B Signaling Pathway (b + signaling_pathway)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Latent Membrane Protein 1 Induces Interleukin-8 through the Nuclear Factor-,B Signaling Pathway in EBV-Infected Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Line

Qingchun Ren MD
Abstract Background/Objectives: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive and metastatic malignant tumor and is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection that exhibits type II latency. Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Our previous studies have indicated that interleukin (IL)-8 was over-expressed in many NPC tissues and was found to be significantly correlated with angiogenesis by immunohistochemistry. Study Design: In vitro design. Methods: The influence of the EBV genome for IL-8 gene expression was studied using the EBV,genome-positive and -negative epithelial/NPC hybrid cell line NPC-KT. The EBV-positive and -negative clones were selected by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. Results: EBV-positive clones expressed abundant IL-8 mRNA compared with EBV-negative clones. This result indicated that over-expression of IL-8 depended on the presence of EBV genomes in NPC-KT cells. Two encoded genes, latent membrane protein (LMP)1 and EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs), expressed in NPC were transfected in EBV-negative NPC-KT cells. LMP1 transactivated the IL-8 promoter, whereas EBERs did not. Moreover, the nuclear factor (NF)- ,B binding site in the IL-8 promoter was essential for the response to LMP1, and the activator protein (AP)-1 binding site played only a partial role. Conclusions: LMP1 induces IL-8 mainly through the activation of NF-,B and partly through AP-1 in NPC model cell lines, NPC-KT, and this suggests that LMP1 plays an important role in the angiogenesis of NPC. [source]

Analysis of the IKK,/NF-,B signaling pathway during embryonic angiogenesis

Yanjun Hou
Abstract The nuclear factor-,B (NF-,B) signaling pathway regulates cellular growth, survival, differentiation and development. In this study, the functions of I,B kinase (IKK), in angiogenesis during mouse development were examined. Conditional disruption of the Ikk, locus in endothelial cells using the well-characterized Tie2-Cre transgene resulted in embryonic lethality between embryonic day (E) 13.5 and E15.5. Examination of the mutant embryos revealed that while deletion of Ikk, occurred in endothelial cells throughout the embryo, only the vascular network in the fetal liver was affected. Disruption of the fetal liver vasculature was accompanied by decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis of hepatocytes, but hematopoiesis was not affected. Increased apoptosis was not observed outside of fetal liver in the mutant embryos. These results indicate that the IKK,/NF-,B pathway plays a previously unappreciated role in development of the sinusoidal vasculature in the fetal liver and additionally that this pathway is critical in the crosstalk between endothelial cells and hepatocytes during mouse development. Developmental Dynamics 237:2926,2935, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) produced via NF-,B signaling pathway mediates migration of amoeboid microglia in the periventricular white matter in hypoxic neonatal rats

GLIA, Issue 6 2009
Y. Y. Deng
Abstract Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a member of ,-chemokine subfamily, regulates the migration of microglia, monocytes, and lymphocytes to the inflammatory site in the central nervous system. We sought to determine if amoeboid microglial cells (AMC) produce MCP-1 that may be linked to migration of AMC in the corpus callosum periventricular white matter in hypoxic neonatal rats. A striking feature in 1-day-old rats subjected to hypoxia was a marked increase in cell numbers of AMC and immunoexpression of MCP-1 and its receptor (CCR2). By BrdU immunostaining, there was no significant change in the proliferation rate of AMC after hypoxic exposure when compared with the corresponding control rats. When injected intracerebrally into the corpus callosum of 7-day-old postnatal rats, MCP-1 induced the chemotactic migration of AMC to the injection site. In primary microglial cell culture subjected to hypoxia, there was a significant increase in MCP-1 release involving NF-,B signaling pathway. In in vitro chemotaxis assay, the medium derived from hypoxia-treated microglial cultures attracted more migratory microglial cells than that from the control microglial culture. The present results suggest that following a hypoxic insult, AMC in the neonatal rats increase MCP-1 production via NF-,B signaling pathway. This induces the migration and accumulation of AMC from the neighboring areas to the periventricular white matter (PWM). It is concluded that the preponderance and active migration of AMC, as well as them being the main cellular source of MCP-1, may offer an explanation for the PWM being susceptible to hypoxic damage in neonatal brain. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Plant sterol guggulsterone inhibits nuclear factor-,B signaling in intestinal epithelial cells by blocking I,B kinase and ameliorates acute murine colitis

