained noninvasively using Finapres. Standing SBPvi and DBP BPvi (log value of BP variance corrected for mean BP divided by HR variance corrected for mean HR) were significantly higher in patients compared to controls. Largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) of SBP and DBP, a measure of chaos, was significantly higher in patients in supine as well as standing postures. The ratios of LLE (SBP/HR) and LLE (DBP/HR) were also significantly higher (P < .001) in patients compared to controls. These findings further suggest dissociation between HR and BP variability and a possible relative increase in sympathetic function in anxiety. This increase in BP variability may partly explain the increase in cardiovascular mortality in this group of patients. Depression and Anxiety 19:85-95, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Electroconvulsive therapy is equally effective in unipolar and bipolar depression

    S. Bailine
    Bailine S, Fink M, Knapp R, Petrides G, Husain MM, Rasmussen K, Sampson S, Mueller M, McClintock SM, Tobias KG, Kellner CH. Electroconvulsive therapy is equally effective in unipolar and bipolar depression. Objective:, To determine the relative efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the treatment of bipolar (BP) and unipolar (UP) depressive illness and clarify its role in BP depression. Method:, Patients referred for ECT with both UP and BP depressions. [classified by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID-I) criteria for history of mania] were included in a multi-site collaborative, double-masked, randomized controlled trial of three electrode placements , right unilateral, bifrontal or bitemporal , in a permutated block randomization scheme. Results:, Of 220 patients, 170 patients (77.3%) were classified as UP and 50 (22.7%) as BP depression in the intent-to-treat sample. The remission and response rates and numbers of ECT for both groups were equivalent. Conclusion:, Both UP and BP depressions remit with ECT. Polarity is not a factor in the response rate. In this sample ECT did not precipitate mania in depressed patients. Treatment algorithms for UP and BP depression warrant re-evaluation. [source]

    Metabolic and haemodynamic effects of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension

    M. H. Uehara
    SUMMARY Background Since metformin improves insulin sensitivity, it has been indicated for patients with diabetes and hypertension, which are insulin-resistant conditions. In contrast to its well-known effects on carbohydrate metabolism, its potential for reducing blood pressure (BP) and its effect on leptin levels have been investigated less frequently. Patients and Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was carried out with 26 overweight diabetic subjects with mild-to-moderate hypertension to assess the effects of metformin-induced glycaemic control on BP and metabolic parameters. After a 4-week placebo period, when BP was stabilized by calcium channel blockers, they received either metformin (MG) or placebo (PG) for 12 weeks. Results Neither group showed any change in weight throughout the study. Only metformin-treated patients reduced fasting plasma glucose (8.54 + 1.72 to 7.54 + 1.33 mmol/l, p <,0.05), although HbA1c had decreased in both groups (PG: 6.7±3.0 to 5.9±2.6%; MG: 5.3±1.5 to 4.6±0.9%; p <,0.05). The initial office mean BPs were similar and decreased at the end of the treatment period in both groups, reaching statistical significance only in MG (105.7±8.0 to 99.2±9.3 mmHg, p <,0.05). No difference was observed when comparing baseline and final values obtained by 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring. Metformin induced a reduction in both insulinaemia (71.0±62.4 to 38.0±23.0 pmol/l, p <,0.05) and the insulin resistance index (3.5±2.7 to 1.8±1.0, p <,0.05). The two groups had similar baseline leptin levels which remained unchanged after treatment (PG: 16.8±7.9 to 21.4±14.6 ,g/l; MG: 18.5±10.3 to 18.4±8.9 ,g/l). Dopamine levels increased significantly only in metformin-treated subjects. Conclusions Reductions in both the insulin levels and the resistance index reinforced metformin capacity to improve peripheral sensitivity. Moreover, such benefits were not accompanied by any hypotensive effects. Since leptin levels were affected neither by metformin per se nor by the induced insulinaemia reduction, our data support the role of body weight as the major determinant of circulating leptin levels. [source]

