B Immunoglobulin (b + immunoglobulin)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of B Immunoglobulin

  • hepatitis b immunoglobulin


  • Selected Abstracts


    Prophylaxis Against Hepatitis B Recurrence Posttransplantation Using Lamivudine and Individualized Low-Dose Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 8 2010
    L. Jiang
    Although the combination of lamivudine (LAM) and high-dose intravenous (IV) hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) is very effective in preventing hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT), the major limitation of this regimen is its high cost. A more cost-effective, convenient and widely accepted regimen is urgently needed. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of another strategy using LAM and individualized low-dose intramuscular (IM) HBIG. Between May 2002 and December 2009, a total of 254 adult patients undergoing LT for HBV-related benign end-stage liver diseases received this regimen in our center. The mean follow-up of these patients was 41.2 22.7 months. Their 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 85.3%, 77.4% and 76.4%, respectively, and 1-, 3- and 5-year HBV recurrence rates were 2.3%, 6.2% and 8.2%. Fourteen patients experienced posttransplant HBV recurrence. Pretransplant high viral load and posttransplant prednisone withdrawal time were observed to be associated with recurrence. In conclusion, combination therapy with LAM and individualized low-dose IM HBIG provides a safe and effective prophylaxis against HBV recurrence after LT at about 5% of the cost of conventional high-dose IV HBIG regimens. [source]


    Molecular Correlates of Scarring in Kidney Transplants: The Emergence of Mast Cell Transcripts

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 1 2009
    M. Mengel
    In the Banff consensus, infiltrates in areas of scarring are ignored. This study aimed to characterize the molecular correlates and clinical significance of scarring and inflammation in scarred areas. We assessed the extent of interstitial infiltrates, tubulitis and scarring in 129 clinically indicated renal allograft biopsies, and correlated the results with microarray expression data and allograft survival. Findings were validated in 50 additional biopsies. Transplants with scarring had a worse prognosis if the scarred area showed infiltrates. Infiltration in unscarred and scarred areas was associated with reduced death censored graft survival. In microarray analysis, infiltration in unscarred areas strongly (>r 0.4) correlated with 484 transcripts associated with cytotoxic T cells, interferon-gamma, macrophages and injury. Scarring correlated with a distinct set of 172 transcripts associated with B cells, plasma cells, and others of unknown significance. The strongest correlation was with four mast cell transcripts. In biopsies with scarring, high expression of mast cell transcripts was associated with reduced graft survival and poor functional recovery. In renal allograft biopsies, infiltrates in scarred areas have implications for poor outcomes. Scarring is associated with a distinct pattern of inflammatory molecules, including B cell/immunoglobulin but particularly mast cell-associated transcripts, which correlated with poor outcomes. [source]


    A randomized study of adefovir dipivoxil in place of HBIG in combination with lamivudine as post,liver transplantation hepatitis B prophylaxis,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
    Peter W. Angus
    Prior to effective prophylaxis, liver transplantation for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related disease was frequently complicated by recurrence, which could be severe and rapidly progressive. Combination hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and lamivudine prophylaxis reduces this rate of recurrence to <5% at 5 years; however, HBIG administration is costly and inconvenient. We conducted a multicenter randomized study of adefovir dipivoxil substitution for low-dose intramuscular (IM) HBIG in patients without HBV recurrence at least 12 months posttransplantation for HBV-related disease. Thirty-four patients were randomized, 16 to adefovir (1 patient withdrew consent at 3 months and is not considered in the results) and 18 to continue HBIG. All continued lamivudine. Groups were well matched by age, sex, and time since transplantation (median, 4.5 years), and background virological risk for HBV recurrence (30% of patients in the adefovir group, 24% in the HBIG group having detectable HBV DNA at transplantation). All patients were alive at study completion without recurrence. One patient in the adefovir group became hepatitis B surface antigen,positive at 5 months but was persistently HBV DNA undetectable via polymerase chain reaction (sensitivity 14 IU/mL) over the following 20 months. Median creatinine was not significantly changed over the course of the study in either group. One patient in the adefovir group with a background of diabetic and hypertensive nephropathy (baseline creatinine 150 ,mol/L) developed increased creatinine leading to dose reduction and ultimately cessation of adefovir at 15 months. Yearly cost of combination adefovir/lamivudine prophylaxis was $8,290 versus $13,718 IM HBIG/lamivudine. Conclusion: Compared with combination HBIG plus lamivudine prophylaxis, combination adefovir plus lamivudine provides equivalent protection against recurrent HBV infection but with better tolerability and less cost. (HEPATOLOGY 2008.) [source]


