Severe Pancreatitis (severe + pancreatitis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Closed lesser sac lavage in the management of pancreatic necrosis

Abstract Background and Aim:, Surgery for pancreatic necrosis complicating acute severe pancreatitis carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the efficacy of necrosectomy and closed lesser sac lavage as a method of management of pancreatic necrosis. Methods:, Fifty-eight patients with pancreatic necrosis who underwent pancreatic necrosectomy consecutively in a tertiary care referral center were retrospectively analyzed. The technique of necrosectomy and postoperative lavage is described in detail. Details regarding the patient profile, disease severity, surgical details, postoperative morbidity, repeat interventions and the mortality are presented. Results:, Of the 58 patients, irrigation was able to be started in 48. Lavage was able to be continued until disease resolution or death in all but 10 patients. Post-operative locoregional complications were residual abscesses in 10, bleeding in eight, enteric fistulae in 12 and pancreatic fistulae in nine. Six patients needed postoperative percutaneous procedures, while 16 patients needed repeat surgery. Seventeen patients died (29%), all of whom had multiple organ failure involving more than two organs, while 11 developed sepsis. Conclusion:, Pancreatic necrosectomy and postoperative closed lesser sac lavage is an effective method of managing these patients, with acceptable morbidity, re-operation rates and mortality. [source]

Management of perioperative hypertensive urgencies with parenteral medications,

Kartikya Ahuja MD
Abstract BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease such as myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. This risk is well known to extend into the perioperative period. Although most perioperative hypertension can be managed with the patient's outpatient regimen, there are situations in which oral medications cannot be administered and parenteral medications become necessary. They include postoperative nil per os status, severe pancreatitis, and mechanical ventilation. This article reviews the management of perioperative hypertensive urgency with parenteral medications. METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted by cross-referencing the terms "perioperative hypertension," "hypertensive urgency," "hypertensive emergency," "parenteral anti-hypertensive," and "medication." The search was limited to English-language articles published between 1970 and 2008. Subsequent PubMed searches were performed to clarify data from the initial search. RESULTS: As patients with hypertensive urgency are not at great risk for target-organ damage (TOD), continuous infusions that require intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring and intraarterial catheters seem to be unnecessary and a possible misuse of resources. CONCLUSIONS: When oral therapy cannot be administered, patients with hypertensive urgency can have their blood pressure (BP) reduced with hydralazine, enalaprilat, metoprolol, or labetalol. Due to the scarcity of comparative trials looking at clinically significant outcomes, the medication should be chosen based on comorbidity, efficacy, toxicity, and cost. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2010;5:E11,E16. 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine. [source]

Retrospective Study: Surgical intervention in the management of severe acute pancreatitis in cats: 8 cases (2003,2007)

Tolina T. Son DVM
Abstract Objective , To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes of cats undergoing surgical intervention in the course of treatment for severe acute pancreatitis. Design , Retrospective observational study from 2003 to 2007 with a median follow-up period of 2.2 years (range 11 d,5.4 y) postoperatively. Setting , Private referral veterinary center. Animals , Eight cats. Interventions , None. Measurements and Main Results , Quantitative data included preoperative physical and clinicopathologic values. Qualitative parameters included preoperative ultrasonographic interpretation, perioperative and intraoperative feeding tube placement, presence of free abdominal fluid, intraoperative closed suction abdominal drain placement, postoperative complications, microbiological culture, and histopathology. Common presenting clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. Leukocytosis and hyponatremia were present in 5 of 8 cats. Hypokalemia, increased total bilirubin, and hyperglycemia were present in 6 of 8 cats. Elevated alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transferase were present in all cats. Surgery for extrahepatic biliary obstruction was performed in 6 cats, pancreatic abscess in 3 cats, and pancreatic necrosis in 1 cat. Six of the 8 cats survived. Five of the 6 cats that underwent surgery for extrahepatic biliary obstruction and 1 cat that underwent pancreatic necrosectomy survived. All 5 of the cats with extrahepatic biliary obstruction secondary to pancreatitis survived. The 2 nonsurvivors included a cat with a pancreatic abscess and a cat with severe pancreatitis and extrahepatic biliary obstruction secondary to a mass at the gastroduodenal junction. Postoperative complications included progression of diabetes mellitus, septic peritonitis, local gastrostomy tube stoma inflammation, local gastrostomy tube stoma infection, and mild dermal suture reaction. Conclusion , Cats with severe acute pancreatitis and concomitant extrahepatic biliary obstruction, pancreatic necrosis, or pancreatic abscesses may benefit from surgical intervention. Cats with extrahepatic biliary obstruction secondary to severe acute pancreatitis may have a good prognosis. [source]

Is procalcitonin a reliable marker for the diagnosis of infected pancreatic necrosis?

Nadir Yonetci
Background: Infected necrosis in acute pancreatitis is the main factor in determining the prognosis of the disease. Early and accurate diagnosis of infected pancreatic necrosis might decrease mortality. The aim of the present study is to identify a reliable marker for the onset infection in three different experimentally induced pancreatitis models. Methods: Ninety female Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into nine groups. In three different experimental models, including cerulein induced acute oedematous pancreatitis (AEP), sterile pancreatic necrosis due to taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis (SPN) and infected pancreatic necrosis taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis (IPN). Serum levels of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor a (TNF-,), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), amylase were measured. The degree of pancreatic damage also evaluated pathologically. Results: Procalcitonin levels were increased significantly in AEP, SPN and IPN compared to control groups (P < 0.05). PCT and IL-6 level were the highest in the IPN group (P < 0.05). Serum amylase, CRP, TNF-,, IL-2, and IL-8 levels were similar between IPN and SPN groups (P > 0.05), but higher than in other groups. The results of histological evaluation also correlated with the advent of the disease. Conclusion: Procalcitonin and IL-6 acts as reliable acute phase reactant in an experimental model of AEP, SPN and IPN in the rat. PCT and IL-6 combination might be surrogate marker of infected pancreatic necrosis and should be preferred to other markers assay especially in severe pancreatitis. [source]