Severe Morbidity (severe + morbidity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Trends and determinants of severe morbidity in HIV-infected patients: the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, 2000,2004,

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 8 2007
F Bonnet
Objective The aim of the study was to characterize the causes, trends and determinants of severe morbidity in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients between 2000 and 2004. Method Severe morbid events were defined as medical events associated with hospitalization or death. Epidemiological and biological data were recorded at the time of the morbid event. Trends were estimated using Poisson regression. Results Among 3863 individuals followed between 2000 and 2004, 1186 experienced one or more severe events, resulting in 1854 hospitalizations or deaths. The severe events recorded included bacterial infections (21%), AIDS events (20%), psychiatric events (10%), cardiovascular events (9%), digestive events including cirrhosis (7%), viral infections (6%) and non-AIDS cancers (5%). Between 2000 and 2004, the incidence rate of AIDS events decreased from 60 to 20 per 1000 person-years, that of bacterial infections decreased from 45 to 24 per 1000 person-years, and that of psychiatric events decreased from 26 to 14 per 1000 person-years (all P<0.01), whereas the incidences of cardiovascular events and of non-AIDS cancers remained stable at 14 and 10 per 1000 person-years, on average, respectively. Conclusion Severe morbidity has shifted from AIDS-related to non-AIDS-related events during the course of HIV infection in developed countries. Limiting endpoints to AIDS events and death is insufficient to describe HIV disease progression in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. [source]


Factors affecting vocabulary acquisition at age 2 in children born between 23 and 28 weeks' gestation

DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE & CHILD NEUROLOGY, Issue 8 2007
Louise Marston MSc
Language development is often slower in preterm children compared with their term peers. We investigated factors associated with vocabulary acquisition at 2 years in a cohort of children born at 28 weeks' gestation or less. For children entered into the United Kingdom Oscillation Study, language development was evaluated by using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories score, completed by parents as part of a developmental questionnaire. The effect of demographic, neonatal, socioeconomic factors, growth, and disability were investigated using multifactorial random effects modelling. Questionnaires were returned by 288 participants (148 males, 140 females). The mean number of words vocalized was 42 (SD 29). Multifactorial analysis showed only four factors were significantly associated with vocabulary acquisition. These were: (1) level of disability (mean words: no disability, 45; other disability, 38; severe disability, 30 [severe disability is defined as at least one extreme response in one of the following clinical domains: neuromotor, vision, hearing, communication, or other physical disabilities]; 95% confidence interval [CI] for the difference between no and severe disability 7- 23); (2) sex (39 males, 44 females; 95% CI 0.4-11); (3) length of hospital stay (lower quartile, 47; upper quartile, 38; 95% CI -12 to -4); and (4) weight SD score at 12 months (lower quartile, 39; upper quartile, 44; 95% CI 1,9). There was no significant association between gestational age and vocabulary after multifactorial analysis. There was no significant effect of any socioeconomic factor on vocabulary acquisition. We conclude that clinical factors, particularly indicators of severe morbidity, dominate the correlates of vocabulary acquisition at age 2 in children born very preterm. [source]


Psychiatric morbidity among patients with cancer of the esophagus or the gastro-esophageal junction: a prospective, longitudinal evaluation

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 6 2007
H. Bergquist
SUMMARY., Cancer of the esophagus is often diagnosed at a late stage and is related to severe morbidity and a low 5-year survival rate. Previous studies have reported low health-related quality of life and high suicide rates for these patients. The occurrence of psychiatric morbidity and thus the potential need for psychological support may vary over time after diagnosis. This has not been adequately studied in patients with newly diagnosed cancer of the esophagus or gastro-esophageal junction. The present study therefore aimed to prospectively evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in 94 consecutive patients (median age 66, range 45,88 years) with all stages of disease. Psychiatric morbidity was evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire at inclusion and 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months later. At inclusion, 42% of the patients had HADS scores indicating possible or probable anxiety disorder and/or depression. At all follow-ups except at 3 months, proportions of patients with possible/probable anxiety disorder were significantly lower than at inclusion. Among patients with a duration of tumor-specific symptoms exceeding 6 months pre-diagnosis, larger proportions of patients with a possible/probable anxiety disorder were found at the 1- and 6-month follow ups. The prevalence of possible/probable depression was greater among patients treated with a palliative intent than among those with a curative intent at inclusion. Patients who died during the study period scored worse for depression compared to the survivors. Apart from this, the proportion of patients with possible/probable psychiatric morbidity (anxiety and/or depression) was relatively stable over time and was unrelated to patient characteristics or clinical background, including the treatment regime. In conclusion, psychiatric morbidity is common among esophageal cancer patients, both at inclusion and over time, regardless of the cancer therapy given. The findings stress the importance of monitoring the patients' mental health and of offering adequate psychological care when needed. [source]