    Evolution of multi-drug resistant hepatitis B virus during sequential therapy,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    Hyung Joon Yim
    Multi-drug resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been reported in hepatitis B patients who received sequential antiviral therapy. In vitro studies showed that HBV constructs with mutations resistant to lamivudine and adefovir have marked reduction in sensitivity to combination of lamivudine and adefovir, whereas constructs with mutations resistant to either drug remain sensitive to the other drug. We conducted this study to determine whether mutations conferring resistance to multiple antiviral agents co-locate on the same HBV genome in vivo and to describe the evolution of these mutations. Sera from six patients who had been found to have multi-drug resistant HBV mutations to lamivudine + adefovir, lamivudine + hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG), or lamivudine + entecavir on direct sequencing were cloned after nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analysis of 215 clones from 11 samples with multi-drug resistant mutations on direct sequencing showed that 183 (85%) clones had mutations to both therapies on the same genome; 31 clones had lamivudine-resistant mutants only. Clonal analysis of serial samples from three patients showed progressive evolution from all clones with lamivudine-resistant HBV mutations only to mixtures of clones that have multi-drug resistant mutations and clones that have lamivudine-resistant HBV mutations only, and ultimately all clones having multi-drug resistant HBV mutations. In conclusion, mutations conferring resistance to multiple antiviral agents co-locate on the same viral genome, suggesting that combination therapy directed against mutants resistant to each treatment may not be adequate in suppressing multi-drug resistant HBV. De novo combination therapy may prevent the emergence of multi-drug resistant mutants. (HEPATOLOGY 2006;44:703,712.) [source]


    Double-dose double-phase use of second generation hepatitis B virus vaccine in patients after living donor liver transplantation: Not an effective measure in transplant recipients

    HEPATOLOGY RESEARCH, Issue 1 2009
    Noriyo Yamashiki
    Aims:, Post-transplant active immunization for chronic hepatitis B patients has been attempted in several studies with controversial results. We assessed the effect of a double-dose double-phase vaccination regimen among partial living donor liver recipients. Methods:, Eighteen patients who underwent liver transplantation (LT) for chronic hepatitis B and two non-hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients who received hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb)-positive donor organs were recruited 18,78 months after LT. All were on hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) mono-prophylaxis before and throughout vaccination, to maintain hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) titers of more than 100 IU/mL. Recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen vaccine (40 g) was administered intramuscularly during weeks 0, 4, 8, 24, 28 and 32. Results:, The patients consisted of 15 males and five females with a median age of 52 (39,59) years. None developed a sufficient HBsAb titer above 500 IU/mL by week 48. In two patients whose maximum HBsAb titer increased to above 300 IU/mL, we attempted to skip HBIG, but shortly thereafter the titer dropped below 100 IU/mL and HBIG administration was resumed. Although the HBIG dose was reduced during and after vaccination, cessation of administration was not achieved. Conclusion:, Double-dose double-phase use of second generation recombinant vaccine was not effective in this study population. The selected population should be targeted for a conventional vaccine regimen, and different approaches, such as strong adjuvant or pre-S containing protein, should be further tested in a larger number of patients after LT for chronic hepatitis B. [source]


    The role of entecavir in preventing hepatitis B recurrence after liver transplantation

    JOURNAL OF DIGESTIVE DISEASES, Issue 4 2009
    Zhi Feng XI
    OBJECTIVE: Although hepatitis B recurrence after liver transplantation has been reduced to 0%,10% since the application of the combination therapy of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and lamivudine, the viral mutation resistance of lamivudine is still an obstacle to the outcome of liver transplantation. Here we evaluate the role of entecavir in preventing hepatitis B recurrence after liver transplantation. METHODS: Patients who received a liver transplantation for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related end-stage liver disease in our center from March 2006 to December 2008 were enrolled in this study. All patients received entecavir (0.5 mg orally, daily) or lamivudine (100 mg orally, daily) together with a long-term low dosage of HBIG to prevent hepatitis B recurrence after transplantation. Serum viral markers (HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBe) and HBV-DNA level were determined. RESULTS: Thirty patients receiving entecavir and 90 patients receiving lamivudine were matched with the same age and sex in both groups. No reinfection of hepatitis B was detected in the entecavir group. The hepatitis B surface antigen of patients in the entecavir group became negative within one week and no patient had any adverse effect relating to entecavir. There was no difference in the cumulative survival rate between the entecavir group and the lamivudine group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study shows that entecavir combined with low dosages of HBIG is effective and safe in preventing hepatitis B recurrence after liver transplantation, but its long-term effect is still under investigation and a large-sample study will be carried out in the future. [source]


