Signalling Molecules (signalling + molecule)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Signalling Molecules

  • downstream signalling molecule
  • key signalling molecule

  • Selected Abstracts

    Signalling molecules and growth factors for tissue engineering of cartilage,what can we learn from the growth plate?,

    Christoph Brochhausen
    Abstract Modern tissue engineering concepts integrate cells, scaffolds, signalling molecules and growth factors. For the purposes of regenerative medicine, fetal development is of great interest because it is widely accepted that regeneration recapitulates in part developmental processes. In tissue engineering of cartilage the growth plate of the long bone represents an interesting, well-organized developmental structure with a spatial distribution of chondrocytes in different proliferation and differentiation stages, embedded in a scaffold of extracellular matrix components. The proliferation and differentiation of these chondrocytes is regulated by various hormonal and paracrine factors. Thus, members of the TGF, superfamily, the parathyroid hormone-related peptide,Indian hedgehog loop and a number of transcription factors, such as Sox and Runx, are involved in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, adhesion molecules, homeobox genes, metalloproteinases and prostaglandins play a role in the complex regulation mechanisms. The present paper summarizes the morphological organization of the growth plate and provides a short but not exhaustive overview of the regulation of growth plate development, giving interesting insights for tissue engineering of cartilage. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Regulated expression of HCN channels and cAMP levels shape the properties of the h current in developing rat hippocampus

    Rainer Surges
    Abstract The hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) contributes to intrinsic properties and network responses of neurons. Its biophysical properties depend on the expression profiles of the underlying hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels and the presence of cyclic AMP (cAMP) that potently and differentially modulates Ih conducted by HCN1, HCN2 and/or HCN4. Here, we studied the properties of Ih in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, the developmental evolution of the HCN-subunit isoforms that contribute to this current, and their interplay with age-dependent free cAMP concentrations, using electrophysiological, molecular and biochemical methods. Ih amplitude increased progressively during the first four postnatal weeks, consistent with the observed overall increased expression of HCN channels. Activation kinetics of the current accelerated during this period, consonant with the quantitative reduction of mRNA and protein expression of the slow-kinetics HCN4 isoform and increased levels of HCN1. The sensitivity of Ih to cAMP, and the contribution of the slow component to the overall Ih, decreased with age. These are likely a result of the developmentally regulated transition of the complement of HCN channel isoforms from cAMP sensitive to relatively cAMP insensitive. Thus, although hippocampal cAMP concentrations increased over twofold during the developmental period studied, the coordinated changes in expression of three HCN channel isoforms resulted in reduced effects of this signalling molecule on neuronal h currents. [source]

    Three enzymatic activities catalyze the oxidation of sulfide to thiosulfate in mammalian and invertebrate mitochondria

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 13 2008
    Tatjana M. Hildebrandt
    Hydrogen sulfide is a potent toxin of aerobic respiration, but also has physiological functions as a signalling molecule and as a substrate for ATP production. A mitochondrial pathway catalyzing sulfide oxidation to thiosulfate in three consecutive reactions has been identified in rat liver as well as in the body-wall tissue of the lugworm, Arenicola marina. A membrane-bound sulfide : quinone oxidoreductase converts sulfide to persulfides and transfers the electrons to the ubiquinone pool. Subsequently, a putative sulfur dioxygenase in the mitochondrial matrix oxidizes one persulfide molecule to sulfite, consuming molecular oxygen. The final reaction is catalyzed by a sulfur transferase, which adds a second persulfide from the sulfide : quinone oxidoreductase to sulfite, resulting in the final product thiosulfate. This role in sulfide oxidation is an additional physiological function of the mitochondrial sulfur transferase, rhodanese. [source]

    Roles of nodal-lefty regulatory loops in embryonic patterning of vertebrates

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 11 2001
    Hou Juan
    Nodal is a signalling molecule that belongs to the transforming growth factor,, superfamily of proteins, and Lefty proteins are antagonists of Nodal signalling. The nodal and lefty genes form positive and negative regulatory loops that resemble the reaction-diffusion system. As a pair, these genes control various events of vertebrate embryonic patterning, including left-right specification and mesoderm formation. In this review, we will focus on recent studies that have addressed the roles of nodal and lefty in mouse development. [source]

    The role of retinoic acid in the morphogenesis of the neural tube

    JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 4 2003
    L. Wilson
    Abstract We have examined the role of the signalling molecule, retinoic acid, in the process of neurulation and the subsequent growth and differentiation of the central nervous system using quail embryos that have developed in the absence of retinoic acid. Such retinoic acid-free embryos undergo abnormal neural tube formation in terms of its shape and structure, but the embryos do not display spina bifida or exencephaly. The neural tubes have a wider floor plate, a thicker roof plate and a different dorsoventral shape. Phalloidin staining and electron microscopy revealed alterations in the actin filaments and the junctional complexes of the cell layer lining the lumen. Initially the neural tubes proliferated at the same rate as normal, but later the proliferation rate declined drastically and neuronal differentiation was highly deficient. There were very few motoneurons extending neurites into the periphery, and within the neural tube axon trajectories were chaotic. These results reveal several functions for retinoic acid in the morphogenesis and growth of the neural tube, many of which can be explained by defective notochord signalling, but they do not suggest that this molecule plays a role in neural tube closure. [source]