Jae Hee Cheon MD
Abstract Background/Aims: The plant sterol guggulsterone has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. It remains unknown, however, whether guggulsterone is effective for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of guggulsterone on intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and on experimental murine colitis models and elucidated its molecular mechanisms. Methods: Human Caco-2 cells and rat non-transformed IEC-18 cells were stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without guggulsterone. The effects of guggulsterone on nuclear factor (NF)-,B signaling in IEC were examined by intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, NF-,B transcriptional activity assay, Western blotting for I,B phosphorylation/degradation, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and in vitro I,B kinase (IKK) assay. For in vivo study, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated mice were fed with or without guggulsterone. Colitis was quantified by disease activity index and evaluation of macroscopic and microscopic findings. Phosphorylation of I,B and IKK in colon mucosa was assessed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results: Guggulsterone significantly inhibited LPS- or IL-1,-induced ICAM-1 gene expression, NF-,B transcriptional activity, I,B phosphorylation/degradation, and NF-,B DNA binding activity in IEC. Moreover, guggulsterone strongly blocked IKK activity. Administration of guggulsterone significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced murine colitis as assessed by clinical disease activity score, colon length, and histology. Furthermore, tissue upregulation of I,B and IKK phosphorylation induced by DSS was attenuated in guggulsterone-treated mice. Conclusion: Guggulsterone blocks NF-,B signaling pathway by targeting IKK complex in IEC and attenuates DSS-induced acute murine colitis, which suggests that guggulsterone could be an attractive therapeutic option in the treatment of IBD. [source]

The effect of focal adhesion kinase gene silencing on 5-fluorouracil chemosensitivity involves an Akt/NF-,B signaling pathway in colorectal carcinomas

Yuying Chen
Abstract Multicellular resistance (MCR) is produced because multicellular spheroids (MCSs) are formed with a broad cell,cell connection when cultured in three-dimensions, which limits the clinical treatment efficacy in solid tumors. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays an important role in apoptosis, survival and cell adhesion between cells and their extracellular matrix. In this study, we investigated the expressions of FAK, Akt and NF-,B in human colorectal cancer (CRC), and the effects of FAK gene silencing on MCSs formation and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemosensitivity in colon carcinoma MCSs culture cells. In CRC samples, FAK, Akt and NF-,B were overexpressed. The positive expression of FAK correlated notably with lymph node metastasis and cellular differentiation. Positive expressions of Akt and NF-,B were significantly related to cellular differentiation and lymph node metastasis, respectively. Furthermore, positive expression of FAK correlated with that of Akt and NF-,B. The expression of FAK was inhibited significantly by a small hairpin RNA targeting FAK. Knockdown of FAK reversed the formation and aggregation of MCSs, significantly decreased the 50% inhibitory concentration of 5-FU, and markedly increased MCS culture cells apoptosis. These effects were associated with reduced levels of Akt and NF-,B. These results indicate that suppressing FAK expression potentiated 5-FU-induced cytotoxicity and contributed to its chemosensitizing effect by suppressing Akt/NF-,B signaling in colon carcinoma MCS culture cells. These data also imply that FAK mediates MCR of CRC through the survival signaling pathway FAK/Akt/NF-,B. [source]

Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) induces inflammation through chromatin modification in retinal capillary endothelial cells under diabetic conditions

