Sleep Disruption (sleep + disruption)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Sleep disruption, daytime somnolence and ,sleep attacks' in Parkinson's disease: a clinical survey in PD patients and age-matched healthy volunteers

J. J. Ferreira
Recent case reports of ,sleep attacks' (SA) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) generated concerns about drug-induced daytime somnolence in this population. However, there are nearly no comparative data on sleep and vigilance problems between PD patients and normal controls. We performed a cross-sectional survey in PD patients and age-matched controls using a structured questionnaire on PD history, treatments, co-morbidity, activities of daily living, habits, exercise, sleep pattern, driving, pre-existing nocturnal problems, daytime somnolence, episodes of SA and the circumstances in which such episodes occurred. Daytime somnolence was also measured with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). 176 PD patients and 174 controls were included. The same proportion of PD patients (27%) and controls (32%) reported episodes of SA, but these were more frequent in PD patients and occurred more frequently during situations requiring attention (10.8% vs. 1.7%, p<10,3). More PD patients had abnormal daytime somnolence (ESS) and poor sleeping quality (PSQI). The most consistent factor associated with SA was the duration of levodopa therapy and the predictive value of an abnormal ESS score was rather poor (40.7%). Abnormal daytime somnolence and poor sleep quality at night are more frequent in PD patients than in normals. However, SA are reported in both groups, although less frequently in the normals during activities that requires attention. [source]

Gabapentin Increases Slow-wave Sleep in Normal Adults

EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2002
Nancy Foldvary-Schaefer
Summary: ,Purpose: The older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have a variety of effects on sleep, including marked reduction in rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS), and sleep latency, and an increase in light sleep. The effects of the newer AEDs on sleep are unknown. Our purpose was to study the effect of gabapentin (GBP) on sleep. Methods: Ten healthy adults and nine controls were the subjects of this study. All underwent baseline and follow-up polysomnography (PSG) and completed sleep questionnaires. After baseline, the treated group received GBP titrated to 1,800 mg daily. Polygraphic variables and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) scores, a subjective measure of sleep propensity, were compared by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Nine of the treated subjects achieved the target dose; one was studied with 1,500 mg daily because of dizziness experienced at the higher dose. GBP-treated subjects had an increase in SWS compared with baseline. No difference in the ESS or other polygraphic variables was observed. However, a minor reduction in arousals, awakenings, and stage shifts was observed in treated subjects. Conclusions: GBP appears to be less disruptive to sleep than are some of the older AEDs. These findings may underlie the drug's therapeutic effect in the treatment of disorders associated with sleep disruption. [source]

Sleep apnea and dialysis therapies: Things that go bump in the night?

Abstract Sleep apnea has been linked to excessive daytime sleepiness, depressed mood, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in the general population. The prevalence of severe sleep apnea in the conventional thrice-weekly hemodialysis population has been estimated to be more than 50%. Sleep apnea leads to repetitive episodes of hypoxemia, hypercapnia, sleep disruption, and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. The hypoxemia, arousals, and intrathoracic pressure changes associated with sleep apnea lead to sympathetic activation, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Because sleep apnea has been shown to be widespread in the conventional dialysis population, it may be that sleep apnea contributes substantially to the sleepiness, poor quality of life, and cardiovascular disease found in this population. The causal links between conventional dialysis and sleep apnea remain speculative, but there are likely multiple factors related to volume status and azotemia that contribute to the high rate of severe sleep apnea in dialysis patients. Both nocturnal automated peritoneal dialysis and nocturnal hemodialysis have been associated with reduced severity of sleep apnea. Nocturnal dialysis modalities may provide tools to increase our understanding of the uremic sleep apnea and may also provide therapeutic alternatives for end-stage renal disease patients with severe sleep apnea. In conclusion, sleep apnea is an important, but overlooked, public health problem for the dialysis population. The impact of sleep apnea treatment in this high-risk population may include reduced sleepiness, better mood and blood pressure, and lowered risk of cardiovascular disease. [source]

Quantifying subjective assessment of sleep and life-quality in antidepressant-treated depressed patients

Andrew G. Mayers
Abstract This study sought to establish a method of quantifying subjective perceptions of sleep against perceptions of life-quality and mood, using amended versions of the Pittsburgh sleep diary (PghSD) and quality of life of insomniacs (QOLI) questionnaire. Diaries and questionnaires were self-completed in participants' homes. Outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder were compared with a healthy control group (with no history, or family history, of depression). Poorer sleepers, as determined by the sleep diary, were significantly more likely to report poorer life-quality and mood perceptions on the subsequent questionnaire. Furthermore, the depressed group reported significantly poorer perceptions of sleep quality and poorer perceptions of life-quality and mood than the control group, even though estimates of sleep disturbance were similar. This may indicate that depressed individuals experience more ,sleep distress' than healthy individuals. These results confirm the extent of subjectively reported sleep disruption in depression and demonstrate the merit of combining the amended PghSD and QOLI to quantify sleep perceptions. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Sleep electroencephalogram in children with a parental history of alcohol abuse/dependence