    Evidence for quorum sensing in Clostridium botulinum 56A

    L. Zhao
    Abstract Aims:, Experiments were designed to detect quorum-sensing signals produced by Clostridium botulinum. Methods and Results:,Clostridium botulinum 56A cell-free supernatants obtained at the end of lag phase, the mid-exponential phase and early stationary phase of growth were assayed for bioluminescence in the Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing assay system. Twelve and 16-h culture supernatants induced bioluminescence in the auto-inducer 2 (AI-2) but not the auto-inducer 1 (AI-1) assay. Intra-species quorum sensing was also assayed as the ability of the supernatants to promote spore germination and outgrowth in a microtitre plate system. Spore populations exposed to C. botulinum supernatant from the end of lag phase became positive for growth sooner than controls. Conclusions:, The influence of cell-free supernatant on ungerminated spores and detection of bioluminescence in the AI-2 assay are evidence for a signalling molecule(s) and provide a first step in characterizing C. botulinum quorum sensing. Significance and Impact of the Study:, This study suggests that spores do not behave independently of each other and may explain the inocula size effects observed in challenge studies. Whether AI-2 production in C. botulinum serves as an inter-species signal or as a detoxification mechanism remains to be determined. [source]

    Counter regulation of the high affinity IgE receptor, Fc,RI, on human airway dendritic cells by IL-4 and IL-10

    ALLERGY, Issue 11 2009
    A. Faith
    Background:, Immunoglobulin E is a signalling molecule within the environment of the respiratory tract, the high affinity receptor for which, Fc,RI, is expressed by dendritic cells (DC). Little is known, however, of the expression and function of Fc,RI on DC in the human respiratory tract. Methods:, CD1c+ DC were purified from surgically resected nasal turbinates of 11 atopic and 12 nonatopic patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Expression of Fc,RI was determined by flow cytometry. Cytokine production by DC was determined by cytometric bead array. Results:, Expression of Fc,RI was significantly elevated on respiratory tract dendritic cells (RTDC) from atopic as compared to nonatopic patients. Activation of RTDC through Fc,RI induced production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-,, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The production of IL-6 and TNF-, was elevated in atopic compared to nonatopic patients studied. Conversely IL-10 production was elevated in nonatopic patients. Concomitant activation of Fc,RI and stimulation of RTDC with IL-4 inhibited production of IL-10 by RTDC. Neutralization experiments with anti-IL-10 Ab enhanced whereas addition of exogenous IL-10 to RTDC inhibited Fc,RI-mediated inflammatory cytokine production. Conclusion:, The function of Fc,RI on RTDC from patients with rhinosinusitis is susceptible to counter regulation by IL-4 and IL-10. [source]

    amfR, an essential gene for aerial mycelium formation, is a member of the AdpA regulon in the A-factor regulatory cascade in Streptomyces griseus

    Haruka Yamazaki
    Summary In Streptomyces griseus, A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R -hydroxymethyl-,-butyrolactone) acts as a chemical signalling molecule that triggers morphological differentiation and secondary metabolism. A transcriptional activator, AdpA, in the A-factor regulatory cascade switches on a number of genes required for both processes, thus forming an AdpA regulon. amfR encoding a regulatory protein similar to response regulators of bacterial two-component regulatory systems and essential for aerial mycelium formation was found to be a member of the AdpA regulon. AdpA bound two sites at nucleotide positions approximately ,200 (site 1) and ,60 (site 2), with respect to the major transcriptional start point of amfR, and accelerated the transcription of amfR by assisting RNA polymerase in forming an open complex at an appropriate region including the transcriptional start point. Site 2 contributed more to the transcriptional activation of amfR by AdpA than site 1, although AdpA showed a much lower affinity to site 2 than to site 1. The amfR transcription enhanced by AdpA subsequently ceased at day 2 when aerial hyphae began to be formed in the wild-type strain, whereas in an adsA null mutant amfR was continuously transcribed even until day 3. This implied that amfR was repressed growth dependently by a gene product under the control of ,-AdsA. Transcription of the promoter upstream of amfT depended on amfR, which is consistent with the idea that AmfR serves as an activator for amfTSBA in the amf operon. The observations that the amfR gene contains a TTA codon, a potential target for bldA -mediated regulation, and a conserved Asp-54 residue, which might be phosphorylated by a sensor kinase, suggest that the amf operon is under transcriptional, translational and post-translational control systems. [source]

