Severe Stages (severe + stage)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cost-effectiveness analysis in glaucoma: what drives utility?

Results from a pilot study in Sweden
Abstract. Purpose:,To investigate the effect of different levels of visual field defect in glaucoma on utilities and to test if utilities could be assessed using a general questionnaire such as the EQ-5D. Methods:,A cross-sectional study in 199 patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma grouped into 5 severity stages according to visual field defects was performed in 4 specialized ophthalmic centres. Descriptive analysis was performed for the sample and by stage, and the effect of vision loss on utility was investigated with multiple step-wise regression analysis. Results:,The mean age of the sample was 70 and the mean MD in the worse eye was ,13.1 dB (SD 10.2). Visual acuity (VA) was 0.63 and 0.87 in the worse and better eye, respectively, and the mean utility was 0.80 (SD 0.23). Utility decreased with increasing glaucomatous damage, ranging from 0.84 for mild disease to 0.72 for severe damage (MD ,2.5 to ,28.1), but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant when controlling for co-morbidity, except for the most severe stage (p < 0.01). In multiple regression analysis, visual field in the better eye was significantly correlated with utility, and there was an indirect correlation between visual field in the worse eye and utility: the effect of total VA on utility was significant, and MD in the worse eye was correlated with total VA. Conclusions:,Utility is strongly correlated with overall vision. Our results suggest a relationship between glaucomatous damage and utility, and patients with severe damage have a significantly lower utility. However, this should be further investigated in larger samples that include more patients with moderate-severe bilateral damage. [source]

Ginkgo biloba and donepezil: a comparison in the treatment of Alzheimer's dementia in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study

M. Mazza
The Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 seems to produce neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases of multifactorial origin. There is still debate about the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 compared with second-generation cholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia. Our aim is to assess the efficacy of the Ginkgo biloba special extract E.S. in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type in slowing down the disease's degenerative progression and the patients' cognitive impairment compared with donepezil and placebo. The trial was designed as a 24-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Patients aged 50,80 years, suffering from mild to moderate dementia, were allocated into one of the three treatments: Ginkgo biloba (160 mg daily dose), donepezil (5 mg daily dose), or placebo group. The degree of severity of dementia was assessed by the Syndrom Kurz test and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Clinical Global Impression score was recorded to assess the change in the patients' conditions and the therapeutic efficacy of tested medications. Our results confirm the clinical efficacy of Ginkgo biloba E.S. (Flavogin) in the dementia of the Alzheimer type, comparable with donepezil clinical efficacy. There are few published trials that have directly compared a cholinesterase inhibitor with Ginkgo for dementia. This study directly compares a cholinesterase inhibitor with Ginkgo biloba for dementia of the Alzheimer type and could be a valid contribution in this debate. Our study suggests that there is no evidence of relevant differences in the efficacy of EGb 761 and donepezil in the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia, so the use of both substances can be justified. In addition, this study contributes to establish the efficacy and tolerability of the Ginkgo biloba special extract E.S. in the dementia of the Alzheimer type with special respect to moderately severe stages. [source]

Clinical features and assessment of severe dementia.

A review
Sound understanding of the dementia syndrome requires adequate acquaintance with its entire spectrum, from the lightest to the most advanced stages. Most studies of dementia deal with light to moderate stages of the condition, while relatively little attention has been paid to its most severe stages. This review presents a clinical description of patients with severe dementia and of the tests currently available to evaluate their cognitive, behavioural, and functional status. Available instruments such as the Hierarchic Dementia Scale or the Severe Impairment Battery now allow quantification of the cognitive and behavioural status of patients with severe dementia. Experience with severe dementia shows that, far from being in a `vegetative state', as is commonly thought, late-stage patients are in fact quite different from one another and in most cases continue to have an interaction with their environment. This ability to better define the characteristics of patients with severe dementia provides the basis for correlations between clinical data and data derived from neuroimaging, neurochemistry, or neuropathology. It also sets the stage for possible therapeutic trials involving these patients. [source]

Calcium and Phosphorus Homeostasis in Dogs with Spontaneous Chronic Kidney Disease at Different Stages of Severity

O. Cortadellas
Background: Studies in dogs with experimental chronic kidney disease (CKD) have demonstrated that abnormalities of calcium-phosphorus (Ca-P) homeostasis occur frequently and have a negative effect on kidney function and survival. However, the prevalence of these alterations in dogs with naturally occurring CKD at different stages of severity has not yet been investigated. Hypothesis: Abnormalities of Ca-P metabolism occur early in the course of CKD with an increased prevalence in more severe stages. Animals: Fifty-four dogs with CKD and 22 healthy dogs. Methods: Blood and urine samples were obtained for a CBC, biochemistry, determination of parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitriol, and ionized calcium concentrations and urinalysis. Based on urine protein/creatinine ratio and serum creatinine concentration, dogs were grouped according to the IRIS classification for CKD. Results: Hyperparathyroidism (HPTH) (PTH , 48 pg/mL) was diagnosed in 41 (75.9%) dogs with CKD. Its prevalence increased from 36.4% (stage 1) to 100% (stage 4). Hyperphosphatemia (P > 5.5 mg/dL) was present in 37 (68.5%) dogs; increasing in prevalence from 18% (stage 1) to 100% (stage 4). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that serum phosphorus concentration in the 4.5,5.5 mg/dL range correctly identified the presence of HPTH in most dogs. Calcitriol concentration progressively decreased in dogs with CKD and differences became statistically significant by stage 3. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance: HPTH and hyperphosphatemia occur frequently in dogs with naturally occurring CKD, even at early stages of CKD in some dogs. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring these parameters early in the course of CKD. [source]