Sleep Difficulties (sleep + difficulty)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Menopausal symptom perception and severity: results from a screening questionnaire

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 7 2008
FAANP, Judith A Berg PhD
Background., Although it is widely acknowledged women experience symptoms during their transition from reproductive to postreproductive stage, there is inconsistency as to the prevalence of symptoms as well as their severity ratings. Aim and objectives., The purpose of this study was to describe symptom perception and severity in mid-life women volunteering for an intervention study for menopause symptom management. Design., A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to provide data on presenting symptoms in a sample of women negotiating the menopausal transition. Methods., A community-based sample of Caucasian women aged 43,55 years was recruited from national nursing media, local media and a variety of local community sources. A screening questionnaire was administered to determine qualification for study entry based upon symptom severity scores from the questionnaire. This report includes results from the screening questionnaire. Results., One hundred and sixty-five women were screened to obtain 110 qualified participants with mean age of 493 SD 304 years who were 47 SD 7 months past their last menstrual period. Sleep difficulties, forgetfulness and irritability were perceived by the highest number of women while sleep difficulties, night sweats, irritability and forgetfulness were rated the most severe. Conclusions., Findings from this study expand understanding of the menopause symptom experience, because few reports include symptom severity reports. All aspects of the symptom experience are necessary to develop appropriate interventions and to evaluate them. Relevance to clinical practice., Providing education about menopause symptoms is central to nursing practice of mid-life women. Therefore, nurses must keep abreast of current knowledge to prepare women for their transition to postreproductive phase or to reassure women who are surprised to find hot flashes are not the only symptoms encountered. [source]


Sleep difficulties and alcohol use motives in female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder

JOURNAL OF TRAUMATIC STRESS, Issue 3 2001
Pallavi Nishith
Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between sleep difficulties and drinking motives in female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventy-four participants were assessed for PTSD symptoms, depression, sleep difficulties, and drinking motives. Results demonstrated that neither PTSD symptoms nor depression were related to any motives for using alcohol. On the other hand, after controlling for education, sleep difficulties were significantly related to drinking motives for coping with negative affect, but not pleasure enhancement or socialization. The findings suggest that sleep difficulties may be an important factor contributing to alcohol use in rape victims with PTSD. [source]


An international perspective on Tourette syndrome: selected findings from 3500 individuals in 22 countries

DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 7 2000
Roger D Freeman MD
We have established a multisite, international database of 3500 individuals diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (TS). The male:female ratio is 4.3:1 for the total sample, with wide variation among sites; the male excess occurs at every site. Anger control problems, sleep difficulties, coprolalia, and self-injurious behavior only reach impressive levels in individuals with comorbidity. Anger control problems are strongly correlated with comorbidity, regardless of site, region, or whether assessed by neurologists or psychiatrists. The mean age at onset of tics is 6.4 years. At all ages, about 12% of individuals with TS have no reported comorbidity. The most common reported comorbidity is attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Males are more likely to have comorbid disorders than females. The earlier the age at onset, the greater the likelihood of a positive family history of tics. An understanding of the factors producing these and other variations might assist in better subtyping of TS. Because behavioral problems are associated with comorbidity, their presence should dictate a high index of suspicion of the latter, whose treatment may be at least as important as tic reduction. The established database can be used as the entry point for further research when large samples are studied and generalizability of results is important. [source]


Maternal Psychosocial Adversity and the Longitudinal Development of Infant Sleep

INFANCY, Issue 5 2008
Alison Cronin
Research has identified associations between indicators of social disadvantage and the presence of child sleep problems. We examined the longitudinal development of infant sleep in families experiencing high (n = 58) or low (n = 64) levels of psychosocial adversity, and the contributions of neonatal self-regulatory capacities and maternal settling strategies to this development. Assessments of infant sleep at 4-, 7-, and 12-weeks postpartum indicated no differences in sleeping difficulties between high- and low-adversity groups. However, more infant sleep difficulties were reported in the high- versus low-adversity groups at 12- and 18-month follow-ups. Neonatal self-regulatory capacities were not related to the presence or absence of adversity, or to subsequent infant sleep quality. However, there were group differences in maternal settling strategies that did predict subsequent infant sleep difficulties. The pattern of sleep disturbance observed in association with maternal psychosocial adversity at 18-months was consistent with risk for broader impairments in child functioning. [source]