    QT interval prolongation in association with impaired circadian variation of blood pressure and heart rate in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 11 2007
    K. Karavanaki
    Abstract Aims, The aim of our study was to assess diurnal blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability and their possible relationship to the duration of the QT interval in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. Methods, In 48 normotensive, normoalbuminuric diabetic adolescents, with a mean (± sd) age of 17.3 (± 4.1) years and a mean (± sd) diabetes duration of 8.5 (± 3.3) years, 24-h ambulatory BP was recorded. In addition, 24-h heart rate (HR) monitoring was performed and QT and corrected QT (QTc) intervals were estimated as indices of autonomic function. The patients were divided into two groups according to the absence of a decrease (non-dippers) or the presence of a decrease (dippers) in nocturnal diastolic BP (DBP). Results, In comparison with the dippers, the non-dippers showed reduced mean 24-h HR (79.6 vs. 84.0 beats/min, P = 0.05) and reduced mean daytime HR (81.3 vs. 86.0 beats/min, P = 0.05). The QT interval was prolonged in the non-dippers (366.3 vs. 347.5 ms, P = 0.015), and end systolic (28.7 vs. 25.9 mm, P = 0.004) and end diastolic left ventricular diameters (47.8 vs. 45.5 mm, P = 0.037) were greater. In stepwise multiple regression, HR variables were the most important factors affecting DBP ratio or the duration of the QT interval. Conclusions, In conclusion, normotensive diabetic adolescents with impaired nocturnal BP reduction also have impaired autonomic function tests, in association with prolonged QT interval and increased left ventricular diameters. These findings suggest that diabetic adolescents who have the ,non-dipper' phenomenon may need close follow-up for the possible development of vascular complications, such as cardiac arrhythmias and left-ventricular hypertrophy. [source]

    The metabolic syndrome and changing relationship between blood pressure and insulin with age, as observed in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 11 2005
    A. E. Schutte
    Abstract Aims To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. A further objective was to investigate the relationships between fasting insulin and blood pressure (BP) within these groups with increasing age. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study included 369 Torres Strait Islanders (residing in Torres Strait and Far North Queensland), and 675 Aborigines from central Australia. Data necessary for classification of MS was collected, including fasting and 2-h glucose and insulin, urinary albumin and creatinine, anthropometric measurements, BP, serum lipids. Results The ATPIII criteria classified 43% of Torres Strait Islanders and 44% of Aborigines with MS, whereas 32 and 28%, respectively, had the MS according to WHO criteria. Agreement between the two criteria was only modest (kappa coefficient from 0.28 to 0.57). Factor analyses indicated no cluster including both insulin and BP in either population. Significant correlations (P < 0.05) [adjusted for gender, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference] were observed between BP and fasting insulin: a positive correlation for Torres Strait Islanders aged 15,29 years, and an inverse correlation for Aborigines aged 40 years and older. Conclusion Torres Strait Islanders and Aborigines had very high prevalences of the MS. Specific population characteristics (high prevalences of central obesity, dyslipidaemia, renal disease) may make the WHO definition preferable to the ATPIII definition in these population groups. The poor agreement between criteria suggests a more precise definition of the metabolic syndrome that is applicable across populations is required. This study showed an inverse relationship with age for the correlation of BP and fasting insulin. [source]

    The effect of spironolactone, cilazapril and their combination on albuminuria in patients with hypertension and diabetic nephropathy is independent of blood pressure reduction: a randomized controlled study

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 5 2004
    R. Rachmani
    Abstract Objective The effect of spironolactone, cilazapril and their combination on albuminuria was examined in a randomized prospective study in female patients with diabetes and hypertension. Patients and methods Sixty female diabetic patients aged 45,70 years with blood pressure (BP) 140,180/90,110 mmHg, serum creatinine (sCr) , 160 µmol/l, HbA1c , 10%, and albuminuria were treated by atenolol 12.5,75 mg/d and hydrochlorothiazide 6.25,25 mg/d. Titration-to-target helped to reach BP values , 135/85 mmHg in 46 patients after 12 weeks. These patients were randomized to spironolactone 100 mg/d or cilazapril 5 mg/d for 24 weeks. Then both groups received spironolactone 50 mg/d and cilazapril 2.5 mg/d for 24 weeks. BP was stabilized by tapering the dose of the initial agents. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), BP, K+. sCr and HbA1c were assessed at baseline and at weeks 12, 16, 36 and 60. Results The average BP at week 12 was 128 ± 4/81 ± 3 mmHg and remained constant, in both groups, throughout the study. ACR declined on spironolactone from a median value (range) of 452 (124,1571) to 216 (64,875) mg/g (P = 0.001), and on cilazapril to 302 (90,975) mg/g (P = 0.001). The difference between spironolactone and cilazapril was significant (P = 0.002). Combined treatment resulted in a further modest decline in ACR. Serum creatinine was unaltered by spironolactone and rose slightly (121 to 126 µmol/l, P = 0.02) on cilazapril. Conclusion At the doses tested, spironolactone was superior to cilazapril in reducing albuminuria. Combined administration was more effective than either drug alone. These effects were independent of BP values. Hyperkalaemia was the main side-effect. [source]

