Severe Shock (severe + shock)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Pharmacological utility of melatonin in the treatment of septic shock: experimental and clinical evidence

Germaine Escames
Sepsis is a major cause of mortality in critically ill patients and develops as a result of the host response to infection. In recent years, important advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of sepsis. Mitochondria play a central role in the intracellular events associated with inflammation and septic shock. One of the current hypotheses for the molecular mechanisms of sepsis is that the enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production by mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) leads to excessive peroxynitrite (ONOO,) production and protein nitration, impairing mitochondrial function. Despite the advances in understanding of its pathophysiology, therapy for septic shock remains largely symptomatic and supportive. Melatonin has well documented protective effects against the symptoms of severe sepsis/shock in both animals and in humans; its use for this condition significantly improves survival. Melatonin administration counteracts mtNOS induction and respiratory chain failure, restores cellular and mitochondrial redox status, and reduces proinflammatory cytokines. Melatonin clearly prevents multiple organ failure, circulatory failure, and mitochondrial damage in experimental sepsis, and reduces lipid peroxidation, indices of inflammation and mortality in septic human newborns. Considering these effects of melatonin and its virtual absence of toxicity, the use of melatonin (along with conventional therapy) to preserve mitochondrial bioenergetics as well as to limit inflammatory responses and oxidative damage should be seriously considered as a treatment option in both septic newborn and adult patients. This review summarizes the data that provides a rationale for using melatonin in septic shock patients. [source]

Experience with over 1000 Implanted Ventricular Assist Devices

Evgenij V. Potapov M.D.
We present our experience since 1987. Subjects and Methods: Between July 1987 and December 2006, 1026 VADs were implanted in 970 patients. Most of them were men (81.9%). The indications were: cardiomyopathy (n = 708), postcardiotomy heart failure (n = 173), acute myocardial infarction (n = 36), acute graft failure (n = 45), a VAD problem (n = 6), and others (n = 2). Mean age was 46.1 (range 3 days to 78) years. In 50.5% of the patients the VAD implanted was left ventricular, in 47.9% biventricular, and in 1.5% right ventricular. There were 14 different types of VAD. A total artificial heart was implanted in 14 patients. Results: Survival analysis showed higher early mortality (p < 0.05) in the postcardiotomy group (50.9%) than in patients with preoperative profound cardiogenic shock (31.1%) and patients with preoperative end-stage heart failure without severe shock (28.9%). A total of 270 patients were successfully bridged to heart transplantation (HTx). There were no significant differences in long-term survival after HTx among patients with and without previous VAD. In 76 patients the device could be explanted after myocardial recovery. In 72 patients the aim of implantation was permanent support. During the study period 114 patients were discharged home. Currently, 54 patients are on a device. Conclusions: VAD implantation may lead to recovery from secondary organ failure. Patients should be considered for VAD implantation before profound, possibly irreversible, cardiogenic shock occurs. In patients with postcardiotomy heart failure, a more efficient algorithm should be developed to improve survival. With increased experience, more VAD patients can participate in out-patient programs. [source]

Autopsy case of microscopic polyangiitis with crescentic glomerulonephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis

Satoshi Iwasa
Herein is reported the case of an 84-year-old woman who initially manifested rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis following a urinary tract infection. Laboratory findings showed a high titer of myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA). Treatment with high-dose i.v. steroids resulted in clinical recovery and an undetectable MPO-ANCA titer. Two months later the patient was readmitted in a state of severe shock. Laboratory examination showed the deterioration of renal function, leukocytosis, and coagulation abnormalities consistent with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The patient died 12 days later. The post-mortem examination revealed necrotizing pancreatitis due to acute-stage vasculitis typified by fibrinoid necrosis of the arterioles and venules, and crescentic glomerulonephritis with healed-stage vasculitis. In the lungs, capillaritis with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage was not evident, but arteriolitis and phlebitis were occasionally seen. This case represents an unusual complication of necrotizing pancreatitis in the setting of microscopic polyangiitis. Thus, it is important to consider reactivation independent of the titer of ANCA in the course of the disease. [source]

Successful use of pharyngeal pulse oximetry with the oropharyngeal airway in severely shocked patients

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 7 2007
H. Yu
Summary We describe the successful use of pharyngeal oximetry with the oropharyngeal airway in two patients with severe shock in whom finger pulse oximetry failed. One patient was a 50-year-old man with septic shock and the other a 32-year-old woman with haemorrhagic shock. In both patients, an oropharyngeal airway with a paediatric pulse oximeter probe was inserted adjacent to the tracheal tube. A good waveform was obtained and oxygen saturation was 0,2% lower than arterial samples whereas finger pulse oximetry saturation was unobtainable or much lower than arterial oxygen saturation. Pharyngeal oxygen saturation with the oropharyngeal airway is feasible and more accurate than finger oximetry in low perfusion states. [source]