    Adenosine signalling at immature parallel fibre,Purkinje cell synapses in rat cerebellum

    Alison Atterbury
    The purine adenosine is an extracellular signalling molecule involved in a large number of physiological and pathological conditions throughout the mammalian brain. However little is known about how adenosine release and its subsequent clearance change during brain development. We have combined electrophysiology and microelectrode biosensor measurements to investigate the properties of adenosine signalling at early stages of cerebellar development, when parallel fibre,Purkinje cell synapses have recently been formed (postnatal days 9,12). At this stage of development, we could detect little or no inhibitory A1 receptor tone in basal conditions and during trains of stimuli. Addition of pharmacological agents, to inhibit adenosine clearance, had only minor effects on synaptic transmission suggesting that under basal conditions, the concentration of adenosine moving in and out of the extracellular space is small. Active adenosine release was stimulated with hypoxia and trains of electrical stimuli. Although hypoxia released significant concentrations of adenosine, the release was delayed and slow. No adenosine release could be detected following electrical stimulation in the molecular layer. In conclusion, at this stage of development, although adenosine receptors and the mechanisms of adenosine clearance are present there is very little adenosine release. [source]

    Auto-inhibition of rat parallel fibre,Purkinje cell synapses by activity-dependent adenosine release

    Mark J. Wall
    Adenosine is an important signalling molecule involved in a large number of physiological functions. In the brain these processes are as diverse as sleep, memory, locomotion and neuroprotection during episodes of ischaemia and hypoxia. Although the actions of adenosine, through cell surface G-protein-coupled receptors, are well characterized, in many cases the sources of adenosine and mechanisms of release have not been defined. Here we demonstrate the activity-dependent release of adenosine in the cerebellum using a combination of electrophysiology and biosensors. Short trains of electrical stimuli delivered to the molecular layer in vitro, release adenosine via a process that is both TTX and Ca2+ sensitive. As ATP release cannot be detected, adenosine must either be released directly or rapidly produced by highly localized and efficient extracellular ATP breakdown. Since adenosine release can be modulated by receptors that act on parallel fibre,Purkinje cell synapses, we suggest that the parallel fibres release adenosine. This activity-dependent adenosine release exerts feedback inhibition of parallel fibre,Purkinje cell transmission. Spike-mediated adenosine release from parallel fibres will thus powerfully regulate cerebellar circuit output. [source]

    Cellular sources, targets and actions of constitutive nitric oxide in the magnocellular neurosecretory system of the rat

    Javier E. Stern
    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key activity-dependent modulator of the magnocellular neurosecretory system (MNS) during conditions of high hormonal demand. In addition, recent studies support the presence of a functional consitutive NO tone. The aim of this study was to identify the cellular sources, targets, signalling mechanisms and functional relevance of constitutive NO production within the supraoptic nucleus (SON). Direct visualization of intracellular NO, along with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and cGMP immunohistochemisty, was used to study the cellular sources and targets of NO within the SON, respectively. Our results support the presence of a strong NO basal tone within the SON, and indicate that vasopressin (VP) neurones constitute the major neuronal source and target of basal NO. NO induced-fluorescence and cGMP immunoreactivity (cGMPir) were also found in the glia and microvasculature of the SON, suggesting that they contribute as sources/targets of NO within the SON. cGMPir was also found in association with glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)- and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2)-positive terminals. Glutamate, acting on NMDA and possibly AMPA receptors, was found to be an important neurotransmitter driving basal NO production within the SON. Finally, electrophysiological recordings obtained from SON neurones in a slice preparation indicated that constitutive NO efficiently restrains ongoing firing activity of these neurones. Furthermore, phasically active (putative VP) and continuously firing neurones appeared to be influenced by NO originating from different sources. The potential roles for basal NO as an autocrine signalling molecule, and one that bridges neuronal,glial,vascular interactions within the MNS are discussed. [source]

    1141636674 Differential serine and tyrosine phosphorylation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) in Jeg-3 choriocarcinoma cell lines