Trends and determinants of severe morbidity in HIV-infected patients: the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, 2000,2004,

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 8 2007
F Bonnet
Objective The aim of the study was to characterize the causes, trends and determinants of severe morbidity in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients between 2000 and 2004. Method Severe morbid events were defined as medical events associated with hospitalization or death. Epidemiological and biological data were recorded at the time of the morbid event. Trends were estimated using Poisson regression. Results Among 3863 individuals followed between 2000 and 2004, 1186 experienced one or more severe events, resulting in 1854 hospitalizations or deaths. The severe events recorded included bacterial infections (21%), AIDS events (20%), psychiatric events (10%), cardiovascular events (9%), digestive events including cirrhosis (7%), viral infections (6%) and non-AIDS cancers (5%). Between 2000 and 2004, the incidence rate of AIDS events decreased from 60 to 20 per 1000 person-years, that of bacterial infections decreased from 45 to 24 per 1000 person-years, and that of psychiatric events decreased from 26 to 14 per 1000 person-years (all P<0.01), whereas the incidences of cardiovascular events and of non-AIDS cancers remained stable at 14 and 10 per 1000 person-years, on average, respectively. Conclusion Severe morbidity has shifted from AIDS-related to non-AIDS-related events during the course of HIV infection in developed countries. Limiting endpoints to AIDS events and death is insufficient to describe HIV disease progression in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. [source]


Super giant basal cell carcinoma of the abdominal wall: still possible in the 21st century

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 7 2010
Eelco De Bree MD
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is very common and usually encountered when it is small in size. Giant BCC (i.e. greater than 5 cm in diameter) is quite rare and comprises 0.5 percent of all BCC. Extremely rarely, tumors larger than 20 cm have been reported. Herein, a case with an enormous, vegetating BCC of the abdominal wall, 30 x 20 cm in size, is described. This report demonstrates that such a case can still be observed in the civilized world of the 21st century, which remains profoundly astonishing. A literature survey was performed and revealed only 7 cases with such super giant BCC (i.e. larger than 20 cm in diameter). Generally, this tumor attains these enormous proportions due to neglect on the patient's part, and is usually located at sites covered by clothes. Treatment is mainly surgical and generally curative, resulting also in an improved quality of life. Tumor size of more than 10 cm in diameter is associated with increased risk for metastatic disease, severe morbidity and consequently impaired prognosis. [source]


Distribution patterns of ,- and ,-herpesviruses within Waldeyer's ring organs

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 8 2007
Christoph Berger
Abstract The Waldeyer's ring designates a functional unit of lymphoid tissue within the pharynx including the adenoids and tonsils. To gain insight into distribution patterns of ,- and ,-human herpesviruses (HHVs) and their potential mutual influences at their natural portal of entry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were applied to adenoids and tonsils obtained from 30 children. DNA of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), HHV-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8 was detected in adenoids, tonsils, or both of 24 (80%), 19 (63%), 23 (77%), 23 (77%), and 0 (0%) children, respectively. EBV, CMV, HHV-6, and -7 localized in both adenoids and tonsils from 92%, 37%, 52%, and 70% of children, respectively, with the virus detectable by qPCR. The amount of EBV was 2,10-fold higher than of other HHVs and correlated in autologous organs (P,=,0.01) as did the amount of HHV-7 (P,=,0.002). The amount of CMV correlated with the HHV-6 amount in adenoids (P,=,0.028) and tonsils (P,=,0.007), and with the amount of HHV-7 in adenoids (P,<,0.01). Levels of HHV-6 DNA were lower in adenoids with detectable CMV DNA than in adenoids without detectable CMV DNA (P,=,0.0062). Inversely, CMV and HHV-7 levels were higher in adenoids with than in adenoids without detectable EBV DNA (P,=,0.019 and P,=,0.039, respectively).Thus, ,- and ,-HHV exhibit distinct distribution behaviors in Waldeyer's ring organs and seem to interact. This may be of medical importance in immunocompromised hosts who are likely to reactivate HHVs causing severe morbidity and death. J. Med. Virol. 79: 1147,1152, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Characteristics and management of splenic artery aneurysms in adult living donor liver transplant recipients