Lorena Perrone
Chronic hyperglycemia and activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) are known risk factors for microvascular disease development in diabetic retinopathy. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), an endogenous inhibitor of antioxidant thioredoxin (TRX), plays a causative role in diabetes and its vascular complications. Herein we investigate whether HG and RAGE induce inflammation in rat retinal endothelial cells (EC) under diabetic conditions in culture through TXNIP activation and whether epigenetic mechanisms play a role in inflammatory gene expression. We show that RAGE activation by its ligand S100B or HG treatment of retinal EC induces the expression of TXNIP and inflammatory genes such as Cox2, VEGF-A, and ICAM1. TXNIP silencing by siRNA impedes RAGE and HG effects while stable over-expression of a cDNA for human TXNIP in EC elevates inflammation. p38 MAPK-NF-,B signaling pathway and histone H3 lysine (K) nine modifications are involved in TXNIP-induced inflammation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays reveal that TXNIP over-expression in EC abolishes H3K9 tri-methylation, a marker for gene inactivation, and increases H3K9 acetylation, an indicator of gene induction, at proximal Cox2 promoter bearing the NF-,B-binding site. These findings have important implications toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of ocular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in diabetic retinopathy. J. Cell. Physiol. 221: 262,272, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc [source]

Molecular and cellular mechanisms of neuroprotection by vascular endothelial growth factor

Feng-Yan Sun
Abstract The present view of the neuroprotective functions and mechanisms of action of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is based on studies of neuronal ischemic/hypoxic models in vivo and in vitro. Endogenous neuronal VEGF increases in the ischemic brain and plays a neuroprotective role in the pathophysiologic processes that follow stroke. Exogenous VEGF, directly administered or overexpressed by gene delivery into rat brains, reduces ischemic brain infarct and decreases hypoxic neuronal death. The main neuroprotective mechanisms of VEGF include: (1) modulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3,-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/nuclear factor-,B signaling pathway, inhibition of caspase-3 activity, and reduction of ischemic neuronal apoptosis; (2) inhibition of outward delayed rectifier potassium channel currents and increase of ischemia-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Kv1.2 potassium channel proteins via activation of the PI3K pathway; and (3) enhancement of proliferation and migration of neural progenitors in the subventricular zone and improvement of striatal neurogenesis and maturation of newborn neurons in adult rat brains after stroke. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Crossregulation of NF-,B by the APC/GSK-3,/,-catenin pathway

Jiong Deng
Abstract Glycogen synthase kinase-3, (GSK-3,) and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) play an important role in the regulation of ,-catenin. Inhibition of or defects in their functions can lead to activation of ,-catenin. ,-catenin has been recently found to interact with and inhibit nuclear factor kappa B (NF-,B). However, the regulatory roles of GSK-3,/APC on the NF-,B signaling pathway are unknown because of their diverse effects. In this study, we investigated whether GSK-3,/APC might regulate NF-,B activity through ,-catenin. We found that inhibition of GSK-3, suppressed NF-,B activity, whereas reexpression of APC restored NF-,B activity in APC mutated cells. The regulatory effects were through ,-catenin because depletion of ,-catenin with small interfering RNA (siRNA) in the same systems reversed the effects. The regulatory relationship was further supported by the analysis of primary breast tumor tissues in vivo in which NF-,B target TRAF1 was inversely correlated with activated ,-catenin. Thus, APC/GSK-3,, through ,-catenin, may crossregulate NF-,B signaling pathway. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A20 suppresses inflammatory responses and bone destruction in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes and in mice with collagen-induced arthritis

Young-Sool Hah
Objective Nuclear factor-,B (NF-,B) has been implicated as a therapeutic target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The purpose of this study was to determine whether A20, a universal inhibitor of NF-,B, might have antiarthritic effects. Methods An adenovirus containing A20 complementary DNA (AdA20) was used to deliver A20 to human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in vitro as well as to mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in vivo via intraarticular injection into the ankle joints bilaterally. Results In vitro experiments demonstrated that AdA20 suppressed NF-,B activation, chemokine production, and matrix metalloproteinase secretion induced by tumor necrosis factor , in FLS. Mice with CIA that were treated with AdA20 had a lower cumulative disease incidence and severity of arthritis, based on hind paw thickness, radiologic and histopathologic findings, and inflammatory cytokine levels, than did control virus,injected mice. The protective effects of AdA20 were mediated by the inhibition of the NF-,B signaling pathway. The severity of arthritis was also significantly decreased in the untreated front paws, indicating a beneficial systemic effect of local suppression of NF-,B. Surprisingly, mice treated with AdA20 after the onset of CIA had significantly decreased arthritis severity from the onset of clinical signs to the end of the study. Conclusion These results suggest that using A20 to block the NF-,B pathway in rheumatoid joints reduces both the inflammatory response and the tissue destruction. The development of an immunoregulatory strategy based on A20 may therefore have therapeutic potential in the treatment of RA. [source]

