Signal Decreased (signal + decreased)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Electromyographic and kinematic indicators of fatigue in horses: a pilot study

Summary Muscle fatigue can be quantified using Fourier analysis of the recorded EMG signal. Median frequency is the frequency at which the Fourier profile is bisected, and this measure typically shifts to smaller values during fatigue. This technique was combined with kinematic analysis to describe the time course of fatigue in horses galloping on an inclined treadmill. It was hypothesised that EMG median frequency would decrease in tandem with changes in kinematic variables through the exercise test. Three fit Thoroughbred horses had retroreflective markers placed on their hooves and withers. Surface electrodes were attached to the skin over the forelimb deltoid muscle. After warm-up at walk and trot, each horse galloped at 110% VO2max on a treadmill inclined to 7.5% until fatigue onset. Kinematic data were recorded at 200 Hz for 5 s at 30s intervals, and raw EMG data were recorded at 1024 Hz for 3 s at 15 s intervals. Fatigue onset was the point in time when the horse could not keep up with the treadmill speed with minimal encouragement. One horse performed the entire exercise test on the same lead, while the other 2 horses changed leads periodically, interrupting the changes in both the EMG and kinematic measurements. Overall, through the course of the trials, mean stride length increased by 0.34 m and stride duration increased by 0.03 s. Vertical excursion of the trunk marker increased by 0.03 m. For the horse that did not change lead, median frequency of the EMG signal decreased by 36%. In the other 2 horses, lead changes were interspersed between smaller decreases in median frequency, whereupon median frequency recovered to starting levels immediately following a lead change. The median frequency decreased by 12-20% between lead changes. Kinematic changes are more global indictors of fatigue, while the EMG indicators are dependent upon lead changes. [source]

Proton and sodium MRI assessment of fluid level in calf tissue

Chun S. Zuo PhD
Abstract Purpose To investigate the feasibility of using 1H and 23Na MRI to detect fluid levels in the lower leg muscle. Materials and Methods Proton and sodium MRI was applied to detect body fluid levels in the lower leg muscles of 18 healthy young male subjects at 3T and 4T. The paradigms under investigation were a postural change from sitting upright to lying supine, and saline infusion. Results We found that the average proton MR signal in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were reduced following the postural change by 3.5% 1.4% (P < 0.05) and rose following saline infusion by 3.7% 0.9% (P < 0.01). More dramatically, the sodium MR signal decreased by 7.1% 1.2% (P < 0.01) following the postural change and increased following saline infusion by 12% 3.8% (P < 0.05). The ratio of intra- to extracellular fluid levels was 1.6 0.5 for the subjects based on the acquired proton and sodium data. Conclusion Our results indicate that proton and sodium MRI can be used to assess fluid levels in the lower extremities, and this technique may be applied to evaluate fluid retention. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Changes in global histone acetylation pattern in somatic cell nuclei after their transfer into oocytes at different stages of maturation

Helena Fulka
Abstract In our study, we have examined the pattern of global histone modification changes in somatic cell nuclei after their transfer into mouse oocytes at different stages of maturation or after their parthenogenetic activation. While germinal vesicle (GV) staged immature oocytes are strongly labeled with anti-acetylated histone H3 and H4 antibodies, the signal is absent in both metaphase I and metaphase II oocytes (MI, MII). In contrast, the oocytes of all maturation stages show a presence of trimethylated H3/K4 in their chromatin. When somatic cells were fused to intact or enucleated GV oocytes, both the GV and the somatic cell nucleus showed a very strong signal for all the antibodies used. On the other hand, when somatic cells nuclei that are AcH3 and AcH4 positive before fusion are introduced into either intact or enucleated MI or MII oocytes, their acetylation signal decreased rapidly and was totally absent after a prolonged culture. This was not the case when anti-trimethyl H3/K4 antibody was used. The somatic cell chromatin showed only a slight decrease in the intensity of labeling after its transfer into MI or MII oocytes. This decrease was, however, evident only after a prolonged culture. These results suggest not only a relatively higher stability of the methylation modification but also some difference between the oocyte and somatic chromatin. The ability to deacetylate the chromatin of transferred somatic nuclei disappears rapidly after the oocyte activation. Our results indicate that at least some reprogramming activity appears in the oocyte cytoplasm almost immediately after GV breakdown (GVBD), and that this activity rapidly disappears after the oocyte activation. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 75: 556,564, 2008. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Power Doppler sonography of the kidney: Effect of Valsalva's maneuver

Ryuichi Takano MD
Abstract Purpose It has been reported that an intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) above 15 mm Hg may cause oliguria and that an IAP above 25 mm Hg may cause anuria. Because Valsalva's maneuver yields an IAP exceeding 180 mm Hg, it is presumed to affect renal perfusion. We evaluated the ability of power Doppler sonography to depict the changes in renal blood flow during Valsalva's maneuver. Methods Seven healthy men aged 21,24 years and 1 50-year-old man with massive ascites participated in the study. With each healthy subject lying in a supine position, longitudinal power Doppler sonograms of the kidney were obtained and analyzed semiquantitatively during Valsalva's maneuver. Also, in the patient with massive ascites, power Doppler sonography was performed before and after paracentesis. Results Along with an increase in IAP, monitored as expiratory pressure during Valsalva's maneuver, power Doppler signals decreased as indicated by both visual impression and computer scores. In the patient with massive ascites, signal intensity increased after paracentesis. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that an increase in IAP within the physiologic range affects renal perfusion and that power Doppler sonography depicts semiquantitatively the change in renal blood flow. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Ultra- 29:384,388, 2001. [source]