    Characterizing blood pressure control in individuals with Type 2 diabetes: the relationship between clinic and self-monitored blood pressure

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 9 2003
    R. S. Mazze
    Abstract Aims To determine the relationship between blood pressure (BP) measurement in the clinic and self-monitored blood pressure (SMBP); and to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported data in patients with Type 2 diabetes treated intensively for hypertension. Methods Seventy subjects had baseline and 1-week follow-up clinic BP measured using an Omron 907® automated device. During a contemporaneous 14-day period these subjects measured their BP at least four times each day using an Omron IC® semiautomatic portable monitor which, unknown to them, contained an onboard memory capable of storing BP with corresponding time and date. Results There was no significant difference between mean clinic and mean self-monitored BP. Correlations between clinic BP and SMBP were r = 0.61 (P < 0.0001) for systolic BP and r = 0.69 (P < 0.0001) for diastolic BP. Clinic BP classified 56 subjects as uncontrolled hypertension (BP , 130/80 mmHg, adjusted for diabetes) and 14 subjects as controlled hypertension. Using World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension criteria for SMBP (, 125/75 mmHg), 55 cases of clinic classified uncontrolled hypertension were confirmed, resulting in 98% sensitivity. Clinic and SMBP agreed in one case of controlled hypertension, resulting in 7% specificity. For all subjects, the median percent of values exceeding SMBP criteria for controlled hypertension was systolic 92% and diastolic 70%. Self-reporting precision averaged 89 ± 10% (range 45,100%); under-reporting was 25 ± 16% (ranging from 0 to 56%) and over-reporting was 12 ± 15% (ranging from 0 to 46%). The overall logbook mean was not significantly different from the downloaded data from the Omron IC® monitors. Conclusions SMBP was able to identify 13 patients with uncontrolled hypertension who, by clinic BP measurement, had been classified as controlled. [source]

    Characteristic patterns of circadian variation in plasma catecholamine levels, blood pressure and heart rate variability in Type 2 diabetic patients

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 5 2002
    K. Kondo
    Abstract Aims To investigate whether Type 2 diabetic patients exhibit characteristic patterns of circadian variation in plasma levels of catecholamines, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods Ten Type 2 diabetic and eight control in-patients were studied. Blood for catecholamine measurement was collected every 4 h, and non-invasive ambulatory BP and heart rate were monitored throughout the day. HRV was determined using frequency domain methods. Results Diabetic patients showed a different pattern of circadian variation in BP and HRV from that of controls, the diurnal-nocturnal differences (D-N) being significantly smaller. The mean 24-h HRV levels were reduced in diabetic subjects. The mean 24-h plasma noradrenaline level of 1.36 ± 0.12 nmol/l in diabetic patients was significantly lower than the 2.03 ± 0.20 nmol/l in controls (P < 0.01). In contrast, no significant difference in adrenaline levels was observed. The mean 24-h plasma noradrenaline level demonstrated a significant positive correlation with D-N in systolic BP (r = 0.49, P = 0.0153). Conclusions The present study demonstrated distinctive patterns of circadian variation in plasma noradrenaline level, BP and HRV in Type 2 diabetic patients, associated with an abnormal circadian pattern of sympathovagal modulation. [source]

    Assessment of blood pressure in patients with Type 2 diabetes: comparison between home blood pressure monitoring, clinic blood pressure measurement and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 6 2001
    M. G. Masding
    Abstract Aims To compare a home blood pressure (BP) monitoring device and clinic BP measurement with 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods Fifty-five patients with type 2 DM had BP measured at three consecutive visits to the DM clinic by nurses using a stethoscope and mercury sphygmomanometer (CBP). Twenty-four-hour ambulatory BP was measured using a Spacelabs 90207 automatic cuff-oscillometric device (ABPM). Subjects were then instructed in how to use a Boots HEM 732B semiautomatic cuff-oscillometric home BP monitoring device and measured BP at home on three specified occasions on each of 4 consecutive days at varying times (HBPM). Results Correlations between HBPM and ABPM were r = 0.88, P < 0.001 for systolic BP and r = 0.76, P < 0.001 for diastolic BP, with correlations between CBP and ABPM being systolic r = 0.59, P < 0.001, diastolic r = 0.47, P < 0.001. HBPM agreed with ABPM more closely compared with CBP (CBP +10.9/+3.8 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 6.9, 14.8/1.6, 6.1) vs. HBPM +8.2/+3.7 (95% CI 6.0, 10.3/2.0, 5.4)). The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of HBPM in detecting hypertension were 100%, 79% and 90%, respectively, compared with CBP (85%, 46% and 58%, respectively). Conclusions In patients with Type 2 DM, home BP monitoring is superior to clinic BP measurement, when compared with 24-h ambulatory BP, and allows better detection of hypertension. It would be a rational addition to the annual review process. Diabet. Med. 18, 431,437 (2001) [source]