    J Roediger
    Background:, Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is an intracellular signalling molecule, which is used by several cytokines, including leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), epithelial growth factor (EGF), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). It induces a variety of gene transcripts and cell functions. In trophoblast cells and in tumor cells, its tyrosine phosphorylation is directly linked to their invasiveness. The regulation and function of STAT3 serine phosphorylation is still widely unclear. Material and Methods:, Jeg-3 choriocarcinoma cells were stimulated with different concentrations of EGF, IL-6 and LIF. STAT3 serine (727) and tyrosine (705) phosphorylation were analyzed 5,60 min after stimulation by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis followed by Western blotting. Results:, Jeg-3 cells display spontaneous STAT3 serine phosphorylation. 100 ng/mL EGF induces a time-dependent reduction starting 15 min after stimulation. Tyrosine phosphorylation does not occur spontaneously, but is strongly induced by EGF at all analyzed time points. LIF induces tyrosine phosphorylation, but affects serine phosphorylation only very slightly. IL-6 did not influence neither serine phosphorylation nor tyrosine phosphorylation. Discussion:, The EGF induced STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation may be responsible for its invasion triggering capacities. The parallel reduction of serine phosphorylation may enhance this effect. LIF was formerly shown to enhance trophoblast invasion via STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation. IL-6 displays very little effects on STAT3 and seems to use other pathways for signalling. [source]

    Nitric oxide modulates ozone-induced cell death, hormone biosynthesis and gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009
    Reetta Ahlfors
    Summary Nitric oxide (NO) is involved together with reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the activation of various stress responses in plants. We have used ozone (O3) as a tool to elicit ROS-activated stress responses, and to activate cell death in plant leaves. Here, we have investigated the roles and interactions of ROS and NO in the induction and regulation of O3 -induced cell death. Treatment with O3 induced a rapid accumulation of NO, which started from guard cells, spread to adjacent epidermal cells and eventually moved to mesophyll cells. During the later time points, NO production coincided with the formation of hypersensitive response (HR)-like lesions. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and O3 individually induced a large set of defence-related genes; however, in a combined treatment SNP attenuated the O3 induction of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and other defence-related genes. Consistent with this, SNP treatment also decreased O3 -induced SA accumulation. The O3 -sensitive mutant rcd1 was found to be an NO overproducer; in contrast, Atnoa1/rif1 (Arabidopsis nitric oxide associated 1/resistant to inhibition by FSM1), a mutant with decreased production of NO, was also O3 sensitive. This, together with experiments combining O3 and the NO donor SNP suggested that NO can modify signalling, hormone biosynthesis and gene expression in plants during O3 exposure, and that a functional NO production is needed for a proper O3 response. In summary, NO is an important signalling molecule in the response to O3. [source]

    Atmospheric nitric oxide stimulates plant growth and improves the quality of spinach (Spinacia oleracea)

    C.W. Jin
    Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous signalling molecule implicated in a growing number of plant processes and has been recognised as a plant hormone. The present research employed spinach plant (Spinacia oleracea cv. Huangjia) and closed growth chambers to investigate the effects of gaseous NO application on vegetable production in greenhouses. Treatment of low concentration of NO gas (ambient atmosphere with 200 nL L,1 NO gas) significantly increased the shoot biomass of the soil-cultivated plants as compared with the control treatment (ambient atmosphere). In addition, the NO treatment also increased the photosynthetic rate of leaves, indicating that the enhancement of photosynthesis is an important reason leading to more biomass accumulation induced by NO gas. Furthermore, the NO treatment decreased nitrate concentration but increased the concentrations of soluble sugar, protein, antioxidants (vitamin C, glutathione and flavonoids), and ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) in shoots of the plants grown in soil, suggesting that the gaseous NO treatment can not only increase vegetable production but also improve vegetable quality. In addition, the effects of the combined application of NO and CO2 (NO 200 nL L,1 and CO2 800 ,L L,1) on shoot biomass was even greater than the effects of elevated CO2 (CO2 800 ,L L,1) or the NO treatment alone, implying that gaseous NO treatment can be used in CO2 -elevated greenhouses as an effective strategy in improving vegetable production. [source]

    A developing paradigm for the development of bird beaks

    Some adaptive radiations are notable for extreme interspecific diversification in one or a few adult traits. How and why have trait differences evolved? Natural and sexual selection often provide answers to the question of why. An answer to the question of how is to be found in the genetic control of the phenotypic traits, especially in the early stages of development, when interspecific differences first become expressed. Recent studies of the molecular genetic control of beak development in Darwin's finches have shown that a signalling molecule (BMP4) plays a key role in the development of large and deep beaks. Expression of this molecule occurs earlier (heterochrony) and at higher levels in species with deep beaks compared with species with more pointed beaks. The implication of this finding is that variation in the regulation of one or a few genes that are expressed early could be the source of evolutionarily significant variation that is subject to natural selection in speciation and adaptive radiation. This view is reinforced by parallel findings with the same signalling molecule in the development of jaw morphology in cichlid fish of the Great Lakes of Africa. Further research into regulatory mechanisms is to be expected, as well as extension to other examples of radiation such as honeycreepers in Hawaii and Anolis lizards in the Caribbean. © 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 88, 17,22. [source]

    Die vielen Seiten des Sulfids.