    Adefovir dipivoxil therapy in liver transplant recipients for recurrence of hepatitis B virus infection despite lamivudine plus hepatitis B immunoglobulin prophylaxis

    JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 12 2007
    Murat Akyildiz
    Abstract Background:, Treatment of post-transplantation recurrence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection despite prophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and lamivudine combination therapy is not easy. Because HBV reinfection has a severe course and could result in graft failure in liver transplant recipients, prompt medication is essential. Herein is reported the authors' experience with adefovir dipivoxil (AD) therapy in 11 liver transplant recipients who had HBV reinfection despite the administration of lamivudine and HBIG. Method:, Two-hundred and nine patients underwent liver transplantation (100 deceased donor liver transplantations [DDLT], 109 living donor liver transplantation [LDLT]) due to chronic hepatitis B infection between April 1997 and May 2005 in Ege University Medical School, Liver Transplantation Unit. Patients had prophylaxis with lamivudine and low-dose HBIG combination after liver transplantation. Treatment of recurrence consisted of AD 10 mg once a day and lamivudine 300 mg/daily and HBIG was discontinued in those patients. Results:, In total there were 11 HBV recurrences: five occurred in DDLT recipients and six in LDLT recipients, at a median follow up of 18 months (range, 6,48 months). In one of 11 patients, pretransplant HBV-DNA and HBeAg were positive. Three patients had a severe course and one patient had fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. After AD treatment, HBV-DNA level decreased in all patients and became negative in seven patients. Two patients died due to hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after 12 and 14 months of follow up. Serum creatinine level increased mildly in one patient and no other side-effect was observed, and all patients continued therapy. Conclusion:, Adefovir dipivoxil is a safe, effective treatment option for post-transplant HBV recurrence even among patients with fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis caused by lamivudine-resistant HBV. [source]


    Role of long-term lamivudine treatment of hepatitis B virus recurrence after liver transplantation

    JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 11 2008
    Hyun Young Woo
    Abstract In this study, the long-term (>3 years) efficacy of combination therapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence and the associated factors were investigated. One hundred and sixty-five consecutive HBsAg-positive patients (92 with liver cirrhosis, 73 with hepatocellular carcinoma; HCC) who underwent liver transplantation were assessed with a median follow-up time of 40 months. One hundred and twenty-one patients (121/165, 73.3%) were treated with lamivudine before transplantation for a mean of 8.4 months (range 0.1,72 months). The post-transplantation treatment protocol consisted of a high dose intravenous hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) followed by a low dose intramuscular HBIg and lamivudine combination therapy. Seven (4.2%, 7/165) recipients experienced HBV recurrence at a median time of 19 months (range 5,36 months) following transplantation. Six of seven cases of HBV recurrence were treated with lamivudine before transplantation for a median period of 15 months (range 0.6,30 months). Eighteen (24.6%, 18/73) patients had HCC recurrences after transplantation. Of the four patients with both HCC and HBV recurrence, three experienced HBV recurrence after recurrence of HCC. The clinical factor associated with HBV recurrence in the total cohort (n,=,165) was the duration of antiviral treatment (over 6 months) before transplantation (P,=,0.004). In the HCC group, HCC recurrence after transplantation (P,=,0.002), tumor burden before transplantation (P,=,0.005), and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (P,=,0.002), were additional factors for HBV recurrence. Combination therapy of HBIg and antiviral drugs was effective over 3 years regardless of the pretransplantation viral load. However, the possible recurrence of HBV needs to be monitored cautiously in patients treated with long-term (over 6 months) lamivudine. J. Med. Virol. 80:1891,1899, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B reinfection in hepatitis B surface antigen,positive patients after liver transplantation

    LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 11 2009
    Sammy Saab
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reinfection and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are associated with increased graft failure and reduced patient survival. We evaluated the effects of both HCC recurrence and HBV reinfection on the long-term survival of these patients after OLT. One hundred seventy-five patients underwent OLT for HBV-related liver diseases and were the subjects of this retrospective study. We assessed risk factors for HBV reinfection, HCC recurrence, and survival post-OLT using univariate and multivariate analyses. During a mean follow-up of 43.0 42.0 months, 88 of 175 (50.3%) patients transplanted for HBV-related liver disease had HCC prior to OLT. Thirteen (14.8%) of these patients had HCC recurrence after OLT. The mean time for recurrence of HCC was 26.1 31.9 months. Twelve of 175 (6.9%) patients developed HBV reinfection after liver transplantation. The mean time for HBV reinfection was 28.7 26.4 months. Ten of these 12 (83.3%) patients had HCC prior to OLT, and 5 (50%) developed recurrence of HCC. On multivariate analyses, pre-OLT HCC and recurrence of HCC post-OLT were significantly associated with HBV reinfection after transplantation (P = 0.031 and P < 0.001, respectively). HCC recurrence after OLT was associated with lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.001) and post-OLT chemotherapy (P , 0.001). The 3- and 5-year survival rates were significantly decreased in patients with HBV reinfection (P = 0.007) and in patients with HCC recurrence after OLT (P = 0.03). In conclusion, pre-OLT HCC and HCC recurrence after transplantation were associated with HBV reinfection and with decreased patient survival. Hepatitis B immunoglobulin and antiviral therapy was only partially effective in preventing HBV reinfection in patients with HCC recurrence. Liver Transpl 15:1525,1534, 2009. 2009 AASLD. [source]


    Adefovir dipivoxil for wait-listed and post,liver transplantation patients with lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B: Final long-term results

    LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 3 2007
    Eugene Schiff
    Wait-listed (n = 226) or post,liver transplantation (n = 241) chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) were treated with adefovir dipivoxil for a median of 39 and 99 weeks, respectively. Among wait-listed patients, serum HBV DNA levels became undetectable (<1,000 copies/mL) in 59% and 65% at weeks 48 and 96, respectively. After 48 weeks, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, bilirubin, and prothrombin time normalized in 77%, 76%, 60%, and 84% of wait-listed patients, respectively. Among posttransplantation patients, serum HBV DNA levels became undetectable in 40% and 65% at weeks 48 and 96, respectively. After 48 weeks, ALT, albumin, bilirubin, and prothrombin time normalized in 51%, 81%, 76%, and 56% of posttransplantation patients, respectively. Among wait-listed patients who underwent on-study liver transplantation, protection from graft reinfection over a median of 35 weeks was similar among patients who did (n = 34) or did not (n = 23) receive hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg). Hepatitis B surface antigen was detected on the first measurement only in 6% and 9% of patients who did or did not receive HBIg, respectively. Serum HBV DNA was detected on consecutive visits in 6% and 0% of patients who did or did not receive HBIg, respectively. Treatment-related adverse events led to discontinuation of adefovir dipivoxil in 4% of patients. Cumulative probabilities of resistance were 0%, 2%, and 2% at weeks 48, 96, and 144, respectively. In conclusion, adefovir dipivoxil is effective and safe in wait-listed or posttransplantation CHB patients with lamivudine-resistant HBV and prevents graft reinfection with or without HBIg. Liver Transpl 13:349-360, 2007. 2007 AASLD. [source]


    Vaccination against hepatitis B in liver transplant recipients: Pilot analysis of cellular immune response shows evidence of HBsAg-specific regulatory T cells

    LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 3 2007
    Tanja Bauer
    After liver transplantation for hepatitis-B-related diseases, patients currently receive lifelong treatment with hepatitis B immunoglobulin to prevent endogenous reinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Active immunization with hepatitis B vaccine would be a preferable alternative; however, most attempts to immunize these patients with standard vaccine have failed. A recent study with a new adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine was exceptionally successful, leading to a high-titered long-lasting antibody response in 80% of all vaccinees. To identify the immunological mechanisms behind these unexpected results, the successfully vaccinated participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-specific T and B cells, and their cellular responses to revaccination with conventional vaccine were studied. HBsAg-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes could be detected in 13 of 16 patients after immunization with the new vaccine. Unexpectedly, these T cells produced almost exclusively interleukin (IL)-10 and had a CD4+/CD25+ phenotype. They were functionally active, suppressing cytokine secretion in HBsAg-specific (Th1) cells, thus representing antigen-specific regulatory T cells (TReg). Following a booster dose with conventional vaccine 22-31 months after completion of the initial vaccination series, the T-cell pattern in the revaccinated individuals changed substantially: 7 days after revaccination 9 of 11 individuals showed a switch to a Th1-type immune response with HBsAg-specific T cells secreting IL-2, interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha as observed in healthy controls. Four weeks after the booster, 4 patients still showed a Th1-type cytokine pattern, whereas in 5 patients only IL-10-secreting cells were detectable. After 1 year, in 3 of 4 revaccinated individuals only IL-10-secreting cells could be found, whereas the specific T cells of the fourth patient still showed a Th1-type of response. HBsAg-specific TReg cells could be demonstrated in HBV-positive liver transplant recipients successfully immunized with a new adjuvanted vaccine. Revaccination led to immediate disappearance of the these cells and the appearance of HBsAg-specific T cells with a Th1-type cytokine profile, which in most cases were replaced by the IL-10-secreting regulatory cells during the following months. The specific induction of TReg cells could contribute to the poor response of liver transplant recipients to conventional vaccine. In conclusion,, for successful vaccination of these patients, a vaccine with a strong inhibitory effect on TReg cells would be desirable. Liver Transpl 13:434,442, 2007. 2007 AASLD. [source]


    Five-year follow-up of a hepatitis B virus-positive recipient of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive living donor liver graft

    LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 6 2006
    Shin Hwang
    The shortage of cadaveric donor organs has led to the use of living donors and marginal cadaveric donors. To date, there have been only 2 reports on the use of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive liver grafts. Here we describe the 5-yr posttransplantation sequence of a hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive recipient who received an HBsAg-positive living donor liver graft. A 43-yr-old HBV-positive patient with hepatorenal syndrome received a living donor liver graft in October 2000 from a 27-yr-old HBsAg-positive carrier with no clinical evidence of HBV infection other than the serologic markers. The recipient recovered slowly after liver transplantation (LT). Recipient serum HBsAg was continuously positive despite anti-HBV therapy with high-dose hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and lamivudine. The patient was also treated with famciclovir and interferon; to date, a final regimen of lamivudine and adefovir has kept liver function stable for 20 months. The recipient has lived for 64 months after transplantation. The donor has not revealed any clinical evidence of active hepatitis during follow-up. In conclusion, our result implicates that a recipient of liver graft from an HBsAg-positive carrier may survive for a long period following antiviral therapy with lamivudine and adefovir. Considering this living donor case and previously reported cases, the use of an HBsAg-positive cadaveric liver graft may deserve attention when no other donor is available. Liver Transpl 12:993,997, 2006. 2006 AASLD. [source]


    Prophylactic strategies for hepatitis B patients undergoing liver transplant: A cost-effectiveness analysis

    LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 5 2006
    Yock Young Dan
    Hepatitis B immunoglobulin with lamivudine prophylaxis (LAM/HBIG) is effective in preventing Hepatitis B (HBV) recurrence posttransplant but is expensive and inconvenient. Lamivudine-resistant HBV, which has limited the usefulness of lamivudine monoprophylaxis in transplant, can now be effectively controlled with adefovir dipivoxil. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis on the strategies of lamivudine prophylaxis with adefovir rescue(LAM/ADV) compared to combination LAM/intravenous fixed high-dose HBIG prophylaxis(LAM/ivHBIG) or LAM/intramuscular HBIG prophylaxis(LAM/imHBIG). Markov modeling was performed with analysis from societal perspective. Probability rates were derived from systematic review of the literature and cost taken from MEDICARE database. Outcome measures were incremental cost-effectiveness ratio(ICER) and cost to prevent each HBV recurrence and death. Analysis was performed at 5 years posttransplant as well as at end of life expectancy (15 years). Combination LAM/ivHBIG cost an additional USD562,000 at 15 years, while LAM/imHBIG cost an additional USD139,000 per patient compared to LAM/ADV. Although there is an estimated increase in recurrence of 53% with LAM/ADV and 7.6% increased mortality at the end of life expectancy (15 years), the ICER of LAM/ivHBIG over LAM/ADV treatment is USD760,000 per quality-adjusted life-years and for LAM/imHBIG, USD188,000. Cost-effectiveness is most sensitive to cost of HBIG. Lamivudine prophylaxis with adefovir dipivoxil salvage offers the more cost-effective option for HBV patients undergoing liver transplant but with higher recurrence and death rate using a model that favors LAM/HBIG. Lowering the cost of HBIG maintenance will improve cost-effectiveness of LAM/HBIG strategy. In conclusion, a tailored approach based on individual risks will optimize the cost-benefit of HBV transplant prophylaxis. Liver Transpl 12:736,746, 2006. 2006 AASLD. [source]