    Kazutoshi Hashiguchi
    Background:, A clinical study was conducted to investigate the safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine for sedation of patients undergoing routine upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Methods:, Forty middle-aged patients who were admitted for medical examination were randomized to receive an initial loading dose infusion of dexmedetomidine 6.0 µg/kg per h over 10 min followed by a maintenance infusion of 0.6 µg/kg per h (group A) or rapid infusion of midazolam 0.05 mg/kg (group B) as sedation for routine endoscopy. Sixty patients did not receive sedative agent (group C). Assessment included measurement of heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), oxygen saturation, and endoscopy duration. Results:, There were no statistically significant differences among the groups in baseline characteristics. The level of sedation was similar between groups A and B, and the gag response score was significantly lower in the sedated groups than in group C. Hemodynamic stability was also demonstrated in group A during and after the endoscopic procedure. Increased systolic/diastolic BP was significantly attenuated in group A compared with group C. Interestingly, HR was significantly suppressed in group A than in groups B and C. In groups A and B, SpO2 was decreased compared with group C during and after the procedures; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was no significant difference among the groups with endoscopy duration. Conclusions:, For sedation during upper endoscopy, dexmedetomidine is as safe and effective as midazolam, and it significantly reduces HR and BP during and after the endoscopic procedures. [source]

    Palaeomonsoon variability in the southern fringe of the Badain Jaran Desert, China, since 130 ka BP

    Quanzhou Gao
    Abstract Taking the Chagelebulu Stratigraphic Profile as a typical example, a comprehensive study has been conducted to elucidate the palaeoclimatic and geomorphic evolution patterns in the southern fringe of the Badain Jaran Desert, which were found to be complex and polycyclic in the past 130 ka. However, the fluctuating magnitude is not as remarkable as that in the eastern China sandy region. The shift in climate from interglacial to glacial and the uplift process of the Qinghai,Xizang Plateau are the two leading forces driving the evolution of the climate and desert landforms in this area. Seventeen cycles of cold, dry and warm, humid climatic stages were recognized in the Upper Pleistocene Series of the profile. The sharp uplift of the Qinghai,Xizang Plateau superimposed a cool and arid climatic trend in this area. As a result of the climatic changes, the desert in this area has undergone multiple stages of expansion and contraction since 130 ka bp. The middle Holocene Epoch and the early stage of the Late Pleistocene Period were the main periods when the sand dunes became stabilized, and the early and late phases of the Holocene Epoch and late phase of the Pleistocene Epoch were the main periods when the previously stabilized sand dunes became mobile. The late phase of the Pleistocene Epoch was the most mobile stage, when the aeolian sand activities formed the essential geomorphic pattern of the Badain Jaran Desert. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Mapping the geochemistry of the northern Rub' Al Khali using multispectral remote sensing techniques

    Kevin White
    Abstract Spatial variations in sand sea geochemistry relate to mixing of different sediment sources and to variations in weathering. Due to problems of accessibility, adequate spatial coverage cannot be achieved using field surveys alone. However, maps of geochemical composition produced from remotely sensed data can be calibrated against limited field data and the results extrapolated over large, inaccessible areas. This technique is applied to part of the Rub' Al Khali in the northern United Arab Emirates. Trend surface analysis of the results suggests that the sand sea at this location can be modelled as an east,west mixing zone of two spectral components: terrestrial reddened quartz sands and marine carbonate sands. Optical dating of these sediments suggests that dune emplacement occurred rapidly around 10 ka BP, when sea level was rising rapidly. The spatial distribution of mineralogical components suggests that this phase of dune emplacement resulted from coastal dune sands being driven inland during marine transgression, thereby becoming mixed with rubified terrestrial sands. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Echocardiographic Left Ventricular Mass in a Multiethnic Southeast Asian Population: Proposed New Gender and Age-Specific Norms

