Signal Contributions (signal + contribution)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Rotational CARS thermometry at high temperature (1800 K) and high pressure (0.1,1.55 MPa)

F. Vestin
Abstract Dual-broadband rotational CARS (DB-RCARS) thermometry has been investigated at high temperature and high pressure. Single-shot measurements were performed at 1800 K, in air and nitrogen at pressures up to 1.55 MPa and in oxygen at pressures up to 0.5 MPa. For all conditions, the resonant signal contribution to the spectra clearly dominated over the non-resonant one, implying the high potential for DB-RCARS for temperature and concentration measurements also at the high temperatures and pressures used in the present investigation. The relative standard deviation was generally ,2% for single-shot data at pressures from 0.5 to 1.55 MPa. At the investigated temperature, 1800 K, rotational lines from thermally excited vibrational states could be observed in the highly resolved experimental spectra. Using a previously developed weighting procedure applied to these lines, it was demonstrated that the temperature standard deviation could be lowered with as much as 30%. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Diffusion-weighted spectroscopy: A novel approach to determine macromolecule resonances in short-echo time 1H-MRS

N. Kunz
Abstract Quantification of short-echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy results in >18 metabolite concentrations (neurochemical profile). Their quantification accuracy depends on the assessment of the contribution of macromolecule (MM) resonances, previously experimentally achieved by exploiting the several fold difference in T1. To minimize effects of heterogeneities in metabolites T1, the aim of the study was to assess MM signal contributions by combining inversion recovery (IR) and diffusion-weighted proton spectroscopy at high-magnetic field (14.1 T) and short echo time (=8 msec) in the rat brain. IR combined with diffusion weighting experiments (with ,/, = 1.5/200 msec and b -value = 11.8 msec/,m2) showed that the metabolite nulled spectrum (inversion time = 740 msec) was affected by residuals attributed to creatine, inositol, taurine, choline, N -acetylaspartate as well as glutamine and glutamate. While the metabolite residuals were significantly attenuated by 50%, the MM signals were almost not affected (<8%). The combination of metabolite-nulled IR spectra with diffusion weighting allows a specific characterization of MM resonances with minimal metabolite signal contributions and is expected to lead to a more precise quantification of the neurochemical profile. Magn Reson Med, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Continuous arterial spin labeling at the human common carotid artery: the influence of transit times

Toralf Mildner
Abstract In evaluating the sensitivity of arterial spin labeling (CASL) and for quantification of perfusion, knowledge of the transit time from the labeling plane to the imaging slice is crucial. The purpose of the current study was to obtain estimates of transit times relevant under the specific experimental conditions of CASL in human subjects using a separate local labeling coil at the neck. Specifically, the post-label delay (PLD), i.e. the time between the end of the labeling period and the image acquisition, was varied either with or without additional application of crusher gradients to suppress intravascular signal contributions. The overall sensitivity change for varying the PLD between 1000 and 1700,ms was low. A tissue transit time from the neck to an axial supraventricular section through Broca's knee was obtained by fitting the PLD dependence to a two-compartment model. Averaging over subjects yielded 1930,±,110,ms for the tissue transit time, and 73,±,5,ml,min,1 100,g,1 for the cerebral blood flow. Small areas that exhibited a very high signal change upon labeling were indicative of regional variation in cerebral blood flow related to vascular anatomy. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Generic UMTS test signal for RF bioelectromagnetic studies

H. Ndoumbč Mbonjo Mbonjo
Abstract This report outlines the characteristics of universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) signals and discusses the signal parameters with respect to their possible biological relevance in order to define a generic UMTS test signal (GUS) for experiments aiming at the investigation of biological effects of weak electromagnetic fields. The GUS includes features of a real UMTS signal and especially the characteristics of UMTS, which differ from those of already applied second generation mobile communication systems (GSM 900, DCS1800, PCS1900, IS-95). It has been specified on the basis of the recommendations of a working group of the German Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk (FGF) with a focus on the mechanisms of UMTS which are responsible for slow term signal contributions, i.e., low frequency variations of the radio frequency (RF) envelope, since the hypothetical possibility of biological relevance of weak electromagnetic fields is often attributed to time variations of the RF envelope with frequencies close to those of natural processes. In this respect, it is also shown that the mandatory power control loop in UMTS gives rise to very strong 1.5 kHz variations on the air interface. Based upon the concept of the GUS, a UMTS test signal generator (GUS6960S) is described. Bioelectromagnetics 25:415,425, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]