Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Shadow

  • seed shadow

  • Terms modified by Shadow

  • shadow cell
  • shadow map
  • shadow price

  • Selected Abstracts

    A dedicated small-angle X-ray scattering beamline with a superconducting wiggler source at the NSRRC

    Din-Goa Liu
    At the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), which operates a 1.5,GeV storage ring, a dedicated small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) beamline has been installed with an in-achromat superconducting wiggler insertion device of peak magnetic field 3.1,T. The vertical beam divergence from the X-ray source is reduced significantly by a collimating mirror. Subsequently the beam is selectively monochromated by a double Si(111) crystal monochromator with high energy resolution (,E/E, 2 × 10,4) in the energy range 5,23,keV, or by a double Mo/B4C multilayer monochromator for 10,30 times higher flux (,1011,photons,s,1) in the 6,15,keV range. These two monochromators are incorporated into one rotating cradle for fast exchange. The monochromated beam is focused by a toroidal mirror with 1:1 focusing for a small beam divergence and a beam size of ,0.9,mm × 0.3 mm (horizontal × vertical) at the focus point located 26.5,m from the radiation source. A plane mirror installed after the toroidal mirror is selectively used to deflect the beam downwards for grazing-incidence SAXS (GISAXS) from liquid surfaces. Two online beam-position monitors separated by 8,m provide an efficient feedback control for an overall beam-position stability in the 10,µm range. The beam features measured, including the flux density, energy resolution, size and divergence, are consistent with those calculated using the ray-tracing program SHADOW. With the deflectable beam of relatively high energy resolution and high flux, the new beamline meets the requirements for a wide range of SAXS applications, including anomalous SAXS for multiphase nanoparticles (e.g. semiconductor core-shell quantum dots) and GISAXS from liquid surfaces. [source]

    A comment on `A new ray-tracing program RIGTRACE for X-ray optical systems' [J.

    1050], Synchrotron Rad. (2001)
    Some points concerning the characteristics of the X-ray simulation code SHADOW [Welnak et al. (1994). Nucl. Instrum. Methods, A347, 344,347] are clarified which are not correctly mentioned by Yamada et al. [J. Synchrotron Rad. (2001), 8, 10471050]]. It is shown that, contrary to the authors' statement, some functionality of their new program is not original. In particular, we show that SHADOW can deal correctly with crystal monochromators. [source]


    Mattias Qviström
    ABSTRACT. The history of vernacular landscapes at the urban fringe is poorly studied, limiting our understanding of the contemporary character of the fringe and our knowledge of the urbanization process. This article argues the necessity of a combined analysis of the legacies of planning and the footprints of former landscape ideals in order to understand the conditions for spatial planning at the urban fringe. After first introducing the methodological use of landscape/planning history, the article focuses on the Swedish discourse on landscape change and landscape planning concerning the urban fringe in the 1930s. Particular focus is placed on the discourse on agricultural landscapes at the urban fringe. The third section of the article presents an examination of the footprints of the ,landscape convention' (i.e. an agreement on the meaning of landscape in relation to law and justice) resulting from the landscape discourse of the 1930s. The article argues that the legacy of the 1930s explains some of the difficulties arising when planners of today aim to utilize the farm landscape as a resource for recreation at the urban fringe. The shadow of the landscape discourse of the 1930s also creates difficulties in dealing with peri-urban landscapes in Swedish planning and Swedish law. With the ongoing discourse on how to implement the European Landscape Convention, such knowledge is particularly useful. [source]


    Joan Raphael-Leff
    abstract This paper locates contemporary conceptualizations of ,femininity' in the context of current sociocultural changes. It is argued that today's biotechnological opportunities have immense significance for both psychic interiority and the lived experience of gender, in that they invalidate ,eternal' limitations of sex, procreation and embodiment. An explanatory concept, generative identity, is postulated, to account psychologically for the increasing diversity of reproductive patterns. This concept is proposed as a fourth constituent of gender, alongside the reformulated constituents of embodiment, representation and desire. Derived from this is a further concept of generative agency, the expression of the psychic construction of the self as potential pro-creator, shaped in childhood by the negotiation of reproductive restrictions of sex, generation, genesis and generativity, and the ,genitive' issues of arbitrariness, finitude and irreversibility of time. Disturbances in generative identity manifest as unconscious ,shadows' expressed as inhibitions to creative agency, compulsively driven preoccupations with the lived sexed body, and/or concrete enactments which may utilize biotechnological innovations to actualize unconscious fantasies in reality. [source]

