B Ligand (b + ligand)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of B Ligand

  • factor kappa b ligand
  • kappa b ligand
  • nuclear factor kappa b ligand

  • Selected Abstracts

    Possible Involvement of I,B Kinase 2 and MKK7 in Osteoclastogenesis Induced by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor ,B Ligand,

    Aiichiro Yamamoto
    Abstract Recent studies have revealed the essential role of the receptor activator of nuclear factor ,B (NF-,B) ligand (RANKL) in osteoclast differentiation and activation. Adenovirus vector could efficiently transduce genes into RAW264.7 cells, which differentiate into osteoclast-like multinucleated cells in the presence of RANKL. The role of NF-,B and c- jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation was investigated using an adenovirus vector carrying the dominant negative I,B kinase 2 gene (AxIKK2DN) or dominant negative MKK7 gene (AxMKK7DN). IKK2DN and MKK7DN overexpression in RAW cells specifically suppressed the NF-,B activation and JNK activation in response to RANKL, respectively, without affecting other signaling pathways. Either inhibition of NF-,B or JNK pathways dose-dependently inhibited osteoclast formation induced by RANKL. These results suggest that both NF-,B and JNK activation are independently required for osteoclast differentiation. [source]

    Cloning, Sequencing, and Functional Characterization of the Rat Homologue of Receptor Activator of NF-,B Ligand,

    Jiake Xu
    Abstract A complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the rat homologue of receptor activator of NF-,B ligand/osteoprotegerin ligand/osteoclast differentiation factor/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related activation-induced cytokine (RANKL/OPGL/ODF/TRANCE) was cloned and sequenced from tibias of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The predicted amino acid sequence of rat RANKL (rRANKL) has 84% and 96% identity to that of human and mouse RANKL, respectively, and 35% and 37% similarity to that of human and mouse TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), respectively. RANKL transcripts were expressed abundantly in the thymus and bone tissues of OVX rats. rRANKL has a single hydrophobic region between residues 53 and 69, which is most likely to serve as a transmembrane domain. The long C-terminal region containing ,-sheet-forming sequences of the TNF-like core is considered the extracellular region. Three truncated domains within the TNF-like core region were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and investigated for their ability to induce osteoclastogenesis. The results showed that GST-rRANKL (aa160-318) containing the full TNF-like core region had the highest capability to induce the formation of osteoclast-like cells from RAW264.7 cells. GST-rRANKL (aa239-318 and aa160-268) had lesser degrees of osteoclast inductivity. Furthermore, the GST-rRANKL (aa160-318) is capable of (1) inducing osteoclast formation from rat spleen cells in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), (2) stimulating mature rat osteoclast polarization and bone resorption ex vivo, and (3) inducing systemic hypercalcemia in vivo; thus the full TNF-like core region of rRANKL is an important regulator of calcium homeostasis and osteoclastic function. [source]

    Over-expression of CCL3,,MIP-1, in a blastoid mantle cell lymphoma with hypercalcemia

    Norimichi Hattori
    Abstract We analyzed a case with the blastoid variant of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL-BV), a rare subtype of B-cell lymphoma, presenting with marked hypercalcemia at diagnosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed elevated serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF-,), macrophage inflammatory protein-1, (MIP-1,), and type I collagen telopeptide, but not parathyroid hormone, calcitriol or parathyroid hormone-related peptide at diagnosis, suggesting local osteoclastic hypercalcemia in this case. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, we found predominant expression of mRNA for MIP-1, in addition to those for receptor-activator of nuclear-factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), TNF-,, and IL-6 in lymphoma cells obtained from the patient. Furthermore, recombinant MIP-1, significantly stimulated 3H-thymidine uptake by isolated MCL cells in vitro. Treatment with intravenous fluids, bisphosphonate, and methylprednisolone followed by combination chemotherapy promptly corrects the hypercalcemia and successfully induced complete remission, which was accompanied by a decrease of these cytokines in the serum, including MIP-1,. In the present case, MIP-1,, an osteoclast-activating factor produced by mantle lymphoma cells, may contribute to the development of hypercalcemia. It likely acts through RANKL expression in tumor cells and/or stroma cells, as indicated in multiple myeloma (MM) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Furthermore, MIP-1, is also involved in the development of an aggressive phenotype on MCL by stimulating proliferation of these lymphoma cells. In summary, the present study demonstrated that MIP-1, is an important factor in the development of both hypercalcemia and an aggressive phenotype in some types of B-cell lymphoma. [source]

    Collagen type,I signaling reduces the expression and the function of human receptor activator of nuclear factor -,B ligand (RANKL) in T,lymphocytes

    Steve Gendron
    Abstract The mechanisms by which ,1 integrins modulate T,cell functions are still poorly defined. We have previously reported that signaling via the collagen type,I (Coll,I) receptor, ,2,1 integrin, inhibited FasL expression and protected Jurkat T,cells from activation-induced cell death (AICD). In this study, we examined whether Coll,I signaling in T,cells also modulates the expression of the human receptor activator of nuclear factor-,B ligand (RANKL), a recently identified TNF family member which has important functions in osteoclastogenesis, cell survival and apoptosis. Our results show that in both Jurkat T,cells and human primary T,cells, Coll,I signaling significantly reduces activation-induced RANKL expression by 50,60%. We also found that RANKL is not involved in AICD but participates in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of leukemia T,cell lines including Jurkat, CEM and HSB-2. In this respect, Coll,I protected leukemia T,cell lines from doxorubicin-induced apoptosis by inhibiting doxorubicin-induced RANKL expression. Together, our results suggest that by limiting the production of RANKL, Coll,I signaling may contribute to the resistance of leukemia T,cells to chemotherapy. Our study also emphasizes the importance Coll,I signaling may have in the control of RANKL-associated T,cell functions. [source]

