Severe Mitral Regurgitation (severe + mitral_regurgitation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


C. Cevik
Thromboembolism is the major chronic risk for patients with mechanical prosthetic heart valves. Although optimal oral anticoagulantion is the key determinant for embolic events (EE) in these patients; other factors also contribute to this complication. We studied the prevalence and determinants of embolic events in patients with mitral prosthetic heart valves undergoing transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). 210 patients (86 male and 124 female, mean age 45.1 +/, 9.6 years) underwent a TEE study for evaluation of prosthetic valve functions. Clinical and TEE findings of the patients were as follows: Atrial fibrillation in 132 (%62) patients, prosthetic valve thrombus in 55 (%26) suboptimal INR (INR < 1.8) in 61 (%29) pts, left atrial spontenous echocardiographic contrast (SEC) in 31 (%14) patients, paraprosthetic moderete-severe mitral regurgitation (MR) in 28 (%13), left atrial (LA) and/or left atrial appendix (LAA) thrombus in 41 (%19), LA and/or LAA outflow velocities <0.25 m/sn in 21 patiens (%10), left atrial diameter >6 cm in 47 (%22). 72 patients had a history of EE in the previous 6 months (%34). In no patients were there any EE in the presence of paraprosthetic moderate to severe MR. Both with univariate and multivariate analysis presence of prosthetic valve and LA and/or LAA thrombus, absence of paraprosthetic moderete-severe MR, suboptimal INR, atrial fibrillation were found to be independent predictors for embolic events. Conclusions: Although the presence of prosthetic valve and LA and/or LAA thrombus, suboptimal INR, and AF predict EE, clinical and echocardiographic data support the protective effect of paraprosthetic moderate to severe MR against EE in pts with mitral prosthetic valves. [source]

Biventricular Pacing for Severe Mitral Reguritation Following Atrioventrgicular Nodal Ablation

DISNEY, P.J.S., et al.: Biventricular Pacing for Severe Mitral Regurgitation Following Atrioventricular Nodal Ablation. A 69-year-old woman developed acute pulmonary edema and severe mitral regurgitation (MR) 2 days following an uncomplicated AV nodal (AVN) ablation and insertion of VVI pacemaker for chronic atrial fibrillation. There was no history of significant mitral valve disease. Left ventricular function was normal and there was no evidence of an acute cardiac ischemic event. Transthoracic echo and right heart catheterization studies showed reduction in the severity of MR with biventricular pacing as opposed to RV pacing alone. A permanent pacemaker configured for biventricular pacing was implanted with complete resolution of symptoms and significant reduction in degree of MR. (PACE 2003; 26[Pt. I]:643