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 11 2009
Deok-Bog Moon
Splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs), occurring in 7% to 17% of patients with cirrhosis, often result in catastrophic rupture after liver transplantation. We had experienced 3 cases of ruptured SAAs after adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), and we then performed this study to find risk factors for coexisting SAAs in liver transplant candidates with cirrhosis and to propose ideal approaches for them. Preoperative and postoperative computed tomography angiograms and axial views were reviewed for 310 adult LDLT recipients who had cirrhosis from January 2004 to August 2005. The recorded variables were the preoperative diagnosis, the presence of SAA and its characteristics, the splenic artery (SA) diameter, and the presence and size of portosystemic collaterals. Devastating SAA rupture accompanied by hypovolemic shock occurred on postoperative days 6, 82, and 8, respectively, and it was treated emergently by embolization in cases 1 and 2 and by splenectomy in case 3. Cases 1 and 3 recovered well, but case 2 died of an unrelated cause with a long hospital stay. The incidence of SAA during the study period was 14.2% (44/310), and the size was 16.6 5.7 mm. Most SAAs were single (70.6%, 31/44) and were located in the distal one-third of the SA (82.4%, 36/44). Large portosystemic collaterals demonstrating longstanding severe portal hypertension were significantly correlated with the occurrence of SAAs. Nine patients with SAAs were preventively treated by proximal ligation (n = 4) intraoperatively and by embolization (n = 5) 1 day before or after LDLT. No patient showed severe postembolization syndrome. In conclusion, a careful preoperative evaluation of SAAs by high-resolution 3-dimensional computed tomography in liver transplant candidates, especially in those showing large portosystemic collaterals, is merited. Preventive treatment should be encouraged regardless of the size in order to avoid severe morbidity and mortality related to SAA rupture, and methods such as radiological and surgical interventions need to be individualized according to the location and number of SAAs. Liver Transpl 15:1535,1541, 2009. 2009 AASLD. [source]


Airway management behaviour, experience and knowledge among Danish anaesthesiologists , room for improvement

ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 9 2001
M. S. Kristensen
Background: Problems with managing the airways in relation to anaesthesia causes severe morbidity and mortality. A large proportion of these adverse respiratory events is preventable. Still patients continue to die from airway disasters related to anaesthesia, also in Scandinavia. The goal of this study is to identify which efforts are likely to improve this situation. Methods: A questionnaire asking about experience, behaviour and availability of various items of equipment was mailed to all members of the Danish Society of Anaesthesiologists and were returned anonymously. Results: More than 65% of respondents have sufficient access to a flexible fibrescope, but still 17% of specialists have no access and the vast majority (>67%) has little (1,10 times) or no experience in its use for awake intubation. A total of 52,70% knew the basic principles of the ASA difficult airway algorithm, but despite this only 25,50% would perform awake intubation if a difficult intubation was expected. More than 20% of respondents had experienced preventable airway management mishaps. In all, 18,46% did not know how to oxygenate via the cricothyroid membrane. Conclusion: There is room for improvement regarding airway management skills among Danish anaesthesiologists. It is likely that airway management can be improved by: A) Better knowledge of an appropriate plan, algorithm, for airway management. B) Awake intubation used more often. C) More experience in fibreoptic intubation. D) All anaesthesiologists accepting that previous difficult intubation is an indicator of future difficulties. E) All anaesthesiologists knowing, and practising on manikins, how to oxygenate via the cricothyroid membrane. F) Always having a laryngeal mask airway immediately available when inducing anaesthesia. [source]


Early responses associated with chronic pathology in murine schistosomiasis

PARASITE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
C. B. CTRE-SOSSAH
SUMMARY Inbred male CBA/J mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni develop either hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS) or moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS) by 20 weeks of infection. Pathologically and immunologically, MSS and HSS closely parallel the intestinal and hepatosplenic clinical forms of schistosomiasis in humans, respectively. By 6 weeks after infection, mice that eventually will become MSS develop T cell-stimulatory, cross-reactive idiotypes (CRI) while HSS mice never produce CRI. Because presence of CRI is useful to predict degree of chronic pathology, we used this measure to investigate what other early immunological events occurred in animals destined to develop severe morbidity. At 8 weeks of infection, there was a strong inverse correlation between CRI and splenomegaly, egg counts, and liver hydroxyproline. Similarly, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)- and ionomycin-stimulated intracellular cytokine expression of IL-4, IL-5, and GM-CSF in splenic CD4+ T cells was inversely correlated with serum CRI and directly correlated with spleen size. In contrast, spleen cell intracellular TNF-, and peritoneal cell production of nitric oxide demonstrated positive correlations with CRI and inverse correlations with measures of morbidity. Surprisingly, IL-10 and IFN-, were not correlated with CRI levels. These studies link chronic pathology to certain immunological responses during the acute phase of schistosomiasis. [source]