    IFN-,-producing human T cells directly induce osteoclastogenesis from human monocytes via the expression of RANKL

    Shigeru Kotake
    Abstract The current study explored our hypothesis that IFN-,-producing human T cells inhibit human osteoclast formation. Activated T cells derived from human PBMC were divided into IFN-,-producing T cells (IFN-,+ T cells) and IFN-,-non-producing T cells (IFN-,, T cells). IFN-,+ T cells were cultured with human monocytes in the presence of macrophage-CSF alone. The concentration of soluble receptor activator of NF-,B ligand (RANKL) and IFN-,, and the amount of membrane type RANKL expressed on T cells, were measured by ELISA. In the patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs alone, CD4+ T cells expressing both IFN-, and RANKL were detected by flow cytometry. Surprisingly, IFN-,+ T cells, but not IFN-,, T cells, induced osteoclastogenesis from monocytes, which was completely inhibited by adding osteoprotegerin and increased by adding anti-IFN-, antibodies. The levels of both soluble and membrane type RANKL were elevated in IFN-,+ T cells. The ratio of CD4+ T cells expressing both IFN-, and RANKL in total CD4+ T cells from PBMC was elevated in RA patients. Contrary to our hypothesis, IFN-,+ human T cells induced osteoclastogenesis through the expression of RANKL, suggesting that Th1 cells play a direct role in bone resorption in Th1 dominant diseases such as RA. [source]

    MyD88 expression in the rat dental follicle: implications for osteoclastogenesis and tooth eruption

    Dawen Liu
    Liu D, Yao S, Wise GE. MyD88 expression in the rat dental follicle: implications for osteoclastogenesis and tooth eruption. Eur J Oral Sci 2010; 118: 333,341. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Eur J Oral Sci Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a key adaptor molecule in the interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-18 toll-like receptor signaling pathways. Because MyD88 is present in dental follicle (DF) cells in vitro, the purpose of this study was to determine its chronological expression in vivo, as well as its possible role in osteoclastogenesis and tooth eruption. An oligo DNA microarray was used to determine expression of the Myd88 gene in vivo in the DFs from the first mandibular molars of postnatal rats from days 1 to 11. The results showed that MyD88 was expressed maximally on day 3. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knock down MyD88 expression in the DF cells also reduced the expression of the nuclear factor-kappa B-1 (NFKB1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) genes. Interleukin-1, up-regulated the expression of NFKB1, MCP-1, and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), but knockdown of MyD88 nullified this IL-1, effect. Conditioned medium from DF cells with MyD88 knocked down had reduced chemotactic activity for mononuclear cells and reduced osteoclastogenesis, as opposed to controls. In conclusion, the maximal expression of MyD88 in the DF of postnatal day 3 rats may contribute to the major burst of osteoclastogenesis needed for eruption by up-regulating MCP-1 and RANKL expression. [source]

    Bumetanide, the Specific Inhibitor of Na+ -K+ -2Cl, Cotransport, Inhibits 1,,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 -Induced Osteoclastogenesis in a Mouse co-culture System

    Hyun-A Lee
    The Na+ -K+ -2Cl, cotransporter (NKCC1) is responsible for ion transport across the secretory and absorptive epithelia, the regulation of cell volume, and possibly the modulation of cell growth and development. It has been reported that a variety of cells, including osteoblasts, contain this cotransporter. In this study, the physiological role of NKCC1 in osteoclastogenesis was exploited in a co-culture system. Bumetanide, a specific inhibitor of NKCC1, reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells. In order to investigate the mechanism by which bumetanide inhibits osteoclastogenesis, the mRNA expressions of the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-,B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were analysed by RT-PCR. Exposure of osteoblastic cells to a medium containing 1 µM bumetanide reduced RANKL mRNA expression induced by 10 nM 1,,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,,25(OH)2D3, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, RANKL expression was also analysed with enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) using anti-RANKL antibody. The expression of RANKL was decreased with the increase of bumetanide concentration. In contrast, the expression of OPG mRNA, a novel tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family member was increased in the presence of bumetanide. These results imply that bumetanide inhibits osteoclast differentiation by reducing the RANKL/OPG ratio in osteoblastic cells. However, no significant difference in M-CSF mRNA expression was observed when bumetanide was added. Also, we found that the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2 -terminal kinase (JNK), which regulates the activity of various transcriptional factors, was reduced by bumetanide treatment. Conclusively, these findings suggest that NKCC1 in osteoblasts has a pivotal role in 1,,25(OH)2D3 -induced osteoclastogenesis partly via the phosphorylation of JNK. [source]

    The effect of sexual hormone abnormalities on proximal femur bone mineral density in hemodialysis patients and the possible role of RANKL

    Konstantinos K. DOUMOUCHTSIS
    Abstract Sexual hormone concentrations are commonly affected in chronic renal failure. The contribution of sex steroids to bone turnover regulation implies that sex steroid's dysfunction may be implicated in the emergence of renal osteodystrophy. This study was conducted to evaluate sex steroids and gonadotrophins in hemodialysis (HD) patients and to investigate their role in bone homeostasis in concert with other hormones and cytokines. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the proximal femur and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), osteoprotegerin, soluble receptor activator of NF-,B ligand (sRANKL), prolactin, total testosterone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured in serum samples in 42 patients, 21 men and 21 women, on maintenance HD therapy. Possible associations between clinical characteristics, biochemical parameters, and BMD values were investigated. In male HD patients, the testosterone concentration declined significantly with aging, whereas the estradiol level increased with longer duration of HD. Concurrently, testosterone correlated negatively with sRANKL concentrations (r=,0.520, p=0.016). Luteinizing hormone levels in male patients demonstrated statistically significant negative correlations with BMD values of the proximal femur. In the entire cohort of patients, FSH and LH were negatively associated with absolute values of proximal femur BMD. Gonadotrophin and sexual hormone concentrations in HD patients are associated with bone mineral status and consequently their derangements appear to contribute to the development of bone composition abnormalities in different types of renal osteodystrophy. Furthermore, testosterone's association with sRANKL levels in male HD patients suggests that RANKL may mediate the effect of testosterone on bone metabolism in these patients. [source]