Prenatal cocaine exposure and infant sleep at 7 months of age: The influence of the caregiving environment

INFANT MENTAL HEALTH JOURNAL, Issue 4 2006
Pamela Schuetze
The primary goal of this study was to examine sleep problems in a sample of cocaine-exposed 7-month-old infants and to determine if maternal psychopathology mediated any existing association between substance exposure and sleep behaviors. We also examined the differences in sleep behaviors of cocaine-exposed infants in parental custody and cocaine-exposed infants in nonparental custody. Participants were 65 cocaine-exposed and 53 nonexposed infants and their primary caregivers who were recruited at delivery and assessed at 7 months of infant age. As expected, women who used cocaine during pregnancy had more psychiatric symptoms than nonusers. Prenatal exposure to heavier amounts of cocaine was significantly related to more severe sleep difficulties, and maternal anxiety mediated this association. Approximately 28% of cocaine mothers lost custody of their infants by 7 months of age. Nonmaternal caregivers had significantly fewer symptoms of psychopathology than the cocaine-using women who retained custody of their children. Infants who were in nonparental care at 7 months of age also had less severe sleep problems than did infants who remained in parental care. [source]


Prevalence and Comorbidity of Insomnia and Effect on Functioning in Elderly Populations

JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue S7 2005
Sonia Ancoli-Israel PhD
A good night's sleep is often more elusive as we age, because the prevalence of insomnia in older people is high. Insufficient sleep can have important effects on daytime function by increasing the need to nap, reducing cognitive ability including attention and memory, slowing response time, adversely affecting relationships with friends and family, and contributing to a general sense of being unwell. However, rather than aging per se, circadian rhythm shifts, primary sleep disorders, comorbid medical/psychiatric illnesses, and medication use cause sleep difficulties in older people, which psychosocial factors may also affect. Clinicians should ask elderly patients about satisfaction with sleep. Any sleep complaints warrant careful evaluation of contributing factors and appropriate treatment. [source]


The Associations Between Basal Salivary Cortisol and Illness Symptomatology in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

JOURNAL OF APPLIED BIOBEHAVIORAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2008
Susan Torres-Harding
Hypocortisolism has been reported in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), with the significance of this finding to disease etiology unclear. This study examined cortisol levels and their relationships with symptoms in a group of 108 individuals with CFS. CFS symptoms examined included fatigue, pain, sleep difficulties, neurocognitive functioning, and psychiatric status. Alterations in cortisol levels were examined by calculation of mean daily cortisol, and temporal variation in cortisol function was examined by means of a regression slope. Additionally, deviation from expected cortisol diurnal pattern was determined via clinical judgment. Results indicated that fatigue and pain were associated with salivary cortisol levels. In particular, variance from the expected pattern of cortisol was associated with increased levels of fatigue. The implications of these findings are discussed. [source]


