Bcl-2 Protein Family (bcl-2 + protein_family)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The imbalance between Bim and Mcl-1 expression controls the survival of human myeloma cells

Patricia Gomez-Bougie
Abstract Multiple myeloma is a fatal B,cell malignancy characterized by the accumulation of plasma cells within the bone marrow. IL-6 is a major survival factor for myeloma cells. Bcl-2 protein family regulates pathways to apoptosis that are activated upon growth factor deprivation. Pro-apoptotic proteins that have only a single Bcl-2 homology domain, BH3-only, are potent inducers of apoptosis. In myeloma cells, Mcl-1 has been shown to be a major anti-apoptotic protein that appears to regulate cell survival through the JAK/STAT pathway. In this study, we examined the regulation of the BH3-only protein Bim and its interaction with Mcl-1. The three major Bim isoforms are expressed in myeloma cells and are negatively regulated by IL-6. Blockade of IL-6 signaling induces an up-regulation of Bim concomitant to Mcl-1 down-regulation. Of major interest, Bim is found strongly associated with Mcl-1 in viable myeloma cells while this interaction is disrupted under apoptosis induction. Of note, while Bim is also found strongly associated to Bcl-2, this interaction is not changed under apoptosis induction. Thus, in myeloma cells, Mcl-1 neutralizes Bim through complex formation and therefore prevents apoptosis. Under apoptosis induction, the disappearance of Mcl-1 allows Bim to exercise its pro-apoptotic function and to activate Bax. [source]

Induction of apoptosis in monocytes by Mycobacterium leprae in vitro: a possible role for tumour necrosis factor-,

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
M. O. Hernandez
Summary A diverse range of infectious organisms, including mycobacteria, have been reported to induce cell death in vivo and in vitro. Although morphological features of apoptosis have been identified in leprosy lesions, it has not yet been determined whether Mycobacterium leprae modulates programmed cell death. For that purpose, peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from leprosy patients were stimulated with different concentrations of this pathogen. Following analysis by flow cytometry on 7AAD/CD14+ cells, it was observed that M. leprae induced apoptosis of monocyte-derived macrophages in a dose-dependent manner in both leprosy patients and healthy individuals, but still with lower efficiency as compared to M. tuberculosis. Expression of tumour necrosis factor-, (TNF-,), Bax-,, Bak mRNA and TNF-, protein was also detected in these cultures; in addition, an enhancement in the rate of apoptotic cells (and of TNF-, release) was noted when interferon-, was added to the wells. On the other hand, incubation of the cells with pentoxifylline impaired mycobacterium-induced cell death, the secretion of TNF-,, and gene expression in vitro. In addition, diminished bacterial entry decreased both TNF-, levels and the death of CD14+ cells, albeit to a different extent. When investigating leprosy reactions, an enhanced rate of spontaneous apoptosis was detected as compared to the unreactive lepromatous patients. The results demonstrated that M. leprae can lead to apoptosis of macrophages through a mechanism that could be at least partially related to the expression of pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 protein family and of TNF-,. Moreover, while phagocytosis may be necessary, it seems not to be crucial to the induction of cell death by the mycobacteria. [source]

BEX2 regulates mitochondrial apoptosis and G1 cell cycle in breast cancer

Ali Naderi
Abstract We have recently demonstrated that BEX2 is differentially expressed in primary breast tumors and BEX2 expression is required for the Nerve Growth factor inhibition of ceramide-induced apoptosis in breast cancer. In this study we investigate the functional role of BEX2 in the survival and growth of breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that BEX2 downregulation induces mitochondrial apoptosis and sensitizes breast cancer cells to the pro-apoptotic effects of ceramide, doxorubicin and staurosporine. In addition, BEX2 overexpression protects the breast cancer cells against mitochondrial apoptosis. We show that this effect of BEX2 is mediated through the modulation of Bcl-2 protein family, which involves the positive regulation of anti-apoptotic member Bcl-2 and the negative regulation of pro-apoptotic members BAD, BAK1 and PUMA. Moreover, our data suggests that BEX2 expression is required for the normal cell cycle progression during G1 in breast cancer cells through the regulation of cyclin D1 and p21. To further support the significance of BEX2 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer we demonstrate that BEX2 overexpression is associated with a higher activation of the Bcl-2/NF-,B pathway in primary breast tumors. Furthermore, we show that BEX2 downregulation results in a higher expression and activity of protein phosphatase 2A. The modulation of protein phosphatase 2A, which is also known to mediate the cellular response to ceramide, provides a possible mechanism to explain the BEX2-mediated cellular effects. This study demonstrates that BEX2 has a significant role in the regulation of mitochondrial apoptosis and G1 cell cycle in breast cancer. [source]

Cell death: regulation by the Bcl-2 protein family

Abstract An increase in mitochondrial membrane permeability is central to cell death including apoptosis and necrosis. During apoptosis, permeabilization of outer mitochondrial membrane leads to the release of several apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c and Smac/Diablo, into the cytoplasm that activate downstream death programs, including apoptotic proteases called caspases, although the detailed mechanism of outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization remains elusive. Although the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT), resulting in ,, loss, mitochondrial swelling and rupture of the outer membrane has initially been proposed as a general mechanism for apoptotic permeabilization of outer mitochondrial membrane, the recent studies with cyclophilin D-deficient mice indicate that MPT regulates some forms of necrotic death, but not apoptotic death, and that MPT is involved in ischemia,reperfusion injury in heart and brain. Anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, efficiently block not only apoptotic mitochondrial permeabilization but also MPT. The present paper focuses on the mechanisms by which Bcl-2 family members control the permeability of mitochondrial membrane during apoptosis and necrosis. [source]