    Hepatitis B in liver transplant recipients

    LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue S2 2006
    Robert G. Gish
    Key Concepts: 1The use of low-dose immunosuppressive therapy along with pre- and posttransplantation nucleos(t)ide therapy and posttransplantation hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) has yielded marked improvements in survival. 2Lamivudine (Epivir-HBV), adefovir (Hepsera), entecavir (Baraclude), tenofovir (Viread), emtricitabine (Emtriva), and the combination drugs tenofovir + emtricitabine (Truvada) and abacavir + lamivudine (Epzicom) are effective nucleos(t)ide antiviral agents that, in some cases, may help reverse liver disease sufficiently to avoid transplant. 3In posttransplantation patients, virus suppression with some combination of HBIG and the nucleos(t)ide agents may prevent graft loss and death or the need for a second transplant. 4In both the pre- and posttransplantation setting, the goal of hepatitis B virus management is complete virus suppression. 5The use of low-dose intramuscular HBIG is evolving, with studies showing that dosing and cost can be reduced by 50,300% with a customized approach. 6Elimination of HBIG from the treatment paradigm is currently under evaluation and may be possible with the use of newer medications that have no or low resistance rates. 7Although there is growing evidence that some types of combination therapy may decrease the chance that drug resistance will develop and increase the likelihood of long-term success in preventing graft loss and death, additional research will be required to determine which combinations will work well in the long term, and which will not. Liver Transpl 12:S54,S64, 2006. 2006 AASLD. [source]


    Living donor liver transplantation for hepatitis B cirrhosis

    LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 11 2003
    Yasuhiko Sugawara
    The living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) experience for patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still limited. Because LDLT can be performed electively, it can provide an appropriate length of time to reduce HBV DNA levels before the operation. This study aims to examine the feasibility of our protocol for preventing HBV reinfection after LDLT. Of 20 patients analyzed, 15 patients had detectable serum HBV DNA when referred to our hospital. Thirteen patients had hepatocellular carcinoma. All patients were treated with lamivudine (100 mg/d) before LDLT. After LDLT, hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) was administered to maintain serum antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen titers at greater than 1,000 IU/mL for 1 year and 200 IU/mL thereafter. Lamivudine was not administered postoperatively, except for three patients with detectable serum HBV DNA just before LDLT. All patients survived the operation. One patient died 229 days after LDLT of carcinoma recurrence. In the other 19 patients, liver function has remained normal and no viral relapse occurred postoperatively during a median follow-up of 19 months. Perioperative use of lamivudine and indefinite HBIG administration in the postoperative period might be a rational strategy for preventing HBV reinfection after LDLT. [source]


    Transmission of hepatitis B infection from hepatitis B core antibody,positive liver allografts is prevented by lamivudine therapy

    LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 6 2001
    Andy S. Yu
    Donor shortage has led to the use of hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc)-positive (anti-HBc+) liver allografts for patients in need of relatively urgent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Because anti-HBc+ allografts transmit hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection at a high rate, effective prophylaxis is required. We assessed the effectiveness of lamivudine in preventing HBV transmission by anti-HBc+ allografts. Between March 1996 and March 2000 at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center (Los Angeles, CA), 15 of 169 patients (8.9%) received liver allografts from anti-HBc+ donors. Six patients were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)+ (group 1), and 9 patients were HBsAg negative (HBsAg,; group 2) before OLT. All patients were administered lamivudine, 100 or 150 mg/d, orally after OLT. Patients who were HBsAg+ before OLT also were administered hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) prophylaxis. Hepatitis B serological tests were performed on all patients, and HBV DNA was determined in liver tissues in 10 patients. All 15 patients remained HBsAg, at their last follow-up 2 to 40 months (mean, 17 months) post-OLT. All patients in group 1 had antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) titers greater than 250 mIU/mL post-OLT (mean follow-up, 20 months; range, 7 to 40 months). Of the 2 patients in group 1 who underwent liver biopsy after OLT, 1 patient had detectable hepatic HBV DNA despite being anti-HBs+ and HBsAg,. Among the patients in group 2, none acquired anti-HBc or HBsAg. Hepatic HBV DNA was undetectable in the 7 patients in group 2 who underwent liver biopsy after OLT. Anti-HBc+ allografts can be safely used in patients who undergo OLT for chronic hepatitis B and susceptible transplant recipients if prophylaxis with combination HBIG and lamivudine or lamividine alone is administered after OLT, respectively. However, more data are needed to determine the efficacy of lamivudine monotherapy in preventing transmission of HBV infection from anti-HBc+ liver allografts to susceptible recipients. [source]