    In the Shadow of the Cedars: the Spiritual Values of Old-Growth Forests

    First page of article [source]

    Teaching & Learning Guide for: The Origins of the Civil War

    Nicole Etcheson
    Author's Introduction The author argues that slavery is the root cause of the Civil War even though historians have often posited other explanations. Some other interpretations have been ideological (i.e., about the morality of slavery), others have been economic, political, or cultural. Focus Questions 1If you were to make an argument for the causes of the Civil War, what evidence or types of evidence would you want to examine? 2In what ways can the different types of arguments (ideological, economic, political, and cultural), be combined to explain the causes of the Civil War? Do such arguments exclude or reinforce each other? In what ways? Author Recommends * E. L. Ayres, In the Presence of Mine Enemies: War in the Heart of America, 1859,1863 (New York, NY: Norton, 2003). A study of two counties, one north and one south, during the end of the sectional crisis and the early Civil War. While Potter, Walther, and Wilentz offer sweeping, often political, histories, Ayres offers a microhistory approach to the sectional conflict. Although Ayres writes within the tradition of seeing cultural differences between North and South, he concludes that slavery was the issue that drove the two sections apart. * M. A. Morrison, Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1997). Views the development of the sectional crisis through the lens of Manifest Destiny. Territorial expansion drove hostility between the sections. Morrison concentrates on the political developments of the period connected to the acquisition and organization of the territories to show how the issue of slavery in the territories polarized the sections. * D. M. Potter, The Impending Crisis, 1848,1861 (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 1976). The most comprehensive survey of the decade before the war. Potter traces the development of slavery as a political issue that North and South could not resolve. While it is a masterly and nuanced treatment of the political history, it does not incorporate social history and is more detailed than is useful for most undergraduates. E. H. Walther, The Shattering of the Union: America in the 1850s (Wilmington, Scholarly Resources, 2004) has recently supplanted Potter as a survey of the decade. It is an easier read for undergraduates and incorporates the new literature than has emerged since Potter wrote. * S. Wilentz, The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln (New York, NY: Norton, 2005). A sweeping history of the United States from the constitutional era to the outbreak of the Civil War. Wilentz attempts to update Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.'s synthesis The Age of Jackson by returning to a focus on the evolution of democracy while at the same time incorporating the social history that emerged after Schlesinger wrote. Only the last third of this very long book covers the 1850s, but Wilentz argues that democracy had taken differing sectional forms by that period: a free-labor version in the North and a plantation version in the South. Online Materials 1. The Valley of the Shadow: Two Communities in the American Civil War ( A prize-winning website that profiles Augusta County, Virginia and Franklin County, Pennsylvania. Material from this website formed the basis of Ayres, In the Presence of Mine Enemies. Although the website primarily concentrates on the Civil War itself, it provides access to newspapers and letters and diaries from the 1850s that show the development of, and reaction to, the sectional crisis in those counties. It also shows students the types of materials (census, tax, and church records as well as newspapers and letters and diaries) with which historians work to build an argument. 2. American Memory from the Library of Congress ( Although not specifically devoted to the origins of the Civil War, the American Memory site provides access to the collections of the Library of Congress which contain massive amounts of primary materials for students and scholars. From the website, one can gain access to congressional documents, periodicals from the 1850s, nineteenth-century books, music, legal documents, memoirs by white and black southerners as well as slave narratives. Sample Syllabus Nicole Etcheson's ,Origins of the Civil War,' History Compass, 3/1 (2005), doi:10.1111/j.1478-0542.2005.00166.x can be used as a reading in any Civil War course. [source]

    Pieces On Our Craft: Transatlantic Relations in the Shadow of September 11

    Karen Donfried
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Western Europe, Postmodernity, and the Shadow of the French Revolution: A Response to Soper and Robbins

    Massimo Introvigne
    First page of article [source]