Sleep disturbance experiences among perimenopausal women in Taiwan

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 15 2009
Hsiu-Chin Hsu
Aim., To generate a descriptive theory framework regarding the experiences of sleep disturbances among perimenopausal women in Taiwan. Background., Although studies show that some perimenopausal women are troubled by sleep problems, little information was found about the subjective experiences of sleep disturbances among these women. Research is required to explore women's feelings or perceptions in dealing with their sleep problems. These understandings will be important to help alleviate perimenopausal women's sleep problems. Design., A grounded theory research design was applied. Method., Twenty-one Taiwanese sleep disturbed women, aged 46,57 years, participated in in-depth interviews. Results., ,Getting back a good night's sleep' was the core theme for describing and guiding the process of the women's sleep disturbance experiences. During the process, ,disturbed sleep' was identified as the antecedent condition that included subcategories: easy awakening, difficulty falling asleep, inner worries, physical discomfort and genetic and bodily constitution. Analyses showed five categories (some with subcategories) of the sleep disturbed women: (i) worsening health status , physical exhaustion, impaired social interactions, emotional swings and decreased work performance; (ii) living with lonely nights , self-help and endurance; (iii) a search for resources to relieve sleep difficulties , doctor shopping, trying alternative therapies, exercising and seeking support; (iv) vicious cycle and (v) acceptance of insomnia. Conclusions., Women expected to relieve their sleep disturbance by finding comprehensive counselling or by their body constitution responding to treatment. Healthcare providers need to value women's individual concerns and subjective voices. Providers must seek out sleep counselling instead of simply prescribing drugs for their sleep difficulties. Relevance to clinical practice., It is crucial to integrate perimenopausal sleep care by implementing a multidimensional approach such as sleep assessment laboratories, sleep counselling, complementary alternative medicine, sleep strategies and support groups. [source]


Identifying trajectories of birth-related fatigue of expectant fathers

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 12 2009
Ya-Ling Tzeng
Aims and objectives., The objectives of this prospective study were to identify birth-related fatigue trajectories in expectant fathers with the progress of labour and the physiological, psychological and situational factors related to specific trajectory patterns. Background., An increasing number of fathers participate in their partner's labour; however, their fatigue experience remains unclear. Previous studies have focused on overall groups without considering the possibility of between-subject heterogeneity. With an advanced data-analytic strategy, it is feasible to identify subgroup variation within the population over time. Design., A prospective, repeated measures design was used. Method., A convenience sample of 108 Taiwanese expectant fathers was followed throughout the labour process. Data were collected by visual analogue scales and self-administered questionnaires. The repeated measures of fatigue were analysed by using semi-parametric, group-based modelling. Results., Two distinct groups of individual trajectories among the expectant fathers were identified; the persistent low-fatigue group (492%) and the persistent high-fatigue group (508%). After birth, a moderate level of fatigue persisted in the high-fatigue group. The fastest period of increasing level in the persistent high-fatigue group was in the latent phase. The persistent high-fatigue group also experienced significantly more sleep difficulties prior to labour and more anxiety than the persistent low-fatigue group. Conclusions., Identifying and characterising meaningful clusters of trajectories could provide a better understanding of the birth-related fatigue experience of fathers and contributes to recognising the target client and timing for early intervention. Relevance to clinical practice., There are points in time at which professional caregiver actions may have an effect on the birth-related fatigue of fathers. Caregivers should prevent high levels of fatigue, which could accumulate as fathers accompany the women entering the labour phase. Fathers who present with high fatigue at onset of labour should receive early intervention, especially in the rapid-increasing fatigue period. [source]


Menopausal symptom perception and severity: results from a screening questionnaire

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 7 2008
FAANP, Judith A Berg PhD
Background., Although it is widely acknowledged women experience symptoms during their transition from reproductive to postreproductive stage, there is inconsistency as to the prevalence of symptoms as well as their severity ratings. Aim and objectives., The purpose of this study was to describe symptom perception and severity in mid-life women volunteering for an intervention study for menopause symptom management. Design., A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to provide data on presenting symptoms in a sample of women negotiating the menopausal transition. Methods., A community-based sample of Caucasian women aged 43,55 years was recruited from national nursing media, local media and a variety of local community sources. A screening questionnaire was administered to determine qualification for study entry based upon symptom severity scores from the questionnaire. This report includes results from the screening questionnaire. Results., One hundred and sixty-five women were screened to obtain 110 qualified participants with mean age of 493 SD 304 years who were 47 SD 7 months past their last menstrual period. Sleep difficulties, forgetfulness and irritability were perceived by the highest number of women while sleep difficulties, night sweats, irritability and forgetfulness were rated the most severe. Conclusions., Findings from this study expand understanding of the menopause symptom experience, because few reports include symptom severity reports. All aspects of the symptom experience are necessary to develop appropriate interventions and to evaluate them. Relevance to clinical practice., Providing education about menopause symptoms is central to nursing practice of mid-life women. Therefore, nurses must keep abreast of current knowledge to prepare women for their transition to postreproductive phase or to reassure women who are surprised to find hot flashes are not the only symptoms encountered. [source]