    Stromal cells promote bone invasion by suppressing bone formation in ameloblastoma

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    G S A Sathi
    Aims:, To study the stromal variation and role of stromal,tumour cell interaction in impaired bone formation as well as enhanced bone resorption in ameloblastoma. Methods and results:, Four types of stroma were observed histologically; fibrous, desmoplastic, myxoid and myxoid with hyalinization. Osteoblast and osteoclast were counted using haematoxylin and eosin sections and immunohistochemistry with CD68. After histomorphometric analysis, only fibrous and myxoid types of stroma were distinctly identified. Secreted frizzled-related peptide (sFRP)-2, transforming growth factor-beta 1 and receptor activator of nuclear factor-,B ligand (RANKL) revealed strong expression in myxoid type compared with the normal stroma. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 was negative in myxoid type, but positive in normal stroma. Fibrous-type stroma showed weak expression of all antigens except RANKL compared with myxoid type. Conclusions:, The results suggest that stroma does not act only in bone resorption, but also in the suppression of new bone formation. sFRP-2 is the main factor for impaired bone formation. The expression of markers related to osteoclastogenesis and suppression of osteoblast formation is higher in myxoid-type than in fibrous-type stroma. Tumour cells create a favourable environment for impaired bone formation by secreting sFRP-2 as well as bone resorption by secreting RANKL and interleukin-6. [source]

    Prostaglandin E2 Induces Expression of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor,,B Ligand/Osteoprotegrin Ligand on Pre-B Cells: Implications for Accelerated Osteoclastogenesis in Estrogen Deficiency

    Masahiro Kanematsu
    Abstract Estrogen deficiency causes bone loss as a result of accelerated osteoclastic bone resorption. It also has been reported that estrogen deficiency is associated with an increase in the number of pre-B cells in mouse bone marrow. The present study was undertaken to clarify the role of altered B lymphopoiesis and of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-,B ligand (RANKL), a key molecule in osteoclastogenesis, in the bone loss associated with estrogen deficiency. In the presence of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the activity to form tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast-like cells was significantly greater in bone marrow cells derived from ovariectomized (OVX) mice than in those from sham-operated mice. Northern blot analysis revealed that PGE2 increased the amount of RANKL messenger RNA (mRNA) in bone marrow cells, not only adherent stromal cells but nonadherent hematopoietic cells; among the latter, RANKL mRNA was more abundant in OVX mice than in sham-operated mice and was localized predominantly in B220+ cells. Flow cytometry revealed that most B220+ cells in bone marrow were RANKL positive and that the percentage of RANKL-positive, B220low cells was higher in bone marrow from OVX mice than in that from sham-operated mice. The increase in the expression of RANKL and the percentage of these cells in OVX mice was abolished by the administration of indomethacin in vivo. PGE2 also markedly increased both the level of RANKL mRNA and cell surface expression of RANKL protein in the mouse pre-B cell line 70Z/3. Finally, osteoclastogenic response to PGE2 was reduced markedly by prior depletion of B220+ cells, and it was restored by adding back B220+ cells. Taken together with stimulated cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 activity by tumor necrosis factor , (TNF-,) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) in estrogen deficiency, these results suggest that an increase in the number of B220+ cells in bone marrow may play an important role in accelerated bone resorption in estrogen deficiency because B220+ cells exhibit RANKL on the cell surface in the presence of PGE2, thereby leading to accelerated osteoclastogenesis. [source]

    Endogenous n-3 fatty acids protect ovariectomy induced bone loss by attenuating osteoclastogenesis

    Md Mizanur Rahman
    Abstract Beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids (FA) on bone mineral density (BMD) have been reported in mice, rats and human beings, but the precise mechanisms involved have not been described. This study used the Fat-1 mouse, a transgenic model that synthesizes n-3 FA from n-6 FA to directly determine if outcome of bone health were correlated with n-3 FA. Ovariectomized (Ovx) and sham operated wild-type (WT) and Fat-1 mice were fed an AIN-93M diet containing 10% corn oil for 24 weeks. BMD was analysed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Fat-1 Ovx mice exhibited significantly lower level of osteotropic factors like receptor activator of NF-,B ligand and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)5b in serum and higher BMD in distal femoral metaphysis, proximal tibial metaphysis, femoral diaphysis and lumbar vertebra as compared to WT Ovx mice. LPS-stimulated bone marrow (BM) cells from Fat-1 Ovx mice produced significantly lower level of pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumour necrosis factor-,, interleukin (IL)-1-,, IL-6 and higher level of anti-inflammatory cytokines like IL-10, IFN-, and higher level of nitric oxide as compared to BM cells from WT Ovx mice. LPS-stimulated COX-II activity as well as NF-,B activation in BM cells from Fat-1 Ovx mice was significantly less as compared to BM cells from WT Ovx mice. Furthermore, Fat-1 BM cells generated significantly less number of TRAP osteoclast-like cells as compared to WT BM cells. In conclusion, we offer further insight into the mechanisms involved in preventing the BMD loss in Ovx mice by n-3 FA using a Fat-1 transgenic mouse model. [source]