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2008
    M.R.C.P., Raymond Ching-Chiew Wong M.B.B.S.
    Background: Left ventricular mass (LVM) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular outcome. We aimed to define normal reference values of LVM/body surface area (BSA) in a multiethnic Southeast Asian population across ages, and define demographic parameters that predict LVM/BSA. Methods: 198 subjects (44% men, mean age 40 ± 14 years, 82% Chinese, 13% Malay and 5% Indian) with no cardiovascular comorbidity and had normal echo images for age were included in the analysis. Echo LVM was calculated as: 1.04 ×[(left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole {LVIDd}+ interventricular septal thickness at end-diastole {IVSd}+ left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-diastole {LVPWd})3, LVIDd3× 0.8]+ 0.61, indexed by BSA (LVM/BSA)* and expressed as g/m2. Results: BSA and blood pressure (BP) were comparable between dichotomous age groups < or , 50 years within the same gender. Women aged , 50 years had larger IVSD, LVPWd, LVM and LVM/BSA compared to younger cohort. (p < 0.01 for all variables). The 95th percentile of LVM in men and women were 189 g and 148 g respectively; corresponding values for LVM/BSA were 106 and 96 g/m2. These values are consistently smaller than published values from the West. Age (r = 0.27, P < 0.001), gender (r =,0.30, P < 0.001), and systolic BP (r = 0.25, P = 0.003) were significant univariate predictors of LVM/BSA. Conclusion: We therefore propose a different cutoff value for the diagnosis of LV hypertrophy among Southeast Asians. [source]

    Sources for sedimentary bacteriohopanepolyols as revealed by 16S rDNA stratigraphy

    Marco J. L. Coolen
    Summary Bacteriohopanoids are widespread lipid biomarkers in the sedimentary record. Many aerobic and anaerobic bacteria are potential sources of these lipids which sometimes complicates the use of these biomarkers as proxies for ecological and environmental changes. Therefore, we applied preserved 16S ribosomal RNA genes to identify likely Holocene biological sources of bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) in the sulfidic sediments of the permanently stratified postglacial Ace Lake, Antarctica. A suite of intact BHPs were identified, which revealed a variety of structural forms whose composition differed through the sediment core reflecting changes in bacterial populations induced by large changes in lake salinity. Stable isotopic compositions of the hopanols formed from periodic acid-cleaved BHPs, showed that some were substantially depleted in 13C, indicative of their methanotrophic origin. Using sensitive molecular tools, we found that Type I and II methanotrophic bacteria (respectively Methylomonas and Methylocystis) were unique to the oldest lacustrine sediments (> 9400 years BP), but quantification of fossil DNA revealed that the Type I methanotrophs, including methanotrophs related to methanotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea cold-seep mussels, were the main precursors of the 35-amino BHPs (i.e. aminopentol, -tetrol and -triols). After isolation of the lake ,3000 years ago, one Type I methanotroph of the ,methanotrophic gill symbionts cluster' remained the most obvious source of aminotetrol and -triol. We, furthermore, identified a Synechococcus phylotype related to pelagic freshwater strains in the oldest lacustrine sediments as a putative source of 2-methylbacteriohopanetetrol (2-Me BHT). This combined application of advanced geochemical and paleogenomical tools further refined our knowledge about Holocene biogeochemical processes in Ace Lake. [source]

    Decreased Dopamine D2/D3-Receptor Binding in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: An [18F]Fallypride PET Study

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2006
    Konrad J. Werhahn
    Summary:,Purpose: Although animal data are suggestive, evidence for an alteration of the extrastriatal dopaminergic system in human focal epilepsy is missing. Methods: To quantify D2/D3-receptor density, we studied seven patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and nine age-matched controls with positron emission tomography (PET) by using the high-affinity dopamine D2/D3-receptor ligand [18F]Fallypride ([18F]FP) suitable for imaging extrastriatal binding. TLE was defined by interictal and ictal video-EEG, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG)-PET and was due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS), based on histology in all patients. Primary analysis was based on regions of interest (ROIs) defined on individual MRIs. For each patient, binding potential (BP) was calculated by using the simplified reference tissue model, and the epileptogenic was compared with the unaffected hemisphere in each ROI. To confirm the results, an additional voxel-based group analysis was performed by using statistical parametric mapping. Results: Compared with controls, [18F]FP BP was significantly decreased in the epileptogenic temporal lobe in all patients. On ROI analysis, this reduction was evident in areas surrounding the seizure-onset zone at the pole (,34.2%) and lateral aspects (,32.9%) of the temporal lobe. Although the hippocampus [18F]FDG uptake (,8.1%) and hippocampal MR volume (,35.1%) were significantly reduced, no significant decrease of [18F]FP BP was found. Reduction of [18F]FP BP did not correlate with hippocampal atrophy. Conclusions: D2/D3-receptor binding is reduced at the pole and in lateral aspects of the epileptogenic temporal lobe in patients with mesial TLE and HS. This area might correspond to "the irritative zone," indicating that D2/D3 receptors might play a specific role in the pathophysiology of mesial TLE. [source]

