B Reactivation (b + reactivation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of B Reactivation

  • hepatitis b reactivation

  • Selected Abstracts

    Hepatitis B reactivation in patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy: Diagnosis and management

    John S Lubel
    Abstract Nearly one third of the world's population have been infected with hepatitis B and the virus is endemic in many Asian countries. With increasing life expectancy and the expected global increase in cancer, chemotherapy induced reactivation of hepatitis B is likely to become an increasing problem. Patients with significant levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum prior to chemotherapy and patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for hematological malignancies appear particularly at risk. Most patients who suffer reactivation of hepatitis B are positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prior to chemotherapy and are therefore easily identifiable by routine screening. In addition, the very large population of patients who have been exposed to the virus and have apparently cleared the virus as assessed by serological testing (HBsAg negative/hepatitis B core antibody [HBcAb] positive) may also be at risk of reactivation. These patients should be monitored and in some cases receive prophylaxis during chemotherapy. Published experience with antiviral prophylaxis has largely been limited to the nucleoside analogue, lamivudine. The commencement of antiviral prophylaxis prior to chemotherapy and its continuation until restitution of normal host immunity is the cornerstone to effective prevention of hepatitis B reactivation. This review summarizes the important issues related to HBV reactivation and suggests an algorithm for managing these patients in the clinical setting. [source]

    Occult hepatitis B infection in patients infected with HIV: Report of two cases of hepatitis B reactivation and prevalence in a hospital cohort

    B. Bloquel
    Abstract Patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are particularly at risk of hepatitis B reactivation. Two cases of patients infected with HIV with isolated anti-HBc antibodies who had experienced an HBV reactivation are described. In the two cases HBV reactivation occurred after withdrawal of anti-retroviral treatment with anti-HBV activity from the patients' highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), in accordance with HIV genotypic resistance profiles. Consequently, plasma samples from 383 patients infected with HIV were tested to assess the prevalence of occult HBV infection in the Infectious Diseases Department Unit of Nancy Hospital by investigating serological patterns and HBV replication. Forty-five percent (172/383) of patients had had previous contact with HBV. Isolated anti-HBc antibodies were observed in 48 patients (48/383, 12%) and, among these, 2 were HBV-DNA positive. Since 75% (288/383) of the patients were treated with HAART, including at least one drug active against HBV, occult HBV infection was perhaps unrecognized. In cases of HIV infection, all patients should be screened for HBV infection and the knowledge of HBV status as well as the monitoring of HBV viral load are essential in preventing HBV reactivation. Consideration should be given to the continuation of drugs with anti-HBV activity in co-infected patients receiving HAART, as cessation of therapy is associated with a risk of HBV reactivation. At least, close monitoring of the HBV viral load is warranted in such situations. J. Med. Virol. 82:206,212, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Unexpectedly frequent hepatitis B reactivation by chemoradiation in postgastrectomy patients,

    CANCER, Issue 9 2004
    Jason Chia-Hsien Cheng M.D., M.S.
    Abstract BACKGROUND Postgastrectomy patients undergoing chemoradiation risk chemoradiation-induced liver disease (CRILD). The objectives of this study were to investigate dosimetric implications and assess biologic susceptibility to CRILD in these patients. METHODS Sixty-two patients with Stage IB,IV gastric/gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma without metastases underwent radical total/subtotal gastrectomy; regional lymph node dissection; and postoperative, adjuvant, concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Among these, 8 patients developed CRILD (defined as Grade 3,4 liver toxicity), and 11 patients were chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers (HBV+). Chemotherapy consisted of 1 cycle of etoposide, leucovorin, and 5-fluorouracil (ELF); followed by 5 weekly high doses of 5-fluorouracil (2000,2600 mg/m2) and leucovorin concurrent with radiotherapy (median dose, 45 grays [Gy] to the tumor bed/regional lymphatics); followed by 3 cycles of ELF separated by a 21-day interval. Patients were followed for , 4 months after CCRT. Patient-related and dosimetric factors were correlated with CRILD. RESULTS HBV+ status was the only independent factor associated with CRILD. HBV+ patients had a higher CRILD incidence (6 of 11 patients vs. 2 of 51 patients; P < 0.001). HBV-negative patients with CRILD were recipients of a higher mean liver dose (MLD) (23.8 Gy vs. 15.2 Gy; P = 0.009) and a higher volume fraction of liver that received > 30 Gy (36.5% vs. 19.7%; P = 0.009) compared with noncarriers without CRILD, but no MLD difference was found between HBV+ patients with or without CRILD. Moreover, in four of six carriers with CRILD, HBV infection was reactivated during CRILD. Two of the toxicities were fatal. CONCLUSIONS HBV carriers had a higher incidence of CRILD after postgastrectomy CCRT, probably related to HBV reactivation. Dosimetric parameters modulated the risk of CRILD in noncarriers, but not in carriers. These factors deserve attention in CRILD/HBV+ patients, and the underlying pathogenesis warrants investigation. Cancer 2004. 2004 American Cancer Society. [source]