Severe Weight Loss (severe + weight_loss)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Serum tumour necrosis factor-, levels in cancer patients are discontinuous and correlate with weight loss

M. Bossola
Tumour necrosis factor-, (TNF) has been regarded as a potential mediator of cancer cachexia. Assessment of TNF circulating levels in cancer patients and their correlation with weight loss has led to controversial results. We measured TNF circulating levels in 28 patients with gastrointestinal cancer and 29 controls with benign gastrointestinal diseases at different times (08.00 h, 14.00 h, 20.00 h) before operation. TNF activity was not detected in any of controls at any times. In cancer patients, TNF circulating levels were detectable in 18 cases (64·3%) and appeared to be discontinuous. TNF levels above the limit of detection were present in 15 patients (53·6%) at 08.00 h, in 14 (50%) at 014.00 h and in nine (32·1%) at 20.00 h. Mean TNF levels were 14·3 ± 4 pg mL,1 at 08.00 h, 16·7 ± 4·6 pg mL,1 at 14.00 h (P = 0·05) and 18·5 ± 10·2 pg mL,1 at 20.00 h (P < 0·05 vs. 08.00 h and 14.00 h). According to Spearman's analysis, the sum of TNF concentrations at the three times significantly correlated with the severity of weight loss (Spearman's correlation coefficient =,,0·420; P = 0·026). TNF concentrations were consistently and significantly higher in patients with severe weight loss than in those with moderate or light weight loss at 08.00 h (26·3 ± 8·3, 8·9 ± 4·2, 3·8 ± 2·1, respectively; P = 0·04 at one-way anova). TNF levels were higher in anorectic than in nonanorectic patients at any hour, but the differences were not statistically significant. The present study demonstrates that TNF is intermittently or discontinuously detectable in patients with gastrointestinal cancer and that its levels correlate with the severity of weight loss. [source]

Suppression of hepatocellular carcinoma by transplantation of ex-vivo immune-modulated NKT lymphocytes

Maya Margalit
Abstract NKT cells are a regulatory subset of T lymphocytes with immune modulatory effects and an important role in anti-tumor immunity. The feasibility of "ex-vivo education" of NKT cells has recently been demonstrated. To evaluate the anti-tumor effect of ex-vivo immune-modulated NKT lymphocytes in a murine model of hepatocellular carcinoma. Athymic Balb/C mice were sublethally irradiated and transplanted with human Hep3B HCC. NKT cells prepared from immunocompetent Balb/C mice were pulsed ex vivo with HCC-derived antigens (Group A), Hep3B cells (group B) or BSA (group C), and adoptively transferred into HCC harboring mice (1 × 06 NKT cells per mouse). Group D mice did not undergo NKT cell transplantation. Group E mice were transplanted with 1 × 106 NKT cells from HBV-immunized donors. Mice were followed for tumor size and weight. To determine the mechanism of the anti-tumor effect, intrasplenic lymphocyte populations were analyzed by FACS for NKT, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subpopulations; STAT 1, 4 and 6 expression in splenocytes was assessed by Western blot, and serum cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. Adoptive transfer of NKT cells pulsed with HCC-derived antigens (group A) and NKT cells from immunized donors (group E) resulted in complete disappearance of tumors within 4 weeks and attenuated weight loss (6.5% and 7% in groups A and E, respectively). In contrast, mice in groups B, C, and D developed large, necrotic tumors and severe weight loss (21%, 17% and 23% weight loss in groups B, C, and D, respectively). NKT/CD4 and CD8/CD4 ratios were significantly increased in groups A and E (12.3 and 17.6 in groups A and D, respectively, compared to 6.4, 4.8 and 5.6 in groups B, C and D, respectively, for the NKT/CD4 ratio; 41 and 19.8 in groups A and E, respectively, compared to 6.5, 11.8 and 3.2 in groups B, C, and D, respectively, for the CD8/CD4 ratio). Expression of the transcription factor STAT4 was evident in group A, but not in groups B-D. Serum IFN,, IL12 and IL4 levels were increased in groups A and E. Adoptive transfer of NKT lymphocytes exposed ex vivo by HCC-derived antigens loaded on dendritic cells and NKT cells from immunized donors led to suppression of HCC in mice. NKT-mediated anti-tumor activity was associated increased NKT and CD8+ T lymphocyte numbers, increased expression of STAT4, a marker for IL-12 activity and elevated serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IFN, and IL12, and of IL4. Ex-vivo modulation of NKT lymphocytes holds promise as a novel mode of immune therapy for HCC. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Early severe weight loss in newborns after discharge from regular nurseries

E Tjora
Abstract Aims:, To study incidence and risk factors of early neonatal dehydration in a Norwegian population based cohort. Methods:, Term neonates admitted to a paediatric department during 2002,2008 with a weight loss , 12% within three weeks of age were identified retrospectively through review of medical records. For each patient a sex-matched control group of two full-term infants was selected to assess risk factors for dehydration. Results:, A total of 38 of 37 321 infants (1.0,) were admitted at a median age of 6 (interquartile range 5,12) days, and the admission rate increased during the study period (p for trend = 0.008). Simultaneously, mean nursery stay decreased from 3.5 to 2.7 days (p = 0.022). Mean weight loss was 15.0% of birth weight and 17 of 29 (58.6%) had serum sodium above 145 mmol/L. The only significant difference between patients and controls was that mothers of patients were older (32.3 ± 5.0 vs. 29.4 ± 5.4 years, p = 0.005). Conclusion:, Short nursery stay may be a risk factor for dehydration in newborn infants. [source]

Cytomegalovirus mononucleosis as a cause of prolonged fever and prominent weight loss in immunocompetent adults

J. Rodríguez-Baño
Abstract Four immunocompetent adults presented with protracted fever lasting >,6 weeks and severe weight loss, associated with primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Each patient had spleen enlargement, lymphocytosis and hypertriglyceridaemia, but recovered spontaneously. A further 20 immunocompetent patients with primary CMV infection were also reviewed, and all presented the usual clinical picture of CMV mononucleosis. It was concluded that CMV mononucleosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with prolonged fever and weight loss if lymphocytosis is present. [source]