    9.,Human Rights: Historical Learning in the Shadow of Violence

    Article first published online: 18 FEB 200, Richard T. Peterson
    This paper emphasizes the historical dimension of human rights understood as a social ethic. Rather than timeless principles, human rights and the universality proper to them emerge in a process of suffering, conflict, political assertion, and institutional change. We can understand them as historical yet also universal by seeing that human rights arise in processes of social learning that take place in an increasingly globalized world. Such learning often has advanced in the face of dramatic violence, for example, the bombing of Hiroshima. But the demands on a global social ethic today are not only a matter of responding to threats and acts of dramatic violence in isolation. Attention to the example of Hiroshima suggests that the problem of violence is bound up with other questions about the regulation of emerging technical powers in a context of inequality and social conflict. To what extent can an ethic centered on human rights provide an ethics that can inform effective responses to these problems? To consider the promise of human rights, we look more closely at the kind of social learning they involve and explore in particular the role of social movements in forging new identities and reciprocities along with normative claims proper to a global public sphere (the anti-apartheid movement provides an example). We go on to see that these political experiences can inform interpretations of historical experience that can inform a widened sense of historical possibilities, both those missed in the past and those that confront us today. While this argument may thicken our sense of the promise of a human rights ethic, it remains speculative, not least because of the limited effectiveness of these norms in practice today. We close with the suggestion that nonetheless a coherent ethical response is possible, one that in the wealthy parts of the globe might take the form of an ethic of democratic responsibility. This would both represent a distinctive kind of learning and perhaps contribute to a wider advance of human rights. [source]

    Aestheticized Politics,1 or the Long Shadow of Ernst Jünger's "Old Testament?"

    ORBIS LITERARUM, Issue 1 2000
    Karlheinz Hasselbach
    In his "Old Testament," inasmuch as its legacy crystallizes in the essay The Worker (1932), Jünger conceives of an anti-bourgeois, technological society whose signature is the rule of soldier cum technocrat. Without renouncing its theories, the author appears to reverse himself in his subsequent writings, notably in the fictitious works On the Marble Cliffs (1939) and Heliopolis (1949). However, the aestheticism of the essay also informs his later fiction, both casting doubt on the nature of the reversal and handicapping a proper appreciation of the author's politics. It will be argued that, while Jünger's aesthetic perception of reality has evolved intact from his "Old Testament," there is sufficient evidence in both his writing and conduct to contradict the captivating notion that aestheticized politics equals fascism. [source]

    In No One's Shadow: British Politics in the Age of Anne and the Writing of the History of the House of Commons

    The publication in 1967 of Geoffrey Holmes's masterpiece, British Politics in the Age of Anne, effectively demolished the interpretation of the ,political structure' of early 18th-century England that had been advanced by the American historian R.R. Walcott as a conscious imitation of Sir Lewis Namier. But to understand the significance of Holmes's work solely in an anti-Namierite context is misleading. For one thing, his book only completed a process of reaction against Walcott's work that was already under way in unpublished theses and scholarly articles (some by Holmes himself). Second, Holmes's approach was not simplistically anti-Namierist, as some (though not all) of Namier's followers recognized. Indeed, he was strongly sympathetic to the biographical approach, while acknowledging its limitations. The significance of Holmes's book to the study of the house of commons 1702,14 (and of the unpublished study of ,the Great Ministry' of 1710,14 to which it had originally been intended as a long introduction), was in fact much broader than the restoration of party divisions as central to political conflict. It was the re-creation of a political world, not merely the delineations of political allegiances, that made British Politics in the Age of Anne such a landmark in writing on this period. [source]

    Networking in the Shadow of Hierarchy: Public Policy, the Administrative Presidency, and the Neoadministrative State

    This article argues that developments associated with governance reforms in the United States fundamentally have altered the administrative state and pose new and formidable challenges for the administrative presidency. Existing literature on the administrative presidency is limited in its ability to help conceptualize these changes, to understand the challenges that this "neoadministrative state" poses for presidents and political appointees, and to discern if and how they are coping or can cope with them. A review of the burgeoning and multidisciplinary management literature on executive leadership in the neoadministrative state suggests that presidents and scholars must reconceptualize the administrative presidency. They will have to rethink the strategy's ends (what presidents need to accomplish to advance their agendas), its focus (what its tools are and how to apply them), and its locus (where these tools are applied). To inform this effort, a second generation of research on the administrative presidency is needed. [source]

    Beyond a Shadow of Doubt: Assessing the Psycho-logical Impact of Predictive Genetic Testing for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2.

    PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 6 2002
    Edited by Grosfield, University Medical Center, Utrecht
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Bargaining in the Shadow of War: When Is a Peaceful Resolution Most Likely?

    Donald Wittman
    This article derives the optimal bargaining strategies of the belligerents when each side has private but incomplete information about the expected outcome of a war, should it take place. I show that the aggressor's demand curve can be below the defender's offer curve, that wars are possible even when both sides are jointly pessimistic, and that the relative cost of a war can radically alter the types of disputes that end in war. A simple diagram provides the intuition for most of the major propositions. [source]

    Family, Gender, and Society in 1950s American Fiction of Nuclear Apocalypse: Shadow on the Hearth, Tomorrow!, The Last Day, and Alas, Babylon

    Richard A. Schwartz
    First page of article [source]

    In the Shadow of 9/11: Health Care Reform in the 2004 Presidential Election

    Lawrence R. Jacobs
    First page of article [source]

    Hermann von Helmholtz: A Giant of Science Who Cast His Shadow on Otolaryngology,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 6 2001
    Edward L. Applebaum MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Identification of polymorphisms in the ovine Shadow of prion protein (SPRN) gene and assessment of their effect on promoter activity and susceptibility for classical scrapie

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 2 2010
    E. Lampo
    Summary Shadow of prion protein (SPRN) is an interesting candidate gene thought to be involved in prion pathogenesis. In humans, an association has already been discovered between mutations in SPRN and the incidence of variant and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. However, in sheep, the effect of mutations in SPRN is largely unknown. Therefore, we analysed the presence of mutations in the entire ovine SPRN gene, their association with scrapie susceptibility and their effect on SPRN promoter activity. In total, 26 mutations were found: seven in the promoter region, four in intron 1, seven in the coding sequence and eight in the 3, untranslated region. The mutations detected in the coding sequence and the promoter region were subsequently analysed in more detail. In the coding sequence, a polymorphism causing a deletion of two alanines was found to be associated with susceptibility for classical scrapie in sheep. Furthermore, a functional analysis of deletion constructs of the ovine SPRN promoter revealed that the region 464 to 230 bp upstream of exon 1 (containing a putative AP-2 and putative Sp1 binding sites) is of functional importance for SPRN transcription. Six mutations in the SPRN promoter were also found to alter the promoter activity in vitro. However, no association between any of these promoter mutations and susceptibility for classical scrapie was found. [source]

    Book Review: In Darwin's Shadow: The life and science of Alfred Russel Wallace

    BIOESSAYS, Issue 8 2003
    David L. Hull
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Social Function of Carlos Fuentes: A Critical Intellectual or in the ,Shadow of the State'?

    Adam David Morton
    This article seeks to raise meaningful questions about the role, or wider social function, of the intellectual within state,civil society relations in Latin America characterised by conditions of socio,economic modernisation. It does so by pursuing such questions through a detailed examination of the social function of Carlos Fuentes as an intellectual in Mexico. Through a focus on the social function of Carlos Fuentes, it is possible to distinguish the role intellectual activity can play in the construction and contestation of hegemony in Mexico. Most crucially, the article prompts consideration of the social basis of hegemony and the agency of intellectuals organically tied to particular social forces functioning through state,civil society relations in the struggle over hegemony. Put differently, it is possible to grant due regard to the mixture of critical opposition and accommodation that has often confronted the intellectual within Latin America. [source]