    Tödlich und doch lebensnotwendig
    Abstract Schwefelwasserstoff ist äußerst giftig und hat dennoch zahlreiche physiologische Funktionen. Tiere aus sulfidhaltigen Lebensräumen können sich effektiv vor einer Sulfidvergiftung schützen und nutzen diese reduzierte Schwefelverbindung sogar als Energielieferant. Das reichhaltige Leben an den Hydrothermalquellen der Tiefsee basiert vollständig auf der Oxidation anorganischer Substanzen, wobei Sulfid eines der Hauptsubstrate ist. Für den Menschen spielt Sulfid als gasförmiges Signalmolekül eine wichtige Rolle. Es wird in vielen Geweben produziert und ist an einigen entscheidenden Stoffwechselvorgängen, wie beispielsweise der Regulation des Blutdrucks und der Insulinsekretion beteiligt. Störungen des Schwefelstoffwechsels führen zu verschiedenen Erkrankungen, so dass die genaue Kenntnis der Umsetzung und Wirkungsweisen von Sulfid medizinisch von großem Interesse ist. Hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic, but nevertheless it has several physiological functions. Animals from sulfide containing habitats are able to protect themselves from sulfide poisoning and furthermore use this reduced sulfur compound for ATP production. Life at the deep-sea hydrothermal vents entirely depends on the oxidation of inorganic substrates, mainly sulfide. In humans sulfide acts as a gaseous signalling molecule. It is produced in many tissues and takes part in a number of important metabolic processes such as the regulation of blood pressure and insulin secretion. Several severe diseases are caused by dysfunctions in sulfur metabolism. Thus, a detailed knowledge of the reactions and effects of hydrogen sulfide is of considerable clinical relevance. [source]

    Potential importance of alterations in hydrogen sulphide (H2S) bioavailability in diabetes

    D J Lefer
    Despite its long-standing reputation as a foul smelling and toxic gas that is associated with the decay of biological matter, hydrogen sulphide (H2S) has emerged as an important regulator of cardiovascular homoeostasis. H2S promotes a number of cellular signals that regulate metabolism, cardiac function and cell survival. Endogenous H2S bioavailability is regulated by several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of cysteine. This study by Brancaleone et al. in the current issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology provides novel insights into the impairment of H2S biosynthesis in the setting of diabetes mellitus. The authors report that enzymic H2S biosynthesis is impaired in a murine model of type 1 diabetes and the attenuation in H2S bioavailability is associated with impaired vascular reactivity. This study has profound implications for the use of pharmacological agents to augment endogenous H2S synthesis or agents that release H2S to augment the levels of this gaseous signalling molecule in cardiovascular disease. British Journal of Pharmacology (2008) 155, 617,619; doi:fn1; published online 22 September 2008 [source]

    Sphingosine kinase 1 gene transfer reduces postoperative peritoneal adhesion in an experimental model

    Q. Guo
    Background: Recovery of the surgically damaged mesothelial cell layer is a major process in reducing postoperative peritoneal adhesions. Sphingosine kinase (SPK) 1 is a signalling molecule involved in the regulation of proliferation and migration of various cell types. This study determined the effect of SPK-1 gene transfer on the recovery of damaged mesothelial cells and on peritoneal adhesion formation after surgery. Methods: Rat mesothelial cells were isolated and characterized by their expression of cytokeratin and vimentin. Their migration was determined by scratch wound motility assay. Cellular SPK-1 activity was measured by [,- 32P]adenosine 5,-triphosphate incorporation. Wistar rats underwent laparotomy with subsequent caecum or uterine horn abrasion. Rats were randomized to either SPK-1 gene (Ad-SPK-1) transfer or control groups. The animals were killed 14 days after operation and peritoneal adhesions were graded. Results: Adenovirus-mediated SPK-1 gene transfer increased the cellular SPK-1 activity of mesothelial cells, leading to enhanced migration. Median adhesion scores were significantly lower in the Ad-SPK-1 group than in controls in both rat caecum (0·98 versus 2·60; P < 0·001) and rat uterine horn (0·28 versus 1·83; P < 0·001) models. Conclusion: Adenovirus-mediated SPK-1 gene transfer promotes recovery of the surgically damaged mesothelial cell layer and prevents postoperative peritoneal adhesion formation. Copyright © 2007 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Retinal artery occlusion following intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy

    Therese Von Hanno
    Abstract. Purpose:, Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy effectively inhibits angiogenesis and is now enjoying widespread use in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It may also have a role in the treatment of macular oedema secondary to other conditions. VEGF is a signalling molecule that has a variety of roles, including vasoregulation and effects on the coagulation homeostasis. Anti-VEGF therapy may therefore have adverse effects on ocular blood flow. Methods:, Two cases of retinal artery occlusion after intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF are presented. Both patients were given the treatment to reduce macular oedema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. Possible mechanisms are discussed. Results:, Patient 1 developed a central retinal artery occlusion within 1 month of an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (Lucentis®). The macular oedema was totally resolved at 1 month; final visual acuity (VA) was light perception. Patient 2 developed a branch retinal artery occlusion in the macula 2 days after an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin®). The macular oedema was almost resolved within 1 week and did not recur; final VA was 0.6. Conclusions:, Anti-VEGF therapy may have a role in the treatment of macular oedema caused by central retinal vein occlusions. However, our report indicates that the therapeutic principle may be associated with an increased risk of retinal arterial occlusions. [source]

    The 1998 Nobel Prize,discovery of the role of nitric oxide as a signalling molecule

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 3 2009
    Rolf ZetterströmArticle first published online: 5 JAN 200
    First page of article [source]

    Estimation of endogenous adenosine activity at adenosine receptors in guinea-pig ileum using a new pharmacological method

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2010
    K. F. Nilsson
    Abstract Aim:, Adenosine modulates neurotransmission and in the intestine adenosine is continuously released both from nerves and from smooth muscle. The main effect is modulation of contractile activity by inhibition of neurotransmitter release and by direct smooth muscle relaxation. Estimation of adenosine concentration at the receptors is difficult due to metabolic inactivation. We hypothesized that endogenous adenosine concentrations can be calculated by using adenosine receptor antagonist and agonist and dose ratio (DR) equations. Methods:, Plexus-containing guinea-pig ileum longitudinal smooth muscle preparations were made to contract intermittently by electrical field stimulation in organ baths. Schild plot regressions were constructed with 2-chloroadenosine (agonist) and 8-(p -sulfophenyl)theophylline (8-PST; antagonist). In separate experiments the reversing or enhancing effect of 8-PST and the inhibiting effect of 2-chloroadenosine (CADO) were analysed in the absence or presence of an adenosine uptake inhibitor (dilazep), and nucleoside overflow was measured by HPLC. Results:, Using the obtained DR, baseline adenosine concentration was calculated to 28 nm expressed as CADO activity, which increased dose dependently after addition of 10,6 m dilazep to 150 nm (P < 0.05). HPLC measurements yielded a lower fractional increment (80%) in adenosine during dilazep, than found in the pharmacological determination (440%). Conclusion:, Endogenous adenosine is an important modulator of intestinal neuro-effector activity, operating in the linear part of the dose,response curve. Other adenosine-like agonists might contribute to neuromodulation and the derived formulas can be used to calculate endogenous agonist activity, which is markedly affected by nucleoside uptake inhibition. The method described should be suitable for other endogenous signalling molecules in many biological systems. [source]

    Activation of p53 signalling in acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis in OC2 human oral cancer cells

    C.-C. Ho
    Abstract Background, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) are well known chemotherapeutic agents of cancers; however, the signalling molecules involved remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible existence of a putative p53-dependent pathway underlying the ASA-induced apoptosis in OC2 cells, a human oral cancer cell line. Materials and methods, The methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was employed to quantify differences in cell viability. DNA ladder formation on agarose electrophoresis was used as apoptosis assay. The expression levels of several master regulatory molecules controlling various signal pathways were monitored using the immunoblotting techniques. Flow cytometry was used to confirm the effect of ASA on cell cycle. Patterns of changes in expression were scanned and analyzed using the NIH image 1·56 software (NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA). All the data were analyzed by anova. Results, Acetylsalicylic acid reduced cell viability and presence of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. In the meanwhile, phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15, accumulation of p53 and increased the expression of its downstream target genes, p21 and Bax induced by ASA. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was suppressed. Disruption of p53-murine double minute-2 (MDM2) complex formation resulted in increasing the expression of MDM2 60-kDa cleavage fragment. Inhibited the activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by PD98059, a specific inhibitor of extracellular regulatory kinase (ERK), significantly decreased cell viability and enhanced the expression of p53 induced by ASA. The result of the cell-cycle analysis showed that ASA and PD98059 induced the cell cycle arrested at the G0/G1 phase and resulted in apoptosis. Conclusion, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-inhibited cyclooxygenase is not the only or even the most important mechanism of inhibition. Our study presents evidences that activation of p53 signalling involved in apoptosis induced by ASA. Furthermore, the apoptotic effect was enhanced by blocking the activation of p42/p44 MAPK in response to treatment with ASA, thus indicating a negative role for p42/p44 MAPK. [source]

