B Disease (b + disease)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Impedance Spectroscopy: A Powerful Tool for Rapid Biomolecular Screening and Cell Culture Monitoring

Abstract Dielectric spectroscopy or Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is traditionally used in corrosion monitoring, coatings evaluation, batteries, and electrodeposition and semiconductor characterization. However, in recent years, it is gaining widespread application in biotechnology, tissue engineering, and characterization of biological cells, disease diagnosis and cell culture monitoring. This article discusses the principles and implementation of dielectric spectroscopy in these bioanalytical applications. It provides examples of EIS as label-free, mediator-free strategies for rapid screening of biocompatible surfaces, monitoring pathogenic bacteria, as well as the analysis of heterogeneous systems, especially biological cells and tissues. Descriptions are given of the application of nanoparticles to improve the analytical sensitivities in EIS. Specific examples are given of the detection of base pair mismatches in the DNA sequence of Hepatitis B disease, TaySach's disease and Microcystis spp. Others include the EIS detection of viable pathogenic bacteria and the influence of nanomaterials in enhancing biosensor performance. Expanding applications in tissue engineering such as adsorption of proteins onto thiolated hexa(ethylene glycol)-terminated (EG6) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) are discussed. [source]

Early pulmonary involvement in Niemann-Pick type B disease: Lung lavage is not useful

Z.S. Uyan MD
Abstract Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is a rare, autosomal-recessively inherited lipid storage disease which is characterized by intracellular deposition of sphingomyelin in various body tissues. The disease is heterogeneous and classified into six groups. Pulmonary parenchymal involvement may be a feature of several subtypes of NPD, including type B. Progressive pulmonary involvement in NPD type B is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It is usually diagnosed at older ages. Only a few cases with early pulmonary involvement have been reported. In this report, a patient with NPD type B, hospitalized with the diagnosis of pneumonia at age 3 months, is presented. Following treatment for pneumonia, she continued to have persistent respiratory symptoms and became oxygen-dependent. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest revealed diffuse interstitial changes. During follow-up, the patient developed hepatosplenomegaly. Lung, liver, and bone marrow biopsies showed characteristic findings for NPD. Biochemical studies also confirmed the diagnosis, and the sphingomyelinase enzyme level of the patient was low. Unilateral lung lavage was performed in order to decrease lipid storage as a treatment modality. However, there was no clinical or radiological improvement. The patient died at age 15 months due to progressive respiratory failure. Pulmonary involvement is a rare entity in early childhood in patients with NPD type B, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent interstitial lung disease. It may cause progressive respiratory failure, but the treatment options remain limited. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2005; 40:169,172. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Prognostic factors in rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia

RESPIROLOGY, Issue 2 2010
Yasuhiro KONDOH
ABSTRACT Background and objective: The aim of the present study was to examine clinical and other features that might allow prognostic distinctions between histological patterns in presentations with rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia (RPIP), and to assess prognostic factors for survival. Methods: Patients with RPIP among 425 consecutive patients with diffuse lung disease, who underwent surgical lung biopsy, were studied retrospectively. The discriminatory value of clinical and investigative features for identifying disease with a better outcome was evaluated. An a priori comparison was made between diffuse alveolar damage (DAD)/usual interstitial pneumonia with DAD pattern (Group A), and organizing pneumonia/non-specific interstitial pneumonia pattern (Group B). Results: Twenty-eight patients (6.6%) fulfilled the criteria for RPIP. The diagnosis was Group A disease in 15 (DAD in 10, usual interstitial pneumonia with DAD in 5), and Group B disease in 13 (organizing pneumonia in 8, non-specific interstitial pneumonia in 5). There were no significant differences in initial findings between the groups. Prognosis was significantly better for Group B patients than for Group A patients (P = 0.021). Neither BAL nor parenchymal high-resolution CT score was indicative of therapeutic responsiveness or outcome. Distinction between Group A and Group B on the basis of disease pattern was the only significant determinant of prognosis. Conclusions: RPIP included varied histological patterns with different outcomes, and in many cases these could not be predicted using baseline clinical data. Histology was the only significant predictor of ultimate prognosis. [source]

The impact of surgeon and pathologist on lymph node retrieval in colorectal cancer and its impact on survival for patients with Dukes' stage B disease

M. D. Evans
Abstract Objective, An adequate lymph node harvest is necessary for accurate Dukes' stage discrimination in colorectal cancer. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of variables, including the individual surgeon and pathologist, on lymph node harvest in a single institution. Method, Three hundred and eighty one consecutive patients had resection for colorectal cancer, in a single unit. Factors influencing lymph node retrieval, including individual surgeon and reporting pathologist, were subjected to uni- and multivariate analysis. Actuarial survival of all patients with Dukes' stage B and C disease was then calculated and survival compared between Dukes' stage B and C at differing levels of lymph node harvest. Results, The unit median lymph node harvest was 13 nodes/patient (95% CI 13.1,14.5). There was no difference in lymph node harvest between specialist colorectal surgeons and the pooled results of four nonspecialist consultant surgeons. However, there was a significant difference between reporting pathologists (P < 0.001). On univariate analysis, operation type, operative urgency, Dukes' stage, T-stage, reporting pathologist and use of neoadjuvant therapy in rectal cancer, were found to significantly affect lymph node retrieval. On multivariate analysis, operation type, T-stage, reporting pathologist and neoadjuvant therapy in rectal cancer remained significant variables. Patients with one or more lymph node metastasis had greater nodal harvests than those without (median 15 vs 12 P = 0.02). Survival of patients with Dukes' stage B disease was found to improve as lymph node harvest increased. Conclusion, Overall lymph node harvest, in this unit, varied according to the reporting pathologist but not operating surgeon. As lymph node harvest increased to 15 per patient, the probability of identifying a metastatic node increased. [source]