B Cell Antigen Receptor (b + cell_antigen_receptor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Apoptosis via the B cell antigen receptor requires Bax translocation and involves mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome C release, and caspase-9 activation

Eric Eldering
Abstract Various routes to apoptosis can be active during B cell development. In a model system of mature B cells, differences in caspase-3 processing have suggested that antigen receptor (BCR)-mediated apoptosis may involve a zVAD-insensitive initiator protease(s). In search of the events leading to caspase-3 activation, we now establish that both CD95- and BCR-mediated apoptosis depend on Bax activation and cytochrome C (cytC) release. Nevertheless, the timing and caspase-dependence of mitochondrial membrane depolarization differed considerably after CD95- or BCR-triggering. To delineate events subsequent to cytC release, we compared apoptosis induced via BCR triggering and via direct mitochondrial depolarization by CCCP. In both cases, partial processing of caspase-3 was observed in the presence of zVAD. By expression in 293 cells we addressed the potential of candidate initiator caspases to function in the presence of zVAD, and found that caspase-9 efficiently processed caspase-3, while caspase-2 or ,8 were inactive. Finally, retroviral expression of dominant-negative caspase-9 inhibited both CD95- and BCR-mediated apoptosis. In conclusion, we obtained no evidence for involvement of a BCR-specific protease. Instead, our data show for the first time that the BCR-signal causes Bax translocation, followed by mitochondrial depolarization, and cytC release. Subsequent caspase-9 activation can solely account for events further downstream. [source]

IFN-,-mediated inhibition of antigen receptor-induced B cell proliferation and CREB-1 binding activity requires STAT-1 transcription factor

Frank Frissora
Abstract We report here a role for cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein-1 (CREB-1) in B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-induced growth inhibition by IFN-,. BCR-induced proliferation is negatively regulated by IFN-,. Stimulation through BCR resulted in dose-dependent induction of CREB-1 binding to the consensus cyclic AMP-responsive element. Recombinant IFN-, inhibited the BCR-induced CREB-1 DNA binding activity and cell proliferation in B cells from signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1)+/+, but not STAT-1,/, mice. These studies provide the first evidence for cross-talk between the STAT-1 and CREB-1 signaling pathways in IFN-,-mediated negative regulation of B cell activation. [source]

NF-ATc2 induces apoptosis in Burkitt's lymphoma cells through signaling via the B cell antigen receptor

Eisaku Kondo
Abstract Cross-linking of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) with an anti-IgM antibody has been shown to induce dramatic apoptosis in type I Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells. However, the apoptotic mechanism triggered via BCR remains unknown. Here we reports a mechanism of BCR ligation-induced apoptosis involving protein phosphatase calcineurin and its specific substrate, transcriptional factor NF-AT. In response to BCR cross-linking, endogenous calcineurin was rapidly activated, and this facilitated nuclear translocation of NF-ATc2, a subtype of NF-AT members. Interestingly, nuclear-imported NF-ATc2 functioned pro-apoptotically in BL cells. The effect of NF-ATc2 was efficiently blocked with FK506, which prevented its nuclear translocation through inactivation of calcineurin. In addtion, TR3 induction during BCR cross-linking was reduced by FK506 and the VIVIT peptide, which is a highly selective inhibitor for NF-AT. This strongly suggests that activation of NF-ATc2 by calcineurin is essential for TR3 recruitment, and that TR3 can be considered as a candidate for death effector in BCR-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, NF-ATc2 plays a crucial role in BCR-mediated apoptosis in type IBL, providing greater insight into unique BL characteristics through BCR signaling. [source]

The riddle of the dual expression of IgM and IgD

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
Roland Geisberger
Summary Signalling through the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is required for peripheral B lymphocyte maturation, maintenance, activation and silencing. In mature B cells, the antigen receptor normally consists of two isotypes, membrane IgM and IgD (mIgM, mIgD). Although the signals initiated from both isotypes differ in kinetics and intensity, in vivo, the BCR of either isotype seems to be able to compensate for the loss of the other, reflected by the mild phenotypes of mice deficient for mIgM or mIgD. Thus, it is still unclear why mature B cells need expression of mIgD in addition to mIgM. In the current review we suggest that the view that IgD has a simpIy definable function centred around the basic signalling function should be replaced by the assumption that IgD fine tunes humoral responses, modulates B cell selection and homeostasis and thus shapes the B cell repertoire, defining IgD to be a key modulator of the humoral immune response. [source]

TLR7 and CD40 cooperate in IL-6 production via enhanced JNK and AP-1 activation

Vanden Bush
Abstract During vaccination or infection, adaptive and innate immune receptors of B cells are engaged by microbial antigens/ligands. A better understanding of how innate and adaptive signaling pathways interact could enlighten B lymphocyte biology as well as aid immunotherapy strategies and vaccine design. To address this goal, we examined the effects of TLR stimulation on BCR and CD40-induced B cell activation. Synergistic production of IL-6 was observed in both human and mouse primary B cells stimulated through B cell antigen receptors, CD40 and TLR7, and these two receptors also cooperated independently of BCR signals. The enhanced IL-6 production was dependent upon the activity of c-Jun kinase (JNK) and cFos. Dual stimulation through CD40 and TLR7 markedly enhanced JNK activity. The increased level of active JNK in dual-stimulated cells was accompanied by an increase in the level of active AP-1 monomers cJun and cFos. The stimulation of B cells through both CD40 and TLR7 therefore enhanced the production of cytokines through increased JNK signaling and AP-1 activity. In addition, the dual stimulation increased cFos/AP-1 species in stimulated cells, effectively expanding the repertoire of AP-1 dimers as compared to singly stimulated B cells. [source]