    One-year changes in glucose and heart disease risk factors among participants in the WISEWOMAN programme

    JC Will PhD
    Abstract Background: WISEWOMAN provides chronic disease risk factor screening, referrals and lifestyle interventions to low-income, uninsured women, to reduce their heart disease and stroke risk. Participants learn behaviour-changing skills tailored to low-income populations, such as collaborative goal setting, the need to take small steps and other empowerment techniques. Aim: To quantify the baseline prevalence of pre-diabetes (fasting blood glucose 5.5,6.9 mmol/l) and diabetes among WISEWOMAN participants and assess one-year changes in glucose levels and other diabetes risk factors. Methods: We used 1998,2005 baseline and one-year follow-up data from WISEWOMAN participants. Using a multilevel regression model, we assessed one-year changes in glucose, blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol and 10-year risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among participants with baseline pre-diabetes (n=688) or diabetes (n=338). Results: At baseline, 15% of participants had pre-diabetes and 10% had diabetes. Of those with diabetes, 26% were unaware of their condition before baseline screening. During the one-year follow-up period, participants with pre-diabetes experienced statistically significant improvements in glucose (2.9%) and cholesterol (2.1%) levels and 10-year CHD risk (4.3%). Participants with newly diagnosed diabetes experienced statistically significant improvements in glucose (11.5%), BP (3.1%,3.5%) and cholesterol (6.4%) levels. Participants with previously diagnosed diabetes experienced significant improvements in BP (1.9%,3.4%), cholesterol level (3.8%), and 10-year CHD risk (8.5%). Conclusions: Implementing patient-centered, comprehensive and multilevel interventions and demonstrating their effectiveness will likely lead to the adoption of this approach on a much broader scale. [source]

    Long-term outcomes after a structured hypertension education programme for patients with diabetes and hypertension

    B Osterbrink Nurse Teacher, Diabetes Counsellor, Principal of the Academy of Health Professions
    Abstract A structured hypertension treatment and education programme (HTEP) was developed in the Düsseldorf area in the 1990s for patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension and was found to be effective in a randomised controlled trial. The German Association of Diabetes Education and Counselling Professions (VDBD) implemented the HTEP all over Germany in order to optimise the care of patients with diabetes and hypertension. The objectives of the HTEP are to enable patients to gain knowledge of hypertension, to participate actively in their treatment to improve blood pressure (BP) and metabolic control and to self-measure their BP. The implementation consisted of two stages. The first stage comprised the training of 312 diabetes counsellors (DCs). During the second stage 473 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and hypertension in 35 diabetes centres throughout Germany received the HTEP including instructions in BP self-measurement. The HTEP consists of four units each one with a duration of 90 minutes covering the topics: hypertension, BP self-monitoring according to the standards of the German Hypertension League, antihypertensive medication including effects and side effects, recommendations to moderate exercise, weight reduction, dietary advice with reference to reduction of salt and alcohol and normalising the intake of protein. These patients participated in a prospective non-experimental study with a follow up of three years investigating the long-term outcomes of the HTEP in uncontrolled settings. The DCs assessed the accuracy of patients' self-monitoring by parallel measurement. Assessments included questionnaires evaluating patients' understanding of hypertension and metabolic control. The mean BP monitored by the DC fell from 150/85mmHg to 147/80mmHg (p<0.0001). The accuracy of self-measurements increased from 76% to 86% (p<0.005) and mean self-measurement readings decreased from 142/81mmHg to 139/78mmHg. HbA1c fell significantly from 7.9±1.6% to 7.3±1.1% (mean ± SD, p<0.001) and total cholesterol was lowered from 241±67.1mg/dl to 200±40.4mg/dl (p<0.001). Patients' knowledge of hypertension increased from 62% before the intervention to 72% after three years' follow up. Patients over 70 years showed less knowledge than younger patients (p<0.005). It was concluded that the HTEP is effective in improving BP, metabolic control and knowledge of hypertension. It enables patients to measure their BP precisely and regularly. Copyright © 2005 FEND. [source]