    Osteoprotegerin production by breast cancer cells is suppressed by dexamethasone and confers resistance against TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    Tilman D. Rachner
    Abstract Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a decoy receptor for receptor activator of NF-,B ligand (RANKL) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). While RANKL is essential for osteoclastogenesis and facilitates breast cancer migration into bone, TRAIL promotes breast cancer apoptosis. We analyzed the expression of OPG and TRAIL and its modulation in estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 cells and receptor-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. In both cells, OPG mRNA levels and protein secretion were dose- and time-dependently enhanced by interleukin (IL)-1, and suppressed by dexamethasone. In contrast to MCF-7 cells, MDA-MB-231 abundantly expressed TRAIL mRNA, which was enhanced by IL-1, and inhibited by dexamethasone. TRAIL activated pro-apoptotic caspase-3, -7, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and decreased cell numbers of MDA-MB-231, but had no effect on MCF-7 cells. Gene silencing siRNA directed against OPG resulted in a 31% higher apoptotic rate compared to non-target siRNA-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, TRAIL induced significantly less apoptosis in cells cultured in conditioned media (containing OPG) compared to cells exposed to TRAIL in fresh medium lacking OPG (P,<,0.01) and these protective effects were reversed by blocking OPG with its specific ligand RANKL (P,<,0.05). The association between cancer cell survival and OPG production by MDA-MB-231 cells was further supported by the finding, that modulation of OPG secretion using IL-1, or dexamethasone prior to TRAIL exposure resulted in decreased and increased rate of apoptosis, respectively (P,<,0.05). Thus, OPG secretion by breast cancer cells is modulated by cytokines and dexamethasone, and may represent a critical resistance mechanism that protects against TRAIL-induced apoptosis. J. Cell. Biochem. 108: 106,116, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Stat1-mediated cytoplasmic attenuation in osteoimmunology

    Hiroshi Takayanagi
    Abstract Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1) is a critical mediator of gene transcription in type I interferon (IFN-,/,) signaling that is essential for host defense against viruses. In the skeletal system, type I IFNs (IFN-,/,) also play an important physiological role in the inhibition of receptor activator of NF-,B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption: mice deficient in IFN signaling exhibit decreased bone mass accompanied by the activation of osteoclastogenesis. On the other hand, an unexpected increase in bone mass was observed in Stat1-deficient mice, indicating that Stat1 has a hitherto unknown function in the regulation of bone formation. Indeed, Stat1 was found to have a unique, non-canonical function as a cytoplasmic attenuator of Runx2, a key transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation. Thus, the loss of Stat1 results in excessive activation of Runx2 and osteoblast differentiation, thereby tipping the balance in favor of bone formation over bone resorption. This is an interesting example in which a latent transcription factor attenuates the activity of another transcription factor in the cytoplasm, and reveals a novel regulatory mechanism of bone remodeling by immunomodulatory molecules. Here, we summarize recent advances in the study of Stat1 and IFNs in the context of osteoimmunology, including latest reports that question whether the inhibitory function of Stat1 in chondrocytes is responsible for dwarfism in achondroplasia. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Regulation of osteoclastogenesis and RANK expression by TGF-,1

    Tao Yan
    Abstract Transforming growth factor-, (TGF-,) has been shown to both inhibit and to stimulate bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis. This may be due, in part, to differential effects on bone marrow stromal cells that support osteoclastogenesis vs. direct effects on osteoclastic precursor cells. In the present study, we used the murine monocytic cell line, RAW 264.7, to define direct effects of TGF-, on pre-osteoclastic cells. In the presence of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) (20 ng/ml) and receptor activator of NF-,B ligand (RANK-L) (50 ng/ml), TGF-,1 (0.01,5 ng/ml) dose-dependently stimulated (by up to 120-fold) osteoclast formation (assessed by the presence of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive multinucleated cells and expression of calcitonin and vitronectin receptors). In addition, TGF-,1 also increased steady state RANK mRNA levels in a time- (by up to 3.5-fold at 48 h) and dose-dependent manner (by up to 2.2-fold at 10 ng/ml). TGF-,1 induction of RANK mRNA levels was present both in undifferentiated RAW cells as well as in cells that had been induced to differentiate into osteoclasts by a 7-day treatment with M-CSF and RANK-L. Using a fluorescence-labeled RANK-L probe, we also demonstrated by flow cytometry that TGF-,1 resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of RANK+ RAW cells (P,<,0.05), as well as an increase in the fluorescence intensity per cell (P,<,0.05), the latter consistent with an increase in RANK protein expression per cell. These data thus indicate that TGF-, directly stimulates osteoclastic differentiation, and this is accompanied by increased RANK mRNA and protein expression. J. Cell. Biochem. 83: 320,325, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Active caspase-3 is required for osteoclast differentiation