Antenatal pulmonary embolism: risk factors, management and outcomes

BJOG : AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS & GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
M Knight
Objectives, To estimate the incidence of antenatal pulmonary embolism and describe the risk factors, management and outcomes. Design, A national matched case,control study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS). Setting, All hospitals with consultant-led maternity units in the UK. Participants, A total of 143 women who had an antenatal pulmonary embolism between February 2005 and August 2006. Two hundred and fifty nine matched control women. Methods, Prospective case and control identification through the UKOSS monthly mailing. Main outcome measures, Incidence and case fatality rates with 95% CIs. Adjusted odds ratio estimates. Results, One hundred per cent of UK consultant-led obstetric units contributed data to UKOSS. A total of 143 antenatal pulmonary embolisms were reported, representing an estimated incidence of 1.3 per 10 000 maternities (95% CI 1.1,1.5). Seventy per cent of women had identifiable classical risk factors for thromboembolic disease. The main risk factors for pulmonary embolism were multiparity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.03, 95% CI 1.60,9.84) and body mass index , 30 kg/m2 (aOR 2.65, 95% CI 1.09,6.45). Nine women who had a pulmonary embolism should have received antenatal thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) according to national guidelines; only three (33%) of them did. Six women (4%) had a pulmonary embolism following antenatal prophylaxis with LMWH; three of these women (50%) were receiving lower than recommended doses. Two women had recurrent pulmonary emboli (1.4%, 95% CI 0.2,5.1%). Five women died (case fatality 3.5%, 95% CI 1.1,8.0%). Conclusions, Significant severe morbidity from thromboembolic disease underlies the maternal deaths from pulmonary embolism in the UK. This study has shown some cases where thromboprophylaxis was not provided according to national guidelines, and there may be scope for further work on guideline implementation. [source]


Previous transurethral resection of the prostate is not a contraindication to high-dose rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer

BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 11 2009
Hao Lun Luo
OBJECTIVE To analyse retrospectively the morbidity and efficacy of high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy in patients who had a previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). PATIENTS AND METHODS Morbidities documented in the records of 32 patients with previous TURP and 106 with no previous TURP, treated with HDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer at our institution, were analysed and compared. All patients received HDR brachytherapy as a boost before conformal external beam radiotherapy. We recorded and analysed genitourinary complications, rectal morbidity, and the biochemical control rate as assessed by the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. RESULTS All complications of patients who received HDR brachytherapy were recorded during the follow-up. All gastrointestinal and genitourinary complications were not significantly different in patients with or without previous TURP. There was little incontinence or severe morbidity associated with HDR brachytherapy. The PSA-based biochemical control rates were similar in patients with or without previous TURP in each risk group. CONCLUSIONS HDR brachytherapy is a reasonable treatment for localized prostate cancer in patients who have had a previous TURP, with the expectation of low morbidity and satisfactory biochemical control. [source]


Long hospitalization is the most important risk factor for early weaning from breast milk in premature babies

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 6 2009
Lieselotte Kirchner
Abstract Aim: To identify certain variables related to the infants' course that might have an impact on the mothers' decision to breastfeed. Patients and Method: Retrospective survey including all patients <1500 g birth weight (BW) treated between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2005 at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Medical University of Vienna who were not transferred to another hospital. Multiple regression analysis of the following variables was carried out: gestational age (GA), BW, length of stay (LOS), parity, singleton or multiple gestation, sex and severe morbidity. Results: Of the 239 patients included, 142 (60%) were fed breast milk at the time of final discharge, 97 (40%) were fed formula. LOS was significantly correlated with the probability of being breastfed: the shorter it was, the higher was the probability of being breastfed at the time of final discharge (p = 0.0064 for singletons, p = 0.001 for multiples). Lower GA also increased the probability of being breastfed, but this was only statistically significant for multiples (p = 0.001). Conclusion: This study shows clearly that the most important influencing factor on the mothers' decision to continue breastfeeding is the LOS. Thus more emphasis should be put on encouraging mothers to continue lactation throughout their babies' hospital stay. [source]