    Lamivudine after hepatitis B immune globulin is effective in preventing hepatitis B recurrence after liver transplantation

    LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 4 2000
    S. Forrest Dodson MD
    The prevention of recurrent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) is expensive and requires indefinite parenteral administration. Lamivudine is a nucleoside analogue capable of inhibiting HBV replication. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of lamivudine in the prevention of recurrent HBV infection after a course of HBIG in patients who were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive and hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) negative before OLT. Patients at high risk for recurrent HBV infection (HBeAg positive and HBV DNA positive) were excluded. Thirty HBsAg-positive, HBeAg-negative patients underwent OLT from January 1993 to June 1997. All 30 patients were administered HBIG after OLT and, after 2 years, were given the option of continuing with HBIG or switching to lamivudine. Five patients were excluded: 3 patients were lost to follow-up and 2 patients died of technical complications. Three patients terminated HBIG therapy at 8, 24, and 29 months after OLT, and reinfection with HBV occurred in 1 patient. Six patients elected to continue HBIG therapy for life; 1 patient died of melanoma and the remaining 5 patients are HBsAg negative, with an average follow-up of 73 months. Sixteen patients were converted to lamivudine after a course of HBIG, and all 16 patients are HBsAg negative, with an average follow-up of 51 months after OLT. Five patients have been on lamivudine monotherapy for more than 24 months. These results suggest that lamivudine administered after a posttransplantation course of HBIG can effectively prevent the recurrence of HBV infection in patients who are HBsAg positive and HBeAg negative before OLT. [source]


    Hepatitis B immunoglobulin in combination with lamivudine for prevention of hepatitis B virus reactivation in children undergoing bone marrow transplantation

    PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 8 2006
    Betul Tavil
    Abstract:, There is little information in literature about the use of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) in recipients of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Here, we report two children who received IV HBIg (Hepatect-CP) and lamivudine treatment during BMT course for either patient or donor hepatitis B virus (HBV) viremia. A four-year-old girl underwent a fully human leukocyte antigen-matched allogeneic BMT for thalassemia major from her mother positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A 12-yr-old boy with chronic myeloid leukemia, positive for HBsAg and HBV-DNA received a fully HLA-matched allogeneic BMT from his sister in the first chronic phase of the disease. HBIg was successfully used in both cases to prevent HBV reactivation of the recipients. The results of our observations are encouraging and we suggest that HBIg in combination with lamivudine may be used in such cases especially in post-transplant early period to prevent HBV reactivation. [source]


    Posttransplant Prophylaxis Strategies for Hepatitis B

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 8 2010
    E. Gane
    Oral antivirals combined with low-dose hepatitis B immunoglobulin provide highly effective prophylaxis against recurrent hepatitis B following liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis B. See Article by Degertekin et al on page 1823. [source]


    Prophylaxis Against Hepatitis B Recurrence Posttransplantation Using Lamivudine and Individualized Low-Dose Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 8 2010
    L. Jiang
    Although the combination of lamivudine (LAM) and high-dose intravenous (IV) hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) is very effective in preventing hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT), the major limitation of this regimen is its high cost. A more cost-effective, convenient and widely accepted regimen is urgently needed. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of another strategy using LAM and individualized low-dose intramuscular (IM) HBIG. Between May 2002 and December 2009, a total of 254 adult patients undergoing LT for HBV-related benign end-stage liver diseases received this regimen in our center. The mean follow-up of these patients was 41.2 22.7 months. Their 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 85.3%, 77.4% and 76.4%, respectively, and 1-, 3- and 5-year HBV recurrence rates were 2.3%, 6.2% and 8.2%. Fourteen patients experienced posttransplant HBV recurrence. Pretransplant high viral load and posttransplant prednisone withdrawal time were observed to be associated with recurrence. In conclusion, combination therapy with LAM and individualized low-dose IM HBIG provides a safe and effective prophylaxis against HBV recurrence after LT at about 5% of the cost of conventional high-dose IV HBIG regimens. [source]