    K.H. Szymczyk
    Based on our earlier observation that caspase-3 is present in osteoclasts that are not undergoing apoptosis, we investigated the role of this protein in the differentiation of primary osteoclasts and RAW264.7 cells (Szymczyk KH, et al., 2005, Caspase-3 activity is necessary for RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. The Proceedings of the 8th ICCBMT). We noted that osteoclast numbers are decreased in long bones of procaspase-3 knockout mice and that receptor activator of NF-,B ligand (RANKL) does not promote differentiation of isolated preosteoclasts. In addition, after treatment with inhibitors of caspase-3 activity, neither the wild-type primary nor the RAW264.7 cells express TRAP or became multinucleated. We found that immediately following RANKL treatment, procaspase-3 is cleaved and the activated protein is localized to lipid regions of the plasma membrane and the cytosol. We developed RAW264.7 procaspase-3 knockdown clonal cell lines using RNAi technology. Again, treatment with RANKL fails to induce TRAP activity or multinucleation. Finally, we evaluated NF-,B in procaspase-3 silenced cells. We found that RANKL treatment prevented activation and nuclear translocation of NF-,B. Together these findings provide direct support for the hypothesis that caspase-3 activity is required for osteoclast differentiation. J. Cell. Physiol. 209: 836,844, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Markers of bone destruction and formation and periodontitis in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    David F. Lappin
    Abstract Aim: To determine plasma concentrations of bone metabolism markers in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and non-diabetic and to evaluate the influence of periodontitis on biomarkers of bone formation in these patient groups. Methods: Plasma concentrations of receptor activator of nuclear factor- ,B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen and osteocalcin were measured in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients (n=63) and non-diabetics (n=38) who were also subdivided on the basis of their periodontal status. Results: Diabetics had significantly lower osteocalcin concentrations, lower RANKL to OPG ratios and higher OPG concentrations (as shown by other researchers) than non-diabetics. The ratio of RANKL to OPG was altered by the periodontal status. Osteocalcin had a negative correlation and OPG a positive correlation with the percentage of glycated haemoglobin in the blood. Conclusion: Because, osteocalcin, a biomarker of bone formation, is lower in patients with periodontitis and in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus with and without periodontitis than in non-diabetics without periodontitis, this might indicate that diabetics are less able to replace bone lost during active bursts of periodontitis and explain the greater severity of disease seen in studies of patients with diabetes. [source]

    Saliva concentrations of RANKL and osteoprotegerin in smoker versus non-smoker chronic periodontitis patients

    Nurcan Buduneli
    Abstract Objectives: To compare the salivary receptor activator of NF- ,B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) concentrations in smokers versus non-smokers with chronic periodontitis. Material and Methods: Whole saliva samples were obtained from 67 untreated chronic periodontitis patients, of whom 34 were smokers, and from 44 maintenance patients, of whom 22 were smokers. Full-mouth clinical periodontal measurements were recorded. Saliva cotinine, sRANKL and OPG concentrations were determined by ELISA. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann,Whitney U test, Bonferroni's correction for multiple comparisons and Spearman's correlations. Results: Untreated smokers exhibited significantly higher values of clinical periodontal recordings than untreated non-smokers (all p<0.05). Salivary cotinine level correlated with clinical attachment level (p=0.023). Smoker versus non-smoker maintenance groups showed no significant differences in clinical parameters. There were significant differences in sRANKL and OPG concentrations between untreated and maintenance groups (all p<0.01). Salivary OPG concentration was significantly lower (all p<0.01) and the sRANKL/OPG ratio was higher (all p<0.01) in smokers than in non-smokers. OPG concentration correlated positively with probing depth, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing (all p<0.005) and negatively with pack-year, and cotinine level (p<0.05). Conclusion: Salivary RANKL and OPG concentrations are suggested to be affected by smoking as not only the untreated but also the treated smokers exhibited higher RANKL and lower OPG concentrations than non-smokers. [source]

    Formation of osteoclast-like cells from peripheral blood of periodontitis patients occurs without supplementation of macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    Stanley T. S. Tjoa
    Abstract Aim: To determine whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from chronic periodontitis patients differ from PBMCs from matched control patients in their capacity to form osteoclast-like cells. Material and Methods: PBMCs from 10 subjects with severe chronic periodontitis and their matched controls were cultured on plastic or on bone slices without or with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor- ,B ligand (RANKL). The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRACP+) multinucleated cells (MNCs) and bone resorption were assessed. Results: TRACP+ MNCs were formed under all culture conditions, in patient and control cultures. In periodontitis patients, the formation of TRACP+ MNC was similar for all three culture conditions; thus supplementation of the cytokines was not needed to induce MNC formation. In control cultures, however, M-CSF or M-CSF/RANKL resulted in higher numbers compared with cultures without cytokines. Upregulations of osteoclast marker mRNA cathepsin K and carbonic anhydrase II confirmed the osteoclastic character. Bone resorption was only observed when PBMCs were cultured in the presence of M-CSF and RANKL. Conclusion: Our data indicate that PBMCs from periodontitis patients do not need priming by M-CSF to become osteoclast-like cells, suggesting that PBMCs from periodontitis patients are present in the circulation in a different state of activity. [source]

    Gingival crevicular fluid levels of RANKL and OPG in periodontal diseases: implications of their relative ratio

    Nagihan Bostanci
    Abstract Aim: Receptor activator of NF-,B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are a system of molecules that regulate bone resorption. This study aims to compare the levels of RANKL, OPG and their relative ratio in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of healthy and periodontal disease subjects. Material and Methods: GCF was obtained from healthy (n=21), gingivitis (n=22), chronic periodontitis (n=28), generalized aggressive periodontitis (n=25) and chronic periodontitis subjects under immunosuppressant therapy (n=11). RANKL and OPG concentrations in GCF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: RANKL levels were low in health and gingivitis groups, but increased in all three forms of periodontitis. OPG levels were higher in health than all three periodontitis, or gingivitis groups. There were no differences in RANKL and OPG levels between chronic and generalized aggressive periodontitis groups, whereas these were lower in the immunosuppressed chronic periodontitis group. The RANKL/OPG ratio was significantly elevated in all three periodontitis forms, compared with health or gingivitis, and positively correlated to probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level. Conclusion: GCF RANKL and OPG levels were oppositely regulated in periodontitis, but not gingivitis, resulting in an enhanced RANKL/OPG ratio. This ratio was similar in all three periodontitis groups and may therefore predict disease occurrence. [source]