Induction of an antiinflammatory effect and prevention of cartilage damage in rat knee osteoarthritis by CF101 treatment

S. Bar-Yehuda
Objective Studies have suggested that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) share common characteristics. The highly selective A3 adenosine receptor agonist CF101 was recently defined as a potent antiinflammatory agent for the treatment of RA. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CF101 on the clinical and pathologic manifestations of OA in an experimental animal model. Methods OA was induced in rats by monosodium iodoacetate, and upon disease onset, oral treatment with CF101 (100 ,g/kg given twice daily) was initiated. The A3 adenosine receptor antagonist MRS1220 (100 ,g/kg given twice daily) was administered orally, 30 minutes before CF101 treatment. The OA clinical score was monitored by knee diameter measurements and by radiographic analyses. Histologic analyses were performed following staining with hematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O,fast green, or toluidine blue, and histologic changes were scored according to a modified Mankin system. Signaling proteins were assayed by Western blotting; apoptosis was detected via immunohistochemistry and TUNEL analyses. Results CF101 induced a marked decrease in knee diameter and improved the changes noted on radiographs. Administration of MRS1220 counteracted the effects of CF101. CF101 prevented cartilage damage, osteoclast/osteophyte formation, and bone destruction. In addition, CF101 markedly reduced pannus formation and lymphocyte infiltration. Mechanistically, CF101 induced deregulation of the NF-,B signaling pathway, resulting in down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor ,. Consequently, CF101 induced apoptosis of inflammatory cells that had infiltrated the knee joints; however, it prevented apoptosis of chondrocytes. Conclusion CF101 deregulated the NF-,B signaling pathway involved in the pathogenesis of OA. CF101 induced apoptosis of inflammatory cells and acted as a cartilage protective agent, which suggests that it would be a suitable candidate drug for the treatment of OA. [source]

Toll-like receptor stimulation induces airway hyper-responsiveness to bradykinin, an effect mediated by JNK and NF-,B signaling pathways

Ofir Bachar
Abstract Airway infections induce hyper-responsiveness in asthmatic patients. Toll-like receptors (TLR) mediate inflammatory responses to microbes. Occurrence and effects of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 were examined in a mouse organ culture model of asthma focusing on the smooth muscle responses to bradykinin. TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 mRNA, and TLR2 and TLR4 immunoreactivity were detected in the tracheal muscle layer. Tracheal organ culture for 1 or 4,days with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; TLR2/4 agonist) or polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly-I-C; TLR3 agonist) enhanced bradykinin- and [des-Arg9]-bradykinin-induced contractions. Simultaneous LPS and poly-I-C treatment resulted in synergistic enhancement of bradykinin-induced contraction. In carbachol-pre-contracted segments TLR stimulationinduced less potent relaxations to bradykinin and [des-Arg9]-bradykinin. The LPS and poly-I-C enhancement of bradykinin-induced contraction was inhibited by the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin-D, dexamethasone, the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125. LPS and poly-I-C induced translocation of NF-,B p65 to the nucleus and up-regulation of kinin B1 and B2 receptor mRNA. In summary, TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 are expressed in the mouse tracheal smooth muscle. Costimulation of these receptors results in NF-,B- and JNK-mediated transcription of B1 and B2 receptor, inducing hyper-responsiveness to bradykinin. [source]