    High Viremia, Prolonged Lamivudine Therapy and Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma Predict Posttransplant Hepatitis B Recurrence,

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 7 2010
    J. Chun
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is generally preventable by prophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and lamivudine (LAM). However, HBV recurrence sometimes develops despite prophylaxis. This study assessed posttransplant outcomes and identified predictors of HBV recurrence. We analyzed the outcomes of 209 consecutive patients positive for hepatitis B surface antigen who underwent OLT, who received either combination prophylaxis with HBIG and LAM (89.0%) or HBIG monoprophylaxis (11.0%). The median follow-up was 36.8 months (range, 1.0,84.4). Posttransplant HBV recurrence occurred in 22 patients (10.5%), including 13 patients with drug-resistant mutations. HBV recurrence was observed in six patients after hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence. Independent predictors of HBV recurrence were recurrent HCC (p < 0.001), LAM therapy >1.5 years (p = 0.001) and high HBV DNA titers (,105 copies/mL) at OLT (p = 0.036). In conclusion, high viremia at OLT and prolonged exposure to LAM should be further stressed as main predictors of HBV recurrence. [source]


    Kidney Transplantation from Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Positive Donors into Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Positive Recipients: A Prospective Nonrandomized Controlled Study from a Single Center

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 8 2009
    H. Jiang
    The number of patients on renal transplant waiting list is increasing rapidly in many countries, exacerbating the shortage of organs. We conducted a study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of deceased-donor kidney transplantation from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive (+) donors into hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs)-positive (+) recipients. Sixty-five patients received grafts from HBsAg(+) donors, and 308 subjects received grafts from HBsAg-negative(,) donors. Posttransplantation, recipients with HBsAg(,) grafts or HBsAg(+) grafts received 400 U of hepatitis B immunoglobulin once and twice, respectively. The seven recipients who received grafts from hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA(+) donors were treated with hepatitis B immunoglobulin 400 U weekly for 3 months and lamivudine 100 mg daily for 6 months. All patients were monitored for liver function and hepatitis B viral status. The follow-up period was 38.7 15.4 months. Although two recipients developed de novo HBV infection, neither patient developed severe liver dysfunction nor died. The incidence of liver injury (39/65 vs. 207/308, chi-square test, p > 0.05) and survival (log-rank test, p > 0.05) did not differ between the groups. We conclude that anti-HBs(+) recipients receiving HBsAg(+) grafts did as well as those receiving HBsAg(,) grafts. [source]


    Intramuscular hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and nucleosides for prevention of recurrent hepatitis B following liver transplantation: comparison with other HBIG regimens

    CLINICAL TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 4 2007
    Robert D Anderson
    Abstract:, High titer hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) has significantly reduced the recurrence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after liver transplantation. We compared our experience with intramuscular (IM) HBIG prophylaxis to our earlier outcomes with intravenous (IV) HBIG and other regimens. Methods:, One hundred and twenty-three patients with acute or chronic hepatitis B underwent liver transplant at the Baylor Regional Transplant Center between July 1985 and July of 2005. Of these, 63 (43%) received long-term low-dose IM (n = 17) or high-dose IV (n = 46) HBIG. All patients in IM group also received a nucleoside before and after transplant. These patients were compared with those transplanted earlier who received either no prophylaxis (n = 16) or HBIG on day zero and one only (n = 44). Results:, HBV recurrence was significantly lower in patients who received long-term HBIG [9/38 (23.7%) for IV and 1/17 (5.9%) for IM] compared with patients who received no treatment (8/11; 72.7%) or only two doses of HBIG (32/40; 80.0%). Two-yr actuarial survivals were 89%, 88%, 54%, and 64%, respectively. Patients on long-term HBIG by either parenteral route survived as well as patients transplanted for other indications. Post-transplant recurrence of hepatitis B in the long-term HBIG groups was usually controlled by intensifying antiviral therapy. Conclusion:, Long-term low-dose IM and high-dose IV HBIG are equally efficacious with similar survival and early hepatitis recurrence rates. Graft loss is usually avoidable when recurrence is discovered early and aggressively treated. The IM route is preferable to IV administration due to its ease of administration and lower cost. [source]