    Molecular insights into insulin action and secretion

    C. J. Rhodes
    Abstract Tightly co-ordinated control of both insulin action and secretion is required in order to maintain glucose homeostasis. Gene knockout experiments have helped to define key signalling molecules that affect insulin action, including insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors, insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins and various downstream effector proteins. ,-cell function is also a tightly regulated process, with numerous factors (including certain signalling molecules) having an impact on insulin production, insulin secretion and ,-cell mass. While signalling molecules play important roles in insulin action and secretion under normal circumstances, abnormal insulin signalling in muscle, adipose tissue, liver and pancreas leads to insulin resistance and ,-cell dysfunction. In particular, the signalling protein IRS-2 may have a central role in linking these abnormalities, although other factors are likely to be involved. [source]

    A common gene exclusion mechanism used by two chemosensory systems

    Luca Capello
    Abstract Sensory coding strategies within vertebrates involve the expression of a limited number of receptor types per sensory cell. In mice, each vomeronasal sensory neuron transcribes monoallelically a single V1R pheromone receptor gene, chosen from a large V1R repertoire. The nature of the signals leading to this strict receptor expression is unknown, but is apparently based on a negative feedback mechanism initiated by the transcription of the first randomly chosen functional V1R gene. We show, in vivo, that the genetic replacement of the V1rb2 pheromone receptor coding sequence by an unrelated one from the odorant receptor gene M71 maintains gene exclusion. The expression of this exogenous odorant receptor in vomeronasal neurons does not trigger the transcription of odorant receptor-associated signalling molecules. These results strongly suggest that despite the different odorant and vomeronasal receptor expression sites, function and transduction cascades, a common mechanism is used by these chemoreceptors to regulate their transcription. [source]

    Keratinocyte growth factor and scatter factor expression by regionally defined oral fibroblasts

    Scott Thomas William McKeown
    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (SF) are two signalling molecules thought to play important roles in regulating epithelial,mesenchymal interactions. Expression of both factors by fibroblasts in subepithelial connective tissue may play a role in maintaining epithelial integrity in health and in the apical migration of junctional epithelium in periodontitis. The aims of this study were (a) to compare expression levels of KGF and SF by periodontal ligament (PDL) and gingival fibroblasts; and (ii) to determine the effects of interleukin (IL)-1,, transforming growth factor (TGF)-,1, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on KGF/SF expression by these cell populations. Three paired PDL and gingival fibroblast strains were developed. The KGF and SF protein levels were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Relative levels of KGF and SF mRNA in cytokine-treated cultures were determined using semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. No differences in the levels of KGF and SF produced by PDL and gingival (SOG) populations were found. In both cell types IL-1, stimulated KGF and SF expression, while TGF-,1 significantly inhibited expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Epidermal growth factor and PDGF-BB induced differing effects on expression, stimulating SF protein production but inhibiting KGF output in both fibroblast populations. Differences in response to EGF and PDGF were also seen between paired PDL and gingival fibroblasts. [source]

    Angiotensin-(1,7) has a dual role on growth-promoting signalling pathways in rat heart in vivo by stimulating STAT3 and STAT5a/b phosphorylation and inhibiting angiotensin II-stimulated ERK1/2 and Rho kinase activity

    Jorge F. Giani
    Angiotensin (ANG) II contributes to cardiac remodelling by inducing the activation of several signalling molecules, including ERK1/2, Rho kinase and members of the STAT family of proteins. Angiotensin-(1,7) is produced in the heart and inhibits the proliferative actions of ANG II, although the mechanisms of this inhibition are poorly understood. Accordingly, in the present study we examined whether ANG-(1,7) affects the ANG II-mediated activation of ERK1/2 and Rho kinase, STAT3 and STAT5a/b in rat heart in vivo. We hypothesized that ANG-(1,7) inhibits these growth-promoting pathways, counterbalancing the trophic action of ANG II. Solutions of normal saline (0.9% NaCl) containing ANG II (8 pmol kg,1) plus ANG-(1,7) in increasing doses (from 0.08 to 800 pmol kg,1) were administered via the inferior vena cava to anaesthetized male Sprague,Dawley rats. After 5 min, hearts were removed and ERK1/2, Rho kinase, STAT3 and STAT5a/b phosphorylation was determined by Western blotting using phosphospecific antibodies. Angiotensin II stimulated ERK1/2 and Rho kinase phosphorylation (2.3 ± 0.2- and 2.1 ± 0.2-fold increase over basal values, respectively), while ANG-(1,7) was without effect. The ANG II-mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Rho kinase was prevented in a dose-dependent manner by ANG-(1,7) and disappeared in the presence of the Mas receptor antagonist d -Ala7 -ANG-(1,7). Both ANG II and ANG-(1,7) increased STAT3 and STAT5a/b phosphorylation to a similar extent (130,140% increase). The ANG-(1,7)-stimulated STAT phosphorylation was blocked by the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan and not by d -Ala7 -ANG-(1,7). Our results show a dual action of ANG-(1,7), that is, a stimulatory effect on STAT3 and 5a/b phosphorylation through AT1 receptors and a blocking action on ANG II-stimulated ERK1/2 and Rho kinase phosphorylation through Mas receptor activation. The latter effect could be representative of a mechanism for a protective role of ANG-(1,7) in the heart by counteracting the effects of locally generated ANG II. [source]

