B Groups (b + groups)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Genetic heterogeneity of G and F protein genes from Argentinean human metapneumovirus strains

Monica Galiano
Abstract Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a newly identified paramixovirus, associated with respiratory illnesses in all age groups. Two genetic groups of hMPV have been described. The nucleotide sequences of the G and F genes from 11 Argentinean hMPV strains (1998,2003) were determined by RT-PCR and direct sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed that hMPV strains clustered into two main genetic lineages, A and B. Strains clustered into A group were split into two sublineages, A1 and A2. All strains belonging to group B clustered with representative strains from sublineage B1. No Argentinean strains belonged to sublineage B2. F sequences showed high percentage identities at nucleotide and amino acid levels. In contrast, G sequences showed high diversity between A and B groups. Most changes observed in the deduced G protein sequence were amino acid substitutions in the extracellular domain, and changes in stop codon usage leading to different lengths in the G proteins. High content of serine and threonine residues were also shown, suggesting that this protein would be highly glycosylated. The potential sites for N- and O-glycosylation seem to have a different conservation pattern between the two main groups. This is the first report on the genetic variability of the G and F protein genes of hMPV strains in South America. Two main genetic groups and at least three subgroups were revealed among Argentinean hMPV strains. The F protein seems to be highly conserved, whereas the G protein showed extensive diversity between groups A and B. J. Med. Virol. 78:631,637, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effects of intrathecal bupivacaine in conjunction with hypothermia on neuronal protection against transient spinal cord ischemia in rats

J.-R. Lee
Background:, Excitotoxic neuronal injury from ischemia may be reduced by local anesthetics. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of intrathecally administered bupivacaine and hypothermia in a rat model of transient spinal cord ischemia. Methods:, PE-10 intrathecal catheter-implanted male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: normothermia (NT) and hypothermia (HT) groups (given 15 ,l of normal saline) and bupivacaine (B) and bupivacaine,hypothermia (BHT) groups (given 15 ,l of 0.5% bupivacaine). Transient spinal cord ischemia was induced by inflation of a 2F Fogarty catheter placed in the aortic arch for 12 min. The rectal temperature was maintained at 37.0 0.5 C for the NT and B groups, and at 34.5 0.5 C for the HT and BHT groups. Motor and sensory deficit scores were assessed 2 and 24 h after reperfusion. Lumbar spinal cords were harvested for histopathology and immunoreactivity of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Results:, After reperfusion, the motor and sensory deficit scores of the NT group were significantly higher than those of the HT (P < 0.05) and BHT (P < 0.001) groups. Significant differences were evident in the motor and sensory deficit scores between the HT and BHT groups at 24 h (P < 0.05). Neuronal cell death and immunoreactivity of HSP70 were frequently observed in the NT and BT groups, but not in the HT and BHT groups. Conclusions:, These results collectively suggest that intrathecal bupivacaine does not provide neuroprotection during normothermic transient spinal cord ischemia in rats, but enhances the neuroprotective effects of hypothermia. [source]

Frequent integration of precore/core mutants of hepatitis B virus in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues

The development of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently follows persistent HBV infection and may arise in individuals who are hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negative, indicating the possible presence of precore/core mutants. It is unclear whether precore/core mutants are associated with tumour development or are selected for after chromosomal integration of the wild-type viral DNA. We studied the status and sequence variation of the precore/core region of HBV in 56 patients with HBV-associated HCC and in various corresponding non-tumour tissues by Southern blot analysis, polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Southern blot showed that integrated HBV DNA existed in 43 of 56 HCC tissues. Sequence analysis revealed mutations in 65% of the HCC (26/40) and 45% (14/31) of the corresponding non-tumour tissues. The mutation at nucleotide (nt) 1896, known to prevent HBeAg synthesis, was detected in 40% (16/40) of the tumours and in 35.4% (11/31) of the non-tumour tissues. Other mutations were found at nt 1899 (eight of 40 in HCC; three of 31 in non-tumour tissues), nt 1898 (seven of 40 in HCC; two of 31 in non-tumour tissues), nt 1912 (seven of 40 in HCC; none of 31 in non-tumour tissues) and nt 1886 (three of 40 in HCC; none of 31 in non-tumour tissues). To determine whether this finding merely reflected the prevalence of such mutants in this geographical region, HBV DNA from the sera of patients (also in this region) with acute and chronic hepatitis were sequenced. The nt 1896 mutant was found in 5.6% (one of 18) of patients with acute hepatitis B and in 22.8% (nine of 35) of patients with chronic hepatitis B. However, the nt 1898 mutation was not found in any of these sera. The precore/core mutant was observed with increasing frequency from acute hepatitis to chronic hepatitis, non-tumour and HCC, and this difference in frequency was significant between HCC and acute hepatitis B groups (P < 0.01), suggesting that the precore/core mutant or hepatocytes harbouring this mutant may be under immune selection and that such mutations may facilitate integration and subsequent tumour development. [source]