    Arterial stiffness in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis

    A. Wykretowicz
    ABSTRACT Background, Increased arterial stiffness or arteriosclerosis, represents a physiological part of ageing. Atherosclerosis is a process that does not affect the arterial bed uniformly but has a variable local distribution and is frequently superimposed on stiffened vessels. We therefore addressed the question of whether any correlation exists between the general characteristics of arterial stiffness or wave reflection and subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in a sample of healthy subjects. Methods, A total of 116 healthy subjects (mean age 55 years, 43 female) were evaluated. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection was assessed with the use of digital volume pulse analysis (DVP) and pulse wave analysis (PWA). Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by measurement of IMT. Results, Stiffness Index (SIDVP), the measure of general arterial stiffness correlated significantly with IMT (r = 0·37, P < 0·01). IMT correlated significantly with age (r = 0·5, P < 0·0001), waist to hip ratio (WHR) (r = 0·39, P < 0·0001) and mean blood pressure (BPmean) (r = 0·4, P < 0·0001). IMT did not correlate with measures of wave reflection. SIDVP correlated significantly with age (r = 0·32, P < 0·005), WHR (r = 0·36, P < 0·0001), BPmean (r = 0·36, P < 0·0001) and measurements of wave reflection. However analysis of a model which included variables that significantly influenced SIDVP and IMT, such as age, WHR and mean BP showed that arterial stiffness is not independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. Conclusions, The indices of subclinical atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness and wave reflection, indicate different aspects of vascular status in otherwise healthy subjects [source]

    Cerebral perfusion in the elderly with nocturnal blood pressure fall

    A. Siennicki-Lantz
    Cerebrovascular disease may be linked with vascular autoregulation in aging. The aim of this study was to examine relation between nocturnal blood pressure (BP) fall and cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in elderly men. The prospective ,Men born in 1914' cohort study has been in progress since 1968 and included 809 subjects. After 14 years from the last follow up, 97 subjects reached the age of 82 and underwent CBF measurement and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Diastolic BP at night decreased in 84 subjects with median 12.7% and increased in 13 subjects with median 3.7%. Relative diastolic BP fall at night was negatively associated to CBF in temporal and infero-parietal areas. Higher proportion of subjects with increasing systolic BP during the 14-year period was observed in the subgroup with extreme nocturnal diastolic BP dip, irrespectively of BP values or prevalence of hypertension. Extreme nocturnal diastolic BP fall in a cohort of elderly men is correlated with focal changes in CBF. Further studies could explain if increasing BP in the elderly is a cause or result of pathological autoregulation, and if antihypertensive treatment increases nocturnal BP dip. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 8 2010
    David Nogués-Bravo
    Between 50,000 and 3,000 years before present (BP) 65% of mammal genera weighing over 44 kg went extinct, together with a lower proportion of small mammals. Why species went extinct in such large numbers is hotly debated. One of the arguments proposes that climate changes underlie Late Quaternary extinctions, but global quantitative evidence for this hypothesis is still lacking. We test the potential role of global climate change on the extinction of mammals during the Late Quaternary. Our results suggest that continents with the highest climate footprint values, in other words, with climate changes of greater magnitudes during the Late Quaternary, witnessed more extinctions than continents with lower climate footprint values, with the exception of South America. Our results are consistent across species with different body masses, reinforcing the view that past climate changes contributed to global extinctions. Our model outputs, the climate change footprint dataset, provide a new research venue to test hypotheses about biodiversity dynamics during the Late Quaternary from the genetic to the species richness level. [source]

    Frequency, function and CLA expression of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in bullous pemphigoid

    Anne Rensing-Ehl
    Abstract:, Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering skin disease associated with autoantibodies to collagen XVII and tissue-separation along the dermo-epidermal junction. We addressed the question whether the loss of tolerance in BP patients is associated with a reduction and/or functional impairment of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells, which are essential for the active maintenance of self tolerance. The relative and absolute frequency of CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood of newly diagnosed, untreated patients was similar to that of healthy controls. Interestingly, more than 50% of circulating CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells from both patients as well as healthy controls expressed cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen. Considerable numbers of FOXP3+ cells were detected in lesional skin of patients. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells of patients were functionally intact as assessed by their ability to suppress allogeneic as well as antigen-specific T-cell proliferation. These data argue against a general defect of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in patients with BP. [source]