Mutational activation of the MAP3K8 protooncogene in lung cancer

Adam Michael Clark
The MAP3K8 protooncogene (Cot/Tpl-2) activates the MAP kinase, SAP kinase, and NF-,B signaling pathways. MAP3K8 mutations occur in the rat homologue, but activating mutations have yet to be identified in primary human tumors. We have identified MAP3K8 as a transforming gene from a human lung adenocarcinoma and characterized a 3, end mutation in the cDNA. In addition, we confirmed that the mutation occurs in the original lung tumor, and we screened a series of lung cancer cell lines to determine whether the MAP3K8 mutation is a common occurrence in lung tumorigenesis. The oncogene was isolated and identified with the NIH3T3 nude mouse tumorigenicity assay and cDNA library screening. The gene was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP), and 3,RACE for mutations. The mutation was localized to MAP3K8 exon 8 and confirmed in the primary tumor DNA. Both wild-type and mutant MAP3K8 cDNAs transformed NIH3T3 cells, but the transforming activity of the mutant was much greater than that of the wild type. PCR-SSCP screening of cell line cDNAs identified one silent polymorphism in cell line SK-LU-1. Although we were unable to find additional activating mutations, these data support a role for MAP3K8 activity in cellular transformation, but suggest that mutational activation of the gene is a rare event in lung cancer. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Sulfur mustard induced cytokine production and cell death: Investigating the potential roles of the p38, p53, and NF-,B signaling pathways with RNA interference,

Albert L. Ruff
Abstract Cutaneous and ocular injuries caused by sulfur mustard (SM; bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide) are characterized by severe inflammation and death of exposed cells. Given the known roles of p38MAPK and NF-,B in inflammatory cytokine production, and the known roles of NF-,B and p53 in cell fate, these pathways are of particular interest in the study of SM injury. In this study, we utilized inhibitory RNA (RNAi) targeted against p38,, the p50 subunit of NF-,B, or p53 to characterize their role in SM-induced inflammation and cell death in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK). Analysis of culture supernatant from 200 ,M SM-exposed cells showed that inflammatory cytokine production was inhibited by p38, RNAi but not by NF-,B p50 RNAi. These findings further support a critical role for p38 in SM-induced inflammatory cytokine production in NHEK and suggest that NF-,B may not play a role in the SM-induced inflammatory response of this cell type. Inhibition of NF-,B by p50 RNAi did, however, partially inhibit SM-induced cell death, suggesting a role for NF-,B in SM-induced apoptosis or necrosis. Interestingly, inhibition of p53 by RNAi potentiated SM-induced cell death, suggesting that the role of p53 in SM injury, may be complex and not simply prodeath. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 24:155,164, 2010; Published online inWiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.20321 [source]

Activated ,2 macroglobulin induces matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression by low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 through MAPK-ERK1/2 and NF-,B activation in macrophage-derived cell lines

Leandro C. Cáceres
Abstract Macrophages under certain stimuli induce matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) expression and protein secretion through the activation of MAPK-ERK and NF-,B signaling pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that activated ,2 -macroglulin (,2M*) through the interaction with its receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) induces macrophage proliferation mediated by the activation of MAPK-ERK1/2. In the present work, we examined whether ,2M*/LRP1interaction could induce the MMP-9 production in J774 and Raw264.7 macrophage-derived cell lines. It was shown that ,2M* promoted MMP-9 expression and protein secretion by LRP1 in both macrophage-derived cell lines, which was mediated by the activation of MAPK-ERK1/2 and NF-,B. Both intracellular signaling pathways activated by ,2M* were effectively blocked by calphostin-C, suggesting involvement of PKC. In addition, we demonstrate that ,2M* produced extracellular calcium influx via LRP1. However, when the intracellular calcium mobilization was inhibited by BAPTA-AM, the ,2M*-induced MAPK-ER1/2 activation was fully blocked in both macrophage cell lines. Finally, using specific pharmacological inhibitors for PKC, Mek1, and NF-,B, it was shown that the ,2M*-induced MMP-9 protein secretion was inhibited, indicating that the MMP production promoted by the ,2M*/LRP1 interaction required the activation of both signaling pathways. These findings may prove useful in the understanding of the macrophage LRP1 role in the vascular wall during atherogenic plaque progression. J. Cell. Biochem. 111: 607,617, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Viral appropriation of apoptotic and NF-,B signaling pathways