Summary We examined the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in 9- and 10-year-old children with (PH+) and without (PH,) a parental history of alcohol abuse/dependence to determine whether sleep disturbances associated with alcohol precede the onset of alcohol use. Participants slept on a fixed sleep schedule that ensured at least a 10-h time in bed for 1 week before an adaptation and baseline night. Data were collected in a four-bed sleep research laboratory. Thirty healthy boys and girls aged 9 or 10 years were classified as either PH+ or PH, based on DSM-IV criteria applied to structured parental interviews. All-night polysomnography was performed, sleep data were scored visually in 30-s epochs, and EEG power spectra were calculated for each epoch. All-night EEG spectra were calculated for rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep, and cycle-by-cycle spectra were calculated for NREM sleep. The two groups did not differ on any sleep stage variable. All-night analyses revealed normalized power in the delta band and spindle range were lower in PH+ children. Within NREM sleep cycles PH+ children exhibited less normalized power in the delta band and spindle range compared with PH, children. This effect occurred in the first four cycles and was most pronounced in the first sleep cycle of the night. We found no signs of sleep disruption in sleep stages for PH+ children. Sleep EEG spectral differences, however, suggest that certain circuits responsible for ,protecting' sleep may be impaired in PH+ children, which may lead to disrupted sleep later in life. [source]

Learning-dependent changes in sleep spindles and Stage 2 sleep

Summary It has become increasingly clear that sleep is necessary for efficient memory consolidation. Recently, it has been found that Stage 2 sleep disruption impairs procedural memory performance, and that memory performance is correlated with the duration of Stage 2 sleep; but the mechanisms involved in synaptic plasticity for procedural memory during sleep have not been identified. The present study examined the learning-dependent changes in sleep, including Stage 2 sleep spindles. Following an intense period of simple motor procedural learning, the duration of Stage 2 sleep and spindle density increased. There were no changes observed in the duration of any other stage of sleep or in the density of rapid eye movements. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep spindles are involved in the off-line reprocessing of simple motor procedural memory during Stage 2 sleep. [source]

Restless legs syndrome: Evidence for nocturnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system activation,

Claudia Schilling MD
Abstract Epidemiological studies consistently point to a relationship between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and cardiovascular disease. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system has been shown to contribute to the metabolic syndrome and an enhanced cardiovascular risk. We investigated cortisol levels as an indicator of HPA system activity in RLS during the nighttime, when RLS symptoms are at their maximum. We assessed nocturnal urinary cortisol excretion in 73 patients with RLS and 34 healthy controls, controlling for age and gender. Urine sampling was paralleled by polysomnographic recordings. We found significantly enhanced nocturnal cortisol excretion in RLS, demonstrating nocturnal HPA system overactivity in RLS. HPA system overactivity is a possible mechanism contributing to the enhanced load of cardiovascular disease in RLS patients. Nocturnal cortisol release showed weak correlations with some polysomnographic parameters of disturbed sleep, making a potential contribution of RLS-induced sleep disruption to HPA system activation conceivable. 2010 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Clinical significance of RLS

Wayne A. Hening MD
Abstract While the restless legs syndrome (RLS) may have been known in antiquity, it has only recently come to medical attention. Individuals with RLS fall along a spectrum from mild, infrequent symptoms to those with severe daily life-impairing discomforts and sleep disruption. These problems can cause impaired mood, daytime fatigue, cognitive difficulties, and inability to participate in a variety of quiet activities. This leads to a general reduction in quality of life similar to other significant psychiatric and medical disorders. Recent studies suggest that RLS may be a risk factor for developing both psychiatric disorders (such as major depression and anxiety) and somatic diseases (such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease). In dialysis patients, RLS has been found to be a risk factor for mortality. Therefore, those with RLS who have clinically significant symptoms suffer increased morbidity and are at risk for impaired long-term medical outcomes. 2007 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Sleep problems, sleepiness and daytime behavior in preschool-age children

Beth Goodlin-Jones
Background:, Sleep problems are a common complaint of parents of preschool children. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders have even more disrupted sleep than typically developing children. Although disrupted nighttime sleep has been reported to affect daytime behavior, the pathway from sleep disruption to sleep problems, to impairments in daytime performance or behavior is not clear. This multi-method, preliminary study assessed this path in 68 children with autism, matched to 57 children with developmental delay without autism and 69 children developing typically. Methods:, Actigraphy, structured questionnaires, laboratory assessments, and parent reports were obtained in 194 children. Results:, Controlling for diagnosis and developmental age of the child, nighttime sleep problems determined by parent reports were significantly associated with decrements in daytime behavior, also measured by parent report instruments. However, actigraph-defined sleep problems and objective measures of daytime sleepiness were not associated with decrements in daytime performance. Conclusions:, Parent report measures substantiate relationships between disrupted sleep patterns and waking behavior. Further understanding of the pathway from sleep disorders to daytime sleepiness and decrements in waking performance, however, may require more rigorous methods of assessment such as polysomnography and the multiple sleep latency test. [source]

Disruptions in Sleep Time and Sleep Architecture in a Mouse Model of Repeated Ethanol Withdrawal