Effect of hypnosis on oral function and psychological factors in temporomandibular disorders patients

JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION, Issue 8 2009
R. ABRAHAMSEN
Summary, This study investigated the effect of hypnosis in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) with focus on oral function and psychological outcomes. Forty women (mean age s.d.: 386 108 years) suffering from TMD (mean duration 119 99 years) were randomized to four individual 1-hour sessions of either hypnotic intervention or a control condition of simple relaxation. Pain intensity was assessed three times daily on a 0,10 Numerical Rating Scale. Additional outcomes were TMD-associated symptoms assessed by the Research Diagnostic Criteria examination form and questionnaire, psychological symptoms (Symptom Check List 60), pain coping strategies (Coping Strategies Questionnaire), sleep difficulties (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and use of analgesics. Data were analyzed with between-groups within-subjects anovas. The hypnosis group significantly reduced the daily NRS pain scores from 45 21 at baseline to 29 24 after treatment (P < 0001) compared to the control group where no significant changes were found (42 14 to 39 15) (P = 0733). Number needed to treat for a 50% pain reduction was 40. The hypnosis group also increased use of the coping strategy ,reinterpreting pain sensations' from 52 69 to 103 68 (P < 0001). Both groups exhibited significant reductions in the number of painful muscle palpation sites and pain on palpation (P < 0004), in number of awakenings due to pain (P < 0006), and in somatization, obsessive compulsive symptoms and anxiety (P < 0004). Hypnosis thus appears to effectively reduce some aspects of complex TMD pain. [source]


Disruptions in Sleep Time and Sleep Architecture in a Mouse Model of Repeated Ethanol Withdrawal

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2006
Lynn M. Veatch
Background: Insomnia and other sleep difficulties are perhaps the most common and enduring symptoms reported by alcoholics undergoing detoxification, especially those alcoholics with a history of multiple detoxifications. While some studies have reported sleep disruptions in animal models after chronic ethanol exposure, the reports are inconsistent and few address sleep architecture across repeated ethanol exposures and withdrawals. The present study evaluated sleep time and architecture in a well-characterized mouse model of repeated chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal. Methods: C57BL6/J mice were fitted with electrodes in frontal cortex, hippocampus, and nuchal muscle for collection of continuous electroencephalogram (EEG)/electromyogram (EMG) data. Baseline data were collected, after which mice received 4 cycles of 16-hour exposure to alcohol (ethanol: EtOH) vapor separated by 8-hour periods of withdrawal or similar handling in the absence of EtOH vapor. Ethanol-exposed mice attained a blood ethanol concentration of 165 mg%. Upon completion of vapor exposure, EEG/EMG data were again collected across 4 days of acute withdrawal. Data were subjected to automated analyses classifying 10-second epochs into wake, non,rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, or REM sleep states. Results: Mice in withdrawal after chronic EtOH exposure showed profound disruptions in the total time asleep, across the acute withdrawal period. Sleep architecture, the composition of sleep, was also disrupted with a reduction in non-REM sleep concomitant with a profound increase in REM sleep. While altered sleep time and non-REM sleep loss resolved by the fourth day of withdrawal, the increase in REM sleep ("REM rebound") persisted. Conclusions: These results mirror those reported for the human alcoholic and demonstrate that EtOH withdrawal,induced sleep disruptions are evident in this mouse model of alcohol withdrawal,induced sensitization. This mouse model may provide mechanisms to investigate fully the high correlation between unremitting sleep problems and increased risk of relapse documented clinically. [source]


Sleep difficulties and alcohol use motives in female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder

JOURNAL OF TRAUMATIC STRESS, Issue 3 2001
Pallavi Nishith
Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between sleep difficulties and drinking motives in female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventy-four participants were assessed for PTSD symptoms, depression, sleep difficulties, and drinking motives. Results demonstrated that neither PTSD symptoms nor depression were related to any motives for using alcohol. On the other hand, after controlling for education, sleep difficulties were significantly related to drinking motives for coping with negative affect, but not pleasure enhancement or socialization. The findings suggest that sleep difficulties may be an important factor contributing to alcohol use in rape victims with PTSD. [source]


Association of Lifestyle and Relationship Factors with Sexual Functioning of Women During Midlife

THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue 5 2009
Rachel Hess MD
ABSTRACT Introduction., As women progress through menopause, they experience changes in sexual functioning that are multifactorial, likely encompassing biological, psychological, and social domains. Aim., To examine the effects that physical activity, sleep difficulties, and social support have on partnered sexual activity and sexual functioning in women at different stages of the menopausal progression. Methods., As part of an ongoing 5-year longitudinal study, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of sexual functioning data. Main Outcome Measures., Participation in partnered sexual activities, reasons for nonparticipation in such activities among sexually inactive women, and, among sexually active women, sexual functioning defined as engagement in and enjoyment of sexually intimate activities. Results., Of 677 participants aged 41,68, 68% had participated in any partnered sexual activities (i.e., were sexually active) during the past 6 months. Reasons for sexual inactivity included lack of a partner (70%), lack of interest in sex (12%) or in the current partner (5%), and physical problems (4%). Sexually active participants tended to be younger, married, more educated, have more social support in general, fewer comorbid medical illnesses, a lower body mass index, and a higher prevalence of vaginal dryness. Among the sexually active participants, their scores for engagement in activities ranging from kissing to sexual intercourse were higher if they were physically active, had more social support, and lacked sleeping difficulties. Likewise, scores for sexual enjoyment were higher if they were physically active, had more social support, and lacked vaginal dryness. Engagement and enjoyment scores were not associated with marital status or other factors. Conclusions., In midlife women, having social support and being physically active are associated with enhanced sexual engagement and enjoyment. Hess R, Conroy MB, Ness R, Bryce CL, Dillon S, Chang CCH, and Matthews KA. Association of lifestyle and relationship factors with sexual functioning of women during midlife. J Sex Med 2009;6:1358,1368. [source]


Playing a violent television game affects heart rate variability

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 1 2009
Malena Ivarsson
Abstract Objective: To investigate how playing a violent/nonviolent television game during the evening affects sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions during and after playing as well as sleep quality during the night after playing. Subjects and Methods: In total, 19 boys, 12,15 years of age, played television games on two occasions in their homes and participated once without gaming. Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity were measured during gaming/participating and the night to follow using a portable combined heart rate and movement sensor. A sleep diary and questionnaires about gaming experiences and session-specific experiences were filled in. Criteria for Selection of Games: Violent game involves/rewards direct physical violence (no handguns) against another person, and nonviolent game involves/rewards no violence; same game design (,third-person game'); conducted in the same manner; no differences concerning motor activity; similar sound and light effects; no sexual content, violence against women or racial overtones. Results: During violent (vs. nonviolent) gaming, there was significantly higher activity of the very low frequency component of the HRV and total power. During the night after playing, very low frequency, low frequency and high frequency components were significantly higher during the violent (vs. nonviolent) condition, just as total power. There were no significant differences between the three conditions (violent/nonviolent/no gaming) with respect to an index reflecting subjectively perceived sleep difficulties. Nor was there any difference between violent and nonviolent condition for any single sleep item. Conclusion: Violent gaming induces different autonomic responses in boys compared to nonviolent gaming , during playing and during the following night , suggesting different emotional responses. Subjectively perceived sleep quality is not influenced after a single gaming experience. Future studies should address the development of the autonomic balance after gaming over longer time than a night, physiological adaptation to frequent gaming and potential gender differences. [source]