    Interactive shadowing for 2D Anime

    Eiji Sugisaki
    Abstract In this paper, we propose an instant shadow generation technique for 2D animation, especially Japanese Anime. In traditional 2D Anime production, the entire animation including shadows is drawn by hand so that it takes long time to complete. Shadows play an important role in the creation of symbolic visual effects. However shadows are not always drawn due to time constraints and lack of animators especially when the production schedule is tight. To solve this problem, we develop an easy shadowing approach that enables animators to easily create a layer of shadow and its animation based on the character's shapes. Our approach is both instant and intuitive. The only inputs required are character or object shapes in input animation sequence with alpha value generally used in the Anime production pipeline. First, shadows are automatically rendered on a virtual plane by using a Shadow Map1 based on these inputs. Then the rendered shadows can be edited by simple operations and simplified by the Gaussian Filter. Several special effects such as blurring can be applied to the rendered shadow at the same time. Compared to existing approaches, ours is more efficient and effective to handle automatic shadowing in real-time. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Occlusion Textures for Plausible Soft Shadows,

    E. Eisemann
    Abstract This paper presents a new approach to compute plausible soft shadows for complex dynamic scenes and rectangular light sources. We estimate the occlusion at each point of the scene using prefiltered occlusion textures, which dynamically approximate the scene geometry. The algorithm is fast and its performance independent of the light's size. Being image-based, it is mostly independent of the scene complexity and type. No a priori information is needed, and there is no caster/receiver separation. This makes the method appealing and easy to use. [source]

    Islam In Our Times: A Determined Moslem Moderate Emerges from the Shadows

    CROSSCURRENTS, Issue 2 2008
    Zeina M. Barakat

    From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth-Century America by Vicki L. Ruiz The Woman in the Zoot Suit: Gender, Nationalism, and the Cultural Politics of Memory by Catherine S. Ramírez

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 2 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Urban Shadows: Materiality, the ,Southern City' and Urban Theory

    Colin McFarlane
    We may be witnessing a ,Southern turn' in urban studies, but the implications for urban theory are only beginning to be worked through. In this article, I argue the need for urbanists to engage with a variety of ,shadows' on the edges of urban theory. The article engages with literature that theorises the interactions between urban materiality and social change, from community development literature to more expansive sociomaterial theorisations of the urban fabric. I invoke an expansive conception of the relations between the urban fabric and social change, and draw on a variety of examples through which infrastructures come to matter politically in the creative destruction of capitalist redevelopment. The article ends with consideration of how comparison might be conceived as a strategy of indirect and uncertain learning that entails the possibility of transformation in a predominantly Euro-American-orientated urban theory. [source]

    Treatment-Refractory Chronic Migraine: The Ogre Emerges from the Shadows

    HEADACHE, Issue 4 2009
    John F. Rothrock MD Editor-in-Chief
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Shadow removal from image of stained glass windows

    Shanmugalingam Suganthan
    Abstract Shadows may be formed on stained glass windows by structural bars supporting the leaded panels, or by external protective wire grilles, or by masonry, such as mullions or buttresses, or external objects, such as trees. The eye tends to "discount" such shadow formations when viewing the actual windows even though in the photographic images they are very clearly visible. This article introduces a method to remove shadow effects on stained-glass windows; the observed image, as captured by the camera, may be modeled mathematically as a combination of a "true stained glass image" and a "grille/bar image." A mixture model is derived, based on a theoretical model of image formation, leading to a conjectured relationship between "shadow" pixels and the neighboring "nonshadow" pixels. The resulting mixture model assumes a multiplicative relationship. If this mixture can be separated into its original components, then it should be possible to remove the unwanted shadow component from the captured image to produce the desired image of the stained glass without the shadows. The digital modeling techniques enable the shadows to be characterized and removed with a reasonable degree of success. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Imaging Syst Technol, 20, 223,226, 2010. [source]

    Out of the Shadows.

    Confronting America's Mental Illness Crisis
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    In the Shadows of Gompers: Lucy Robins and the Politics of Amnesty, 1918,1922

    PEACE & CHANGE, Issue 1 2000
    Kathleen Kennedy
    This essay examines Lucy Robins's contributions to the amnesty movement. A protégé of Emma Goldman, Robins undertook her amnesty campaign at Goldman's behest. Frustrated with what she defined as the left's lack of "constructive" solutions, Robins shifted her political alliances and joined the American Federation of Labor. Robins's choice to pursue amnesty within the A.F. of L., the essay argues, sheds important light on the early history of the civil liberties movement and its relationship to labor politics. [source]

    Shadows to Walk: Ursula Le Guin's Transgressions in Utopia

    William Marcellino
    First page of article [source]