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2006
Lynn M. Veatch
Background: Insomnia and other sleep difficulties are perhaps the most common and enduring symptoms reported by alcoholics undergoing detoxification, especially those alcoholics with a history of multiple detoxifications. While some studies have reported sleep disruptions in animal models after chronic ethanol exposure, the reports are inconsistent and few address sleep architecture across repeated ethanol exposures and withdrawals. The present study evaluated sleep time and architecture in a well-characterized mouse model of repeated chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal. Methods: C57BL6/J mice were fitted with electrodes in frontal cortex, hippocampus, and nuchal muscle for collection of continuous electroencephalogram (EEG)/electromyogram (EMG) data. Baseline data were collected, after which mice received 4 cycles of 16-hour exposure to alcohol (ethanol: EtOH) vapor separated by 8-hour periods of withdrawal or similar handling in the absence of EtOH vapor. Ethanol-exposed mice attained a blood ethanol concentration of 165 mg%. Upon completion of vapor exposure, EEG/EMG data were again collected across 4 days of acute withdrawal. Data were subjected to automated analyses classifying 10-second epochs into wake, non,rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, or REM sleep states. Results: Mice in withdrawal after chronic EtOH exposure showed profound disruptions in the total time asleep, across the acute withdrawal period. Sleep architecture, the composition of sleep, was also disrupted with a reduction in non-REM sleep concomitant with a profound increase in REM sleep. While altered sleep time and non-REM sleep loss resolved by the fourth day of withdrawal, the increase in REM sleep ("REM rebound") persisted. Conclusions: These results mirror those reported for the human alcoholic and demonstrate that EtOH withdrawal,induced sleep disruptions are evident in this mouse model of alcohol withdrawal,induced sensitization. This mouse model may provide mechanisms to investigate fully the high correlation between unremitting sleep problems and increased risk of relapse documented clinically. [source]

Differential effects of lorazepam on sleep and activity in C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ strain mice

Summary Compared to C57BL/6 mice, BALB/c mice exhibit greater ,anxiousness' on behavioural tests of anxiety, and can show significantly longer sleep disruptions after exposure to anxiogenic situations. Relative to C57BL/6 mice, BALB/c mice also have reduced benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor densities in the brain and fivefold less BZ receptor density in the amygdala, a region important in anxiety and in the control of arousal. Lorazepam is a BZ receptor full agonist and has been used to treat both anxiety and insomnia. Differences between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice raise the question of whether BZ agonists would impact sleep and activity differentially in the two strains. We examined the effects of two doses of lorazepam (0.5 and 1.5 mg kg,1) or saline alone (0.2 mL) on sleep and activity in C57BL/6 (n = 8) and BALB/c (n = 7) mice. Compared to saline, both doses of lorazepam significantly increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and reduced activity in both strains. In C57BL/6 mice, rapid eye movement (REM) was increased at both doses. In BALB/c mice, the 0.5 mg kg,1 dose had no significant influence on REM, whereas REM was reduced significantly after the 1.5 mg kg,1 dose. The results demonstrate significant differences between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice in the effects of lorazepam on REM, whereas the effects on NREM and activity were similar. Strain differences in the number of BZ receptors in the amygdala, but not other brain regions, suggests possible site specificity in the effects of lorazepam on REM. These differences in BZ-binding sites in the amygdala could be a significant factor in differences in the sleep response between C57 and BALB/c mice. [source]

Pregnancy Rhinitis and Rhinitis Medicamentosa

Betty Rambur DNSc
Purpose To present guidelines for the recognition, management, and referral of pregnancy rhinitis with a goal of improving the quality of the pregnancy experience for women afflicted with this condition. Data Sources A case study illustrating the presentation of a severe case of pregnancy rhinitis is followed a literature review of etiology, diagnosis, and management strategies. Conclusions Pregnancy rhinitis is a condition of clinical importance that is frequently exacerbated by use of intranasal decongestant sprays. The resulting rhinitis medicamentosa exacerbates the nasal obstruction, with resulting sleep disruptions that negatively impact the experience of pregnancy. Implications for Practice Nurse practitioners may miss opportunities to provide support, anticipatory guidance, and symptom relief. Anticipatory guidance that stresses the critical necessity of avoiding nasal spray decongestants, environmental modification, use of intranasal saline, moderate exercise, and nasal strips for subjective relief may have the potential to markedly decrease escalation of the condition to a serious disorder. [source]

Wheezing, sleeping, and worrying: The hidden risks of asthma and obesity in school-age children,

Barbara H. Fiese
The present study investigated the co-occurrence of asthma and obesity in a sample of 193 children (mean age = 7.76 years). Specifically, this study was interested in delineating the associated comorbidities of internalizing symptoms and sleep disruptions among younger (younger than 7 years) and older elementary age children with asthma who were also overweight. Information about child internalizing symptoms (among other areas of functioning) was collected from teacher ratings of child behavior. Data regarding nighttime waking, morning symptoms, and school days missed were obtained from parent reports. Findings suggest that older elementary age children with asthma who are overweight are more likely to experience internalizing symptoms and more nighttime waking than their average weight peers. Implications include the important role of teachers in identifying these children who might be at increased risk for internalizing symptoms and the consequences of such symptoms. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]