    Attack and defence in the gastric epithelium , a delicate balance

    Rod Dimaline
    The gastric epithelium is a complex structure formed into tubular branched gastric glands. The glands contain a wide variety of cell types concerned with the secretion of hydrochloric acid, proteases, mucus and a range of signalling molecules. All cell types originate from stem cells in the neck region of the gland, before migrating and differentiating to assume their characteristic positions and functions. Endocrine and local paracrine mediators are of crucial importance for maintaining structural and functional integrity of the epithelium, in the face of a hostile luminal environment. The first such mediator to be recognized, the hormone gastrin, was identified over a century ago and is now established as the major physiological stimulant of gastric acid secretion. Recent studies, including those using mice that overexpress or lack the gastrin gene, suggest a number of previously unrecognized roles for this hormone in the regulation of cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation. This review focuses on the identification of hitherto unsuspected gastrin-regulated genes and discusses the paracrine cascades that contribute to the maintenance of gastric epithelial architecture and secretory function. Helicobacter infection is also considered in cases where it shares targets and signalling mechanisms with gastrin. [source]

    Plant oxylipins: COI1/JAZs/MYC2 as the core jasmonic acid-signalling module

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 17 2009
    Andrea Chini
    Jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivates, collectively known as jasmonates (JAs), are essential signalling molecules that coordinate the plant response to biotic and abiotic challenges, in addition to several developmental processes. The COI1 F-box and additional SCF modulators have long been known to have a crucial role in the JA-signalling pathway. Downstream JA-dependent transcriptional re-programming is regulated by a cascade of transcription factors and MYC2 plays a major role. Recently, JAZ family proteins have been identified as COI1 targets and repressors of MYC2, defining the ,missing link' in JA signalling. JA,Ile has been proposed to be the active form of the hormone, and COI1 is an essential component of the receptor complex. These recent discoveries have defined the core JA-signalling pathway as the module COI1/JAZs/MYC2. [source]

    Quorum-sensing in Gram-negative bacteria

    Neil A Whitehead
    Abstract It has become increasingly and widely recognised that bacteria do not exist as solitary cells, but are colonial organisms that exploit elaborate systems of intercellular communication to facilitate their adaptation to changing environmental conditions. The languages by which bacteria communicate take the form of chemical signals, excreted from the cells, which can elicit profound physiological changes. Many types of signalling molecules, which regulate diverse phenotypes across distant genera, have been described. The most common signalling molecules found in Gram-negative bacteria are N -acyl derivatives of homoserine lactone (acyl HSLs). Modulation of the physiological processes controlled by acyl HSLs (and, indeed, many of the non-acyl HSL-mediated systems) occurs in a cell density- and growth phase-dependent manner. Therefore, the term ,quorum-sensing' has been coined to describe this ability of bacteria to monitor cell density before expressing a phenotype. In this paper, we review the current state of research concerning acyl HSL-mediated quorum-sensing. We also describe two non-acyl HSL-based systems utilised by the phytopathogens Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas campestris. [source]

    Regulation of human neutrophil-mediated cartilage proteoglycan degradation by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    C. S. T. Hii
    Summary The ability of neutrophils to degrade cartilage proteoglycan suggests that the neutrophils that accumulate in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients are mediators of tissue damage. The regulatory mechanisms which are relevant to the proteoglycan-degrading activity of neutrophils are poorly understood. Since phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), protein kinase C (PKC), the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/ERK2 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) have been reported to regulate neutrophil respiratory burst and/or degranulation, a role for these signalling molecules in regulating proteoglycan degradation was investigated. Preincubation of human neutrophils with GF109203X (an inhibitor of PKC), PD98059 (an inhibitor of MEK, the upstream regulator of ERK1/ERK2) or with forskolin or dibutyryl cAMP, failed to suppress proteoglycan degradation of opsonized bovine cartilage. In contrast, preincubation of neutrophils with wortmannin or LY294002, specific inhibitors of PI3-K, inhibited proteoglycan degradation. Incubation of neutrophils with cartilage resulted in the activation of PI3-K in neutrophils, consistent with a role for PI3-K in proteoglycan degradation. Activation of PI3-K and proteoglycan degradation was enhanced by tumour necrosis factor-,. Degradation caused by neutrophils from the synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients was also inhibited by wortmannin. These data demonstrate that the proteoglycan degradative activity of neutrophils required PI3-K but not PKC or the ERK1/ERK2/ERK5 cascades and was insensitive to increases in intracellular cAMP concentrations. [source]