    Genetic variation in COL17A1 and the development of bullous pemphigoid

    Samantha Winsey
    Background: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin characterized by autoantibody attack on collagen XVII. Objectives: To characterize the genetic complexity of COL17A1, the gene which encodes for the autoantigen collagen XVII. The data will be used to determine whether there is an association between polymorphisms and haplotypes of COL17A1 and genetic susceptibility to development of BP. Methods: The genetic complexity in COL17A1 was deduced by screening and then sequencing the gene. Haplotypes were constructed from the resulting polymorphisms using the statistical programme PHASE. The linkage disequilibrium (D,) between the polymorphisms was deduced from haplotypic data using the statistical programme GOLD. Association of the polymorphisms and haplotypes was tested for, in a cohort of BP patients and controls. Results: Screening of COL17A1 for genetic variation was carried out in 29 individuals of North European caucasoid origin, and it revealed 19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in approximately 14.7 kb of sequence. These variants resulted in 60 different haplotypes in 191 individuals, of which 13 occurred above 1% in the population. D, between the variants was found to be extensive, have a low correlation with physical distance and to extend over 33.8 kb. No association was found with any of the polymorphisms or haplotypes and development of BP, when tested for, in a cohort of patients and controls. Conclusion: This study provides an extensive description of the genetic variation in COL17A1 and shows no association of the genetic variants with susceptibility to BP. [source]

    Cross-sample entropy statistic as a measure of complexity and regularity of renal sympathetic nerve activity in the rat

    Tao Zhang
    In this study, we employed both power spectral analysis and cross-sample entropy measurement to assess the relationship between two time series, arterial blood pressure (ABP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), during a mild haemorrhage in anaesthetized Wistar rats. Removal of 1 ml of venous blood decreased BP (by 7.1 ± 0.7 mmHg) and increased RSNA (by 25.9 ± 2.4%). During these changes, the power in the RSNA signal at heart rate frequency was reduced but coherence between the spectra at heart rate frequency in RSNA and ABP remained unchanged. Cross-sample entropy was significantly increased (by 10%) by haemorrhage, revealing that there was greater asynchrony between ABP and the RSNA time series. Intrathecal administration of the glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (2 mm) almost halved (P < 0.01) the reflex increase in RSNA. Also during kynurenic acid block, haemorrhage failed to change total power, power at heart rate frequency, coherence at heart rate frequency, or the cross-sample entropy measurements. We conclude that the increase in asynchrony between ABP and RSNA during the reflex increase in RSNA was a consequence of an increase in synaptic input to the spinal renal neurones. The data show that the cross-sample entropy calculations can characterize the non-linearities of neural mechanisms underlying cardiovascular control and have a potential to reveal how some aspects of homeostatic regulation of kidney function is achieved by the autonomic nervous system. [source]

    Endothelial-Independent Prevention of High Blood Pressure in L-Name-Treated Rats by Angiotensin II type I Receptor Antisense Gene Therapy

    Phyllis Y. Reaves
    It has previously been established that a single systemic administration of retroviral vector containing angiotensin II type I receptor antisense (AT1R-AS) in the neonatal spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) prevents development of hypertension, and in addition cardiac hypertrophy and endothelial dysfunction. However, these studies could not determine whether the effects of AT1R-AS on high blood pressure (BP) and endothelial function were independent. Angiotensin receptor blockers have been shown to reduce BP in the L-NAME (N , -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride)-induced rat model of hypertension. Our objective in the present study was to use the L-NAME model of hypertension to determine whether AT1R-AS treatment would lower high BP and attenuate cardiac hypertrophy under conditions of permanent endothelial damage. A single bolus of LNSV-AT1R-AS viral particles in neonatal Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was without affect on basal BP. Efficacy of the transgene incorporation was assessed by observing a significant reduction in angiotensin-induced dipsogenic response in the AT1R-AS-treated animals. Introduction of L-NAME in the drinking water for 10 weeks resulted in the establishment of hypertension only in the WKY rats treated with vector alone. These hypertensive (BP, 179 ± 4 mmHg) animals showed a 17% increase in heart weight/body weight ratio and a 60% reduction in ACh-induced vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-preconstricted arteries. The L-NAME-induced high BP and cardiac hypertrophy were attenuated in rats expressing AT1R-AS. However, endothelial dysfunction could not be prevented with the antisense therapy. These observations demonstrate that attenuation of endothelial dysfunction is not a prerequisite for the antihypertensive effects of AT1R-AS treatment. [source]