    The role of RANKL and MMP-9 in the bone resorption caused by ameloblastoma

    Yong Qian
    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) 39: 592,598 Background:, Ameloblastoma, a common odontogenic tumor located in jaws, generally leads to severe damage to patient's complexion and masticatory function. To expand in jaws, ameloblastoma must have a mechanism of resorbing the surrounding bone. Our objective was to explore the bone-resorption mechanism of ameloblastoma by observing the role of Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the bone-resorption process. Methods:, In the study, the expression of RANKL and MMP-9 in ameloblastoma was detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and RT-PCR. Then, co-culture system of ameloblastoma cells and bone marrow cells from neonatal rabbit was erected to observe the potential of ameloblastoma cells to induce osteoclastogenesis. Finally, the induced osteoclasts were used for in vitro bone-resorption assay. In the co-culture system and the bone-resorption assay, the selective inhibitor of RANKL and MMP-9, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were, respectively, used for observing the role of RANKL and MMP-9. Results:, The expression of RANKL and MMP-9 in ameloblastoma was confirmed. Ameloblastoma cells were found to induce bone marrow cells from neonatal rabbit differentiate into osteoclasts with bone-resorption activity. In addition, OPG was found to, respectively, have markedly inhibitory effect on osteoclastogenesis (P < 0.01), and slightly inhibitory action on bone resorption (P < 0.05). Conclusions:, Ameloblastoma cells had the potential to induce osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, RANKL played an essential role in the in vitro osteoclast formation and bone resorption induced by ameloblastoma cells. [source]

    A possible CD1a Langerhans cell,mast cell interaction in chronic hyperplastic candidosis

    Ahmed Ali
    Aims:, T lymphocyte,antigen-presenting cell (APC) interaction plays a central role in T lymphocyte activation and APC maturation. We therefore studied the CD1a-positive Langerhans cells with respect to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-positive cells in chronic hyperplastic candidosis (CHC). Materials and methods:, Tissue sections of CHC were compared with leukoplakia and healthy oral mucosa using RANKL and CD1a monoclonal antibodies in an avidin,biotin peroxidase complex protocol. Two different antigen-retrieval protocols, pepsin preincubation and Tris,EDTA heat treatment, were used. Results:, CD1a-positive Langerhans cells were in healthy and leukoplakia epithelium found in the middle layer, but in CHC in all layers of the epithelium, at the basement membrane and as mononuclear round cells in the lamina propria. Use of pepsin digestion enabled studies of mast cells and their activation in the form of degranulation of RANKL. Conclusions:, The numerical, morphological and topographical versatility of the CD1a-positive Langerhans cells in CHC can be clarified by dendritic cell (DC) recruitment into the epithelium. RANK-positive and RANKL-sensitive DCs have ample opportunity to interact with local T lymphocytes. Use of an optimized antigen-retrieval protocol enabled demonstration of an active engagement (degranulation) of mast cells, which represent a rapidly available source of soluble RANKL. [source]

    Endothelial cells incubated with platelet-rich plasma express PDGF-B and ICAM-1 and induce bone marrow stromal cell migration

    Elisabetta Cenni
    Abstract Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is used to accelerate bone repair through the growth factors released by platelets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if PRP induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to express mRNA for osteogenic growth factors and stimulate the migration of bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC). The effects of PRP were compared to those induced by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) or, as a negative control, by platelet poor plasma (PPP). After incubation with PRP, but not with PPP, HUVEC showed an increased expression of mRNA for platelet derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B), and this effect was not inhibited by an anti-VEGF-A antibody. The migration of BMSC was more stimulated by HUVEC incubated with PRP than by HUVEC incubated with low serum medium or PPP. Besides, PRP increased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and osteoprotegerin, but did not affect the expression either of the receptor activator for nuclear factor ,B ligand (RANKL) or of RANK. These findings support the hypothesis that PRP contribute to bone repair by favoring the pro-osteogenic function of endothelial cells, including the recruitment of osteoblast precursors and the expression of adhesion molecules for monocyte/macrophages, while inhibiting their pro-osteolytic properties. © 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 27:1493,1498, 2009 [source]

    Role of fibroblasts and fibroblast-derived growth factors in periprosthetic angiogenesis

    Miklos Tunyogi-Csapo
    Abstract The periprosthetic granulomatous soft tissue [designated iterfacial membrane (IFM) in this study] exhibits heterogeneous histopathological features, in which highly vascularized areas with dense cellularity alternate with fibrotic and pseudocapsule-like tissue structures. Although macrophage/monocyte activation is a prominent event in the periprosthetic environment, fibroblasts also phagocytose particulate wear debris both in vivo and in vitro. Particulate wear debris and/or cytokines/growth factors alone or in combination (e.g., in conditioned media of explant cultures of IFMs) stimulated normal synovial and IFM fibroblasts to express inflammatory mediators and growth factors such as interleukin (IL)-1,, IL-6, IL-8, three isoforms of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), monocyte/macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), cycloxygenases (Cox-1 and Cox-2), acid- and basic-fibroblast growth factors (FGF-1 and FGF-2), leukemia inhibitory factor-1 (LIF-1), transforming growth factor ,-1 (TGF-,1), receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Thus, the fibroblast is capable of expressing a wide array of angiogenic and osteoclastogenic factors which are involved in the detrimental processes of the periprosthetic osteolysis. © 2007 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 25:1378,1388, 2007 [source]

    Effect of cyclic mechanical loading on osteoclast recruitment in periodontal tissue

    K. Nozaki
    Nozaki K, Kaku M, Yamashita Y, Yamauchi M, Miura H. Effect of cyclic mechanical loading on osteoclast recruitment in periodontal tissue. J Periodont Res 2009; doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.2008.01193.x. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Munksgaard Background and Objective:, It is well accepted that cyclic mechanical loading induces osteoclastogenesis in periodontal tissue, but its molecular mechanisms are not well understood, in part because of a lack of appropriate models. In this study, we investigated a novel device that allows cyclic mechanical loading to be performed in a well-controlled manner. Furthermore, by employing this model, the effect of cyclic loading on osteoclast recruitment in the periodontal tissue was described. Material and Methods:, By using a newly developed device, the cyclic loading of 20 n (reference loading corresponding to the fracture hardness of dietary pellets) and two excessive loadings (i.e. 30 and 40 n) were applied to maxillary right molars in rats for up to 7 d, and osteoclast recruitment in the periodontal tissue was evaluated by analyzing relevant marker proteins using immunohistochemistry. Results:, Osteoclastogenesis was induced by day 3 within alveolar bone subjected to a compression force of 30 n. With both 30 and 40 n loadings, cells that were positive to for tartrate-resistant acid phosphate, receptor activator of nuclear factor-,B ligand and osteoprotegerin were significantly increased in the alveolar bone/periodontal ligament in a time-dependent manner. Conclusion:, A new device was developed that allows various levels of cyclic mechanical loading to be exerted. By using this device in rats, early events of osteoclast recruitment in the periodontal tissues were observed with excessive loadings in a time-dependent manner, indicating the usefulness of this model. [source]

    Osteoprotegerin induces osteopontin via syndecan-1 and phosphoinositol 3-kinase/Akt in human periodontal ligament cells

    T. Yongchaitrakul
    Background and Objective:, Our previous study found that thrombin induced osteoprotegerin synthesis in human periodontal ligament cells. As elevated levels of osteoprotegerin can exert biological effects on various cell types, in the present study we investigated the effect of osteoprotegerin on the expression of osteopontin in human periodontal ligament cells. Material and Methods:, Cultured human periodontal ligament cells were treated with recombinant human osteoprotegerin (0,100 ng/mL) for 24,48 h. The expression of osteopontin mRNA and protein was analyzed using reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, respectively. Phosphoinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, Akt inhibitor, heparinase, neutralizing antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor-,B ligand (RANKL) and syndecan-1, and small interfering RNA against syndecan-1, were used to determine the mechanism involved. Results:, Osteoprotegerin up-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of osteopontin in human periodontal ligament cells in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of neutralizing antibody against RANKL attenuated the inductive effect of osteoprotegerin on osteopontin expression. In addition, the inductive effect of osteoprotegerin was abolished by phosphoinositol 3-kinase and Akt inhibitors, as well as by syndecan-1 antibody or syndecan-1 small interfering RNA. None of the inhibitors had any effect on the background level of osteopontin expression. Conclusion:, An increased level of osteoprotegerin can generate signals via a RANKL/syndecan-1/phosphoinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. The results also suggest that osteopontin is one of the downstream targets of the pathway mediated by osteoprotegerin in human periodontal ligament cells. Thus, in addition to counteracting RANKL in the RANKL,osteoprotegerin system, osteoprotegerin may play a role in periodontal tissue remodeling through modulation of the extracellular matrix. [source]

    Experimental periodontitis in mice selected for maximal or minimal inflammatory reactions: increased inflammatory immune responsiveness drives increased alveolar bone loss without enhancing the control of periodontal infection

    A. P. F. Trombone
    Background and Objective:, Inflammatory immune reactions that occur in response to periodontopathogens are thought to protect the host against infection, but may trigger periodontal destruction. However, the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying host susceptibility to periodontal infection and to periodontitis development have still not been established in detail. Material and Methods:, In this study, we examined the mechanisms that modulate the outcome of Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans -induced periodontal disease in mice mouse strains selected for maximal (AIRmax) or minimal (AIRmin) inflammatory reactions. Results:, Our results showed that AIRmax mice developed a more severe periodontitis than AIRmin mice in response to A. actinomycetemcomitans infection, and this periodontitis was characterized by increased alveolar bone loss and inflammatory cell migration to periodontal tissues. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays demonstrated that the levels of the cytokines interleukin-1,, tumor necrosis factor-, and interleukin-17 were higher in AIRmax mice, as were the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-13 and receptor activator of nuclear factor-,B ligand (RANKL) mRNA levels. However, the more intense inflammatory immune reaction raised by the AIRmax strain, in spite of the higher levels of antimicrobial mediators myeloperoxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, did not enhance the protective immunity to A. actinomycetemcomitans infection, because both AIRmax and AIRmin strains presented similar bacterial loads in periodontal tissues. In addition, the AIRmax strain presented a trend towards higher levels of serum C-reactive protein during the course of disease. Conclusion:, Our results demonstrate that the intensity of the inflammatory immune reaction is associated with the severity of experimental periodontitis, but not with the control of A. actinomycetemcomitans periodontal infection, suggesting that the occurrence of hyperinflammatory genotypes may not be an evolutionary advantage in the complex host,pathogen interaction observed in periodontal diseases. [source]

    Subculture affects the phenotypic expression of human periodontal ligament cells and their response to fibroblast growth factor-2 and bone morphogenetic protein-7,in vitro

    S. Lossdörfer
    Background and Objective:, Although periodontal ligament cells display several osteoblastic traits, their phenotypic expression is still not well established. It remains a matter of debate whether they resemble a terminally differentiated cell type or an intermediate maturation state that potentially can be directed towards a fibroblastic or an osteoblastic phenotype. Material and Methods:, To explore the characteristics of periodontal ligament cells in greater detail, fourth-passage, sixth-passage and eighth-passage human periodontal ligament cells were cultured for up to 3 wk. Ki-67, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-,B ligand (RANKL) mRNA expression was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the cellular response to fibroblast growth factor-2 and bone morphogenetic protein-7 was examined in first-passage and fourth-passage cells. Dermal fibroblasts (1BR.3.G) and osteoblast-like cells (MG63) served as reference cell lines. Results:, Proliferation decreased over time and was highest in fourth-passage cells. The expression of differentiation parameters, osteoprotegerin and RANKL increased with culture time and was higher in fourth-passage cells than in cells of later passages. The RANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio increased steadily until day 21. Administration of fibroblast growth factor-2 enhanced cell numbers in both passages, whereas alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin production remained unchanged. By contrast, exposure of periodontal ligament cells to bone morphogenetic protein-7 resulted in a reduction of cell number in the first and fourth passages, whereas the production of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin was enhanced. In dermal fibroblasts, differentiation parameters did not respond to both stimuli. MG63 cells behaved similarly to periodontal ligament cells. Conclusion:, These results indicate that subculture affects the phenotypic expression of human periodontal ligament cells with respect to the characteristics that these cells share with osteoblasts. Furthermore, the periodontal ligament cell phenotype can be altered by fibroblastic and osteoblastic growth factors. [source]