Super-infections of Wolbachia in byturid beetles and evidence for genetic transfer between A and B super-groups of Wolbachia

Abstract Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacteria responsible for altering host reproduction. The two main groups found in insects, A and B, are based on molecular characterization using ribosomal, ftsZ, wsp (Wolbachia surface protein) or groE genes. We have used the wsp and ftsZ genes to study Wolbachia in byturid beetles. Byturus affinis contained a single copy of the ftsZ gene which grouped with A ftsZ sequences and a single copy of the wsp gene which grouped with B wsp sequences. This suggests that genetic exchange between A and B groups has occurred in the Wolbachia of this beetle. FtsZ and wsp sequences that were identical or nearly identical to those of B. affinis were found in B. tomentosus, suggesting that it also contains the same recombinant Wolbachia genotype. Most other byturids had more than one wsp sequence with at least one from the A and B groups, suggesting multiple copies of bacterial genes or multiple infections. B. ochraceus and B. unicolor both had four distinct wsp gene sequences. All the byturids had a closely related A wsp sequence and most a closely related B wsp sequence. Therefore, there appears to be an association between specific A and B wsp types. [source]

Epidemiology and management of Leptosphaeria maculans (phoma stem canker) on oilseed rape in Australia, Canada and Europe

J. S. West
Phoma stem canker (blackleg), caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease on oilseed rape (canola, rapeseed, Brassica napus, Brassica juncea, Brassica rapa) causing seedling death, lodging or early senescence in Australia, Canada and Europe, but not in China. The two forms of L. maculans (A group and B group) that occur on oilseed rape are now considered to be separate species. The epidemiology and severity of phoma stem canker differs between continents due to differences in the pathogen population structure, oilseed rape species and cultivars grown, climate and agricultural practices. Epidemics are most severe in Australia, where only the A group occurs, and can be damaging in Canada and western Europe, where both A and B groups occur, although their proportions vary within regions and throughout the year. Epidemics are slight in China, where the A group has not been found. Dry climates (Australia, western Canada) lengthen the persistence of infected debris and may synchronize the release of airborne ascospores (after rain) with seedling emergence. L. maculans spreads from cotyledon and leaf infections down petioles to reach the stem, with infections on cotyledons and leaves early in the season producing the most damaging stem cankers at the stem base (crown). Development of both crown cankers and phoma stem lesions higher up stems is most rapid in regions with high temperatures from flowering to harvest, such as Australia and Canada. Breeding for resistance (genetic, disease escape or tolerance), stubble management, crop rotation and fungicide seed treatments are important strategies for control of phoma stem canker in all areas. Fungicide spray treatments are justified only in regions such as western Europe where high yields are obtained, and accurate forecasts of epidemic severity are needed to optimize their use. [source]

Differences in clinical features between influenza A H1N1, A H3N2, and B in adult patients

RESPIROLOGY, Issue 2 2003
Masahide KAJI
Objective: The differences in clinical features between influenza A H1N1, A H3N2, and B in the past three influenza seasons were examined. Methodology: Patients with respiratory symptoms who consulted Kurume University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan, from January to March in 1999, 2000, and 2001 were included. Based on virological and serological findings, the influenza patients were divided into the above three groups for comparison of symptoms and laboratory data. Results: Patients (n = 196) included 54 with influenza A H1N1, 98 with A H3N2, and 44 with B. Mean ages in the groups were 33 8.4 years, 41 15.2 years, and 29 9.8 years (influenza B patients tended to be younger). Fever was much greater in the A H3N2 group (38.6 0.46C) than in the A H1N1 or B groups. This was also true for laboratory indices of viral infection. Gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, epigastralgia, and diarrhoea were prominent in influenza B. Myalgia was common in all groups. Conclusions: Influenza A H3N2 infection was more severe than A H1N1 or B in terms of fever, leukopenia, and C-reactive protein. Myalgia and other symptoms such as fever, headache, general malaise and sore throat were equally frequent in influenza A H3N2, A H1N1, and B infections. Gastrointestinal symptoms were more common in influenza B. [source]