Andrew G. Bowie
Abstract Viruses utilize a variety of strategies to evade the host immune response and replicate in the cells they infect. The comparatively large genomes of the Orthopoxviruses and gammaherpesviruses encode several immunomodulatory proteins that are homologous to component of the innate immune system of host cells, which are reviewed here. However, the viral mechanisms used to survive host responses are quite distinct between these two virus families. Poxviruses undergo continuous lytic replication in the host cytoplasm while expressing many genes that inhibit innate immune responses. In contrast, herpesviruses persist in a latent state during much of their lifecycle while expressing only a limited number of relatively non-immunogenic viral proteins, thereby avoiding the adaptive immune response. Poxviruses suppress, whereas latent gammaherpesviruses activate, signaling by NF-,B, yet both viruses target similar host signaling pathways to suppress the apoptotic response. Here, modulation of apoptotic and NF-,B signal transduction pathways are examined as examples of common pathways appropriated in contrasting ways by herpesviruses and poxviruses. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Stimulation of macrophage TNF, production by orthopaedic wear particles requires activation of the ERK1/2/Egr-1 and NF-,B pathways but is independent of p38 and JNK

Michelle A. Beidelschies
Bone loss that causes aseptic loosening of orthopedic implants is initiated by pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages in response to implant-derived wear particles. MAPK and NF-,B signaling pathways are activated by the particles; however, it is not clear which of the signaling pathways are important for the initial response to the wear particles and which are only involved at later steps in the process, such as osteoclast differentiation. Here, we show that the ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and NF-,B pathways are rapidly activated by the wear particles but that only the ERK1/2 and NF-,B pathways are required for the initial response to the wear particles, which include increases in TNF, promoter activity, TNF, mRNA expression, and secretion of TNF, protein. Moreover, ERK1/2 activation by wear particles is also required for increased expression of the transcription factor Egr-1 as well as Egr-1's ability to bind to and activate the TNF, promoter. These results, together with our previous studies of the PI3K/Akt pathway, demonstrate that wear particles coordinately activate multiple signaling pathways and multiple transcription factors to stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF,. The current study also demonstrates that the signaling pathways are activated to a much greater extent by wear particles with adherent endotoxin than by "endotoxin-free" wear particles. These results, together with those demonstrating the requirement for ERK1/2/Egr-1 and NF-,B, show that activation of these signaling pathways is responsible for the ability of adherent endotoxin to potentiate cytokine production, osteoclast differentiation, and bone loss induced by wear particles. J. Cell. Physiol. 217: 652,666, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Interleukin-1, induces MMP-9 expression via p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK, and nuclear factor-,B signaling pathways in human tracheal smooth muscle cells

Kao-Chih Liang
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix and play important roles in cell migration, proliferation, and tissue remodeling related to airway inflammation. Interleukin-1, (IL-1,) has been shown to induce MMP-9 production in many cell types and contribute to airway inflammatory responses. However, the mechanisms underlying MMP-9 expression induced by IL-1, in human tracheal smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs) remain unclear. Here, we investigated the roles of p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK, and NF-,B pathways for IL-1,-induced MMP-9 production in HTSMCs. IL-1, induced production of MMP-9 protein and mRNA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner determined by zymographic, Western blotting, and RT-PCR analyses, which was attenuated by inhibitors of MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK (SP600125), and NF-,B (helenalin), and transfection with dominant negative mutants of MEK1/2, p38 and JNK, respectively. IL-1,-stimulated phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, and JNK was attenuated by pretreatment with U0126, SB202190, SP600125, or transfection with these dominant negative mutants of MEK, ERK, p38 and JNK, respectively. Furthermore, IL-1,-stimulated translocation of NF-,B into the nucleus and degradation of I,B-, was blocked by helenalin. Finally, the reporter gene assay revealed that MAPKs and NF-,B are required for IL-1,-induced MMP-9 luciferase activity in HTSMCs. MMP-9 promoter activity was enhanced by IL-1, in HTSMCs transfected with MMP-9-Luc, which was inhibited by helenalin, U0126, SB202190, and SP600125. Taken together, the transcription factor NF-,B, p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, and JNK that are involved in MMP-9 expression in HTSMCs exposed to IL-1, have now been identified. J. Cell. Physiol. 211: 759,770, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A critical role of Cyr61 in interleukin-17,dependent proliferation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis

Qiuyu Zhang
Objective Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are a major component of the hyperplastic synovial pannus that aggressively invades cartilage and bone during the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Cyr61 (CCN1) is a product of a growth factor,inducible immediate early gene and is involved in cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. However, the role that Cyr61 plays in FLS proliferation has remained undetermined. The aim of this study was to identify the role of Cyr61 in regulating the proliferation of FLS derived from patients with RA. Methods Expression of Cyr61 in synovial tissue (ST) and in FLS was determined simultaneously using immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Cyr61 levels in synovial fluid (SF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. FLS proliferation stimulated by SF, Cyr61, and interleukin-17 (IL-17) was measured by thymidine incorporation. Activation of signal transduction pathways was determined by Western blotting and confocal microscopy. Results Cyr61 was overexpressed in ST, FLS, and SF samples from RA patients as compared with samples from normal controls. Elevated levels of Cyr61 in RA SF promoted the proliferation of FLS, an effect that was abrogated by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody against human Cyr61. Furthermore, in samples from RA patients, Cyr61 was found to protect FLS from apoptosis and to sustain the expression of Bcl-2 in FLS. Most importantly, the expression of Cyr61 in FLS was regulated by IL-17 mainly via the p38 MAPK and NF-,B signaling pathways. Knockdown of expression of the Cyr61 gene inhibited IL-17,stimulated FLS proliferation. Conclusion Our findings indicate that Cyr61 plays a critical role in IL-17,mediated proliferation of FLS in RA and likely contributes to hyperplasia of synovial lining cells and eventually to joint destruction in patients with RA. [source]

Lipoxin A4 inhibited hepatocyte growth factor-induced invasion of human hepatoma cells

Xiao-Yan Zhou
Aim:, Inflammation is a critical component of tumor progression. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) has been approved for potent anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, it was reported that LXA4 repressed the expression and activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which is essential for invasion. However, there are few reports dealing with its effects on cancer. To explore whether LXA4 regulate invasion, the effects of LXA4 and its receptor agonist BML-111 on hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced invasion of hepatoma cells and the possible mechanisms were researched. Methods:, Lipoxin A4 receptor (ALX) expression in HepG2 cells were measured through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot. Cytotoxicity of LXA4 and BML-111 to HepG2 cells was detected by MTT and (3H)-TdR incorporation assay. Cell migration and invasion assays were performed using a Boyden chemotaxis chamber. COX-2 expression was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. Moreover, the expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, MMP-9, I,B, and nuclear factor-,B (NF-,B) p65 were observed via western blot, and NF-,B transcriptional activity was tested by transfections and luciferase activities assay. Results:, ALX expression was detected in HepG2 cells, and suitable concentrations of LXA4 and BML-111 had no cytotoxicity to cells. LXA4 and BML-111 inhibited HGF-induced migration and invasion; downregulated COX-2, MMP-2 and -9; restrained HGF-induced I,B, degradation, NF-,B translocation and the transcriptional activity of NF-,B in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, exogenous PGE2 could reverse the inhibitory effects of LXA4 also BML-111 on HGF-induced invasion and migration partially. Conclusion:, LXA4 inhibited HGF-induced invasion of HepG2 cells through NF-,B/COX-2 signaling pathway partially. [source]