    The role of macrophages in the periodontal regeneration using Emdogain® gel

    N. Fujishiro
    Background and Objective:, Emdogain® gel is clinically used as a periodontal regenerative material. However, the mechanism of the regeneration has not been completely elucidated. Although many studies have focused on the regenerative effect of Emdogain on connective tissue attachment and alveolar bone, the role of macrophages and the expression of growth factors remains unclear in the regeneration stimulated by Emdogain gel in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Emdogain gel on the expression of cytokines and growth factors by macrophages in vivo using a newly devised rat experimental periodontitis model. Material and Methods:, Rat experimental periodontitis was induced by elevating a full-thickness gingival flap and ligating silk threads around the first molars of the mandible. At 14 d after inducing experimental periodontitis, Emdogain gel or propylene glycol alginate was applied to the furcation area. The rats were killed 7 and 14 d after treatment with propylene glycol alginate or Emdogain gel. The expression of cytokines and growth factors, and the regeneration of periodontal tissue, were examined by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Results:, Fourteen days after the induction of periodontitis, the resorption of alveolar bone at furcation was observed and cytokines such as interleukin-1,, transforming growth factor-,1, receptor activator of nuclear factor-,B ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor-,B and osteoprotegerin were found. In the Emdogain-treatment group, the formation of new acellular cementum and, more remarkably, recovery of the bone, were observed. The new bone formation ratio in the Emdogain treatment group was significantly higher than that of the propylene glycol alginate treatment group. Although the expression of cytokines such as interleukin-1,, transforming growth factor-,1, receptor activator of nuclear factor-,B ligand and receptor activator of nuclear factor-,B was very low, bone morphogenetic protein-2- and bone morphogenetic protein-4-expressing macrophages were observed close to the root, and bone morphogenetic protein-4-expressing macrophages were mainly observed close to the bone surface at the furcation in the Emdogain-treatment group. Conclusion:, These results suggest that wound-healing macrophages may express bone morphogenetic protein and play an important role in the regeneration of periodontal tissue at the furcation following the application of Emdogain gel. [source]

    Expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand relates to inflammatory bone resorption, with or without occlusal trauma, in rats

    Y. Yoshinaga
    Background and Objective:, Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) is an important factor in osteoclast differentiation, activation and survival; however, its involvement in inflammatory bone resorption, with or without occlusal trauma, is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the distribution of RANKL-expressing cells in rat periodontium during lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation with or without occlusal trauma. Material and Methods:, Lipopolysaccharide was injected into rat gingiva of the lower left first molar to induce inflammation. In addition, the occlusal surface of the upper left first molar of rat was raised by placing a gold inlay to induce occlusal trauma in the lower left first molars. The distribution of RANKL-expressing cells was immunohistochemically observed. Results:, In the inflammatory model, many osteoclasts were observed at the apical inter-radicular septum on day 5 and they were reduced by day 10. On the other hand, in the inflammatory model with occlusal trauma, many osteoclasts were still observed on day 10. RANKL expression was similar to the changes in osteoclast number. The expression of RANKL increased in endothelial cells, inflammatory cells and periodontal ligament cells. Conclusion:, These findings clearly demonstrated that RANKL expression on endothelial cells, inflammatory cells and periodontal ligament cells is involved in inflammatory bone resorption and the expression is enhanced by traumatic occlusion. These results suggest that RANKL expression on these cells is closely involved in the increase of osteoclasts induced by occlusal trauma. [source]

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate interleukin-1,-induced receptor activator of nuclear factor-,B ligand expression in human periodontal ligament cells

    A. Oikawa
    Background and Objective:, Interleukin-1,-stimulated receptor activator of nuclear factor-,B ligand (RANKL) expression in human periodontal ligament cells is partially mediated by endogenous prostaglandin E2, whereas mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are implicated in regulating various interleukin-1-responsive genes. We investigated herein the involvement of MAPKs in interleukin-1,-stimulated RANKL expression in human periodontal ligament cells. Material and Methods:, Human periodontal ligament cells were pretreated separately with specific inhibitors of MAPKs, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and subsequently treated with interleukin-1,. Following each treatment, the phosphorylation of each MAPK, the expression of RANKL, and the production of prostaglandin E2 were determined. RANKL activity was evaluated using an assay to determine the survival of prefusion osteoclasts. Results:, Interleukin-1, induced RANKL expression at the mRNA and protein levels, as well as RANKL activity in human periodontal ligament cells. Interleukin-1, also activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Pretreatment with each MAPK inhibitor partially, but significantly, suppressed interleukin-1,-induced RANKL expression and its activity, as well as prostaglandin E2 production. Conclusion:, In human periodontal ligament cells, three types of MAPK inhibitor may abrogate RANKL expression and activity induced by interleukin-1,, directly or indirectly through partial suppression of prostaglandin E2 synthesis. In addition, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signals may co-operatively mediate interleukin-1,-stimulated RANKL expression and its activity in those cells. [source]