Sleep Disordered Breathing (sleep + disordered_breathing)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Prevalence of Sleep Disordered Breathing in a Heart Failure Program

Robin J. Trupp MSN
Recent data show that a high percentage of patients with systolic left ventricular dysfunction have sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), contributing to the incidence of morbidity and mortality in heart failure. This study examines the prevalence of sleep disorders in stable heart failure patients regardless of ejection fraction. On three consecutive days in a heart failure clinic, all patients were asked to participate in a screening for SDB. This screening involved the placement of an outpatient device (ClearPath, Nexan, Inc., Alpharetta, GA), which collects thoracic impedance, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and 2-lead electrocardiogram data. Sixteen patients (42%) had moderate or severe SDB, and 22 patients (55%) had mild or no significant SDB. Fourteen of the 16 patients with moderate or severe SDB subsequently received treatment by confirming SDB and the continuous positive airway pressure in a sleep lab. Forty-two percent of patients with stable heart failure presenting to a heart failure clinic screened positive for SDB, despite receiving optimal standard of care. [source]

Pacemaker Diagnosis of Sleep Disordered Breathing

No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Inflammation and Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children: A State-of-the-Art Review,

Aviv D. Goldbart MD
Abstract Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) represents a spectrum of breathing disorders, ranging from snoring to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), that disrupt nocturnal respiration and sleep architecture. OSAS is a common disorder in children, with a prevalence of 2,3%. It is associated with neurobehavioral, cognitive, and cardiovascular morbidities. In children, adenotonsillectomy is the first choice for treatment and is reserved for moderate to severe OSAS, as defined by an overnight polysomnography. In adults, OSAS is the result of mechanical dysfunction of the upper airway, manifesting as severity-dependent nasal, oropharyngeal, and systemic inflammation that decrease after continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Inflammatory changes have been reported in upper airway samples from children with OSAS, and systemic inflammation, as indicated by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, has been shown to decrease in children with OSAS after adenotonsillectomy. Anti-inflammatory treatments for children with mild OSAS are associated with major improvements in symptoms, polysomnographic respiratory values, and radiologic measures of adenoid size. Inflammation is correlated to some extent with OSAS-related neurocognitive morbidity, but the role of inflammatory markers in the diagnosis and management of OSAS, and the role of anti-inflammatory treatments, remains to be clarified. This review examines the role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of sleep-disordered breathing in pediatric patients and the potential therapeutic implications. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 2008; 43:1151,1160. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Neurocognitive and behavioral impact of sleep disordered breathing in children,

Judith A. Owens MD
Abstract The consequences of poor quality and/or inadequate sleep in children and adolescents have become a major public health concern, and one in which pediatric health care professionals have become increasingly involved. In particular, insufficient and/or fragmented sleep resulting from primary sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), often compounded by the presence of comorbid sleep disorders as well as by voluntary sleep curtailment related to lifestyle and environmental factors, has been implicated in a host of negative consequences. These range from metabolic dysfunction and increased cardiovascular morbidity to impairments in mood and academic performance. The following review will focus on what is currently known about the effects of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) specifically on neurobehavioral and neurocognitive function in children. Because of the scarcity of literature on the cognitive and behavioral impact of sleep disorders in infants and very young children, this review will target largely the preschool/school-aged child and adolescent populations. In addition, the focus will be on a review of the most recent literature, as a supplement to several excellent previous reviews on the topic.1,4 Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009; 44:417,422. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Sleep Disordered Breathing: Surgical Outcomes in Prepubertal Children

BiolD, Christian Guilleminault MD
Abstract Objective To evaluate the treatment outcomes of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in prepubertal children 3 months following surgical intervention. Study Design Retrospective investigation of 400 consecutively seen children with SDB who were referred to otolaryngologists for treatment. Method After masking the identities and conditions of the children, the following were tabulated: clinical symptoms, results of clinical evaluation and polysomnography at entry, the treatment chosen by the otolaryngologists, and clinical and polysomnographic results 3 months after surgery. Results Treatment ranged from nasal steroids to various surgical procedures. Adenotonsillectomy was performed in only 251 of 400 cases (68%). Four cases included adenotonsillectomy in conjunction with pharyngoplasty (closure of the tonsillar wound by suturing the anterior and posterior pillar to tighten the airway). Persistent SDB was seen in 58 of 400 children (14.5%), and an additional 8 had persistent snoring. Best results were with adenotonsillectomy. Conclusion SDB involves obstruction of the upper airway, which may be partially due to craniofacial structure involvement. The goal of surgical treatment should be aimed at enlarging the airway, and not be solely focused on treating inflammation or infection of the lymphoid tissues. This goal may not be met in some patients, thus potentially contributing to residual problems seen after surgery. The possibility of further treatment, including collaboration with orthodontists to improve the craniofacial risk factors, should be considered in children with residual problems. [source]

Screening of obstructive and central apnoea/hypopnoea in children using variability: A preliminary study

Jong Yong A. Foo
Abstract Aim: Polysomnography (PSG) is the current standard protocol for sleep disordered breathing (SDB) investigation in children. Presently, there are limited reliable screening tests for both central (CE) and obstructive (OE) respiratory events. This study compared three indices, derived from pulse oximetry and electrocardiogram (ECG), with the PSG gold standard. These indices were heart rate (HR) variability, arterial blood oxygen de-saturation (SaO2) and pulse transit time (PTT). Methods: 15 children (12 male) from routine PSG studies were recruited (aged 3,14 years). The characteristics of the three indices were based on known criteria for respiratory events (RPE). Their estimation singly and in combination was evaluated with simultaneous scored PSG recordings. Results: 215 RPE and 215 tidal breathing events were analysed. For OE, the obtained sensitivity was HR (0.703), SaO2 (0.047), PTT (0.750), considering all three indices (0) and either of the indices (0.828) while specificity was (0.891), (0.938), (0.922), (0.953) and (0.859) respectively. For CE, the sensitivity was HR (0.715), SaO2 (0.278), PTT (0.662), considering all indices (0.040) and either of the indices (0.868) while specificity was (0.815), (0.954), (0.901), (0.960) and (0.762) accordingly. Conclusions: Preliminary findings herein suggest that the later combination of these non-invasive indices to be a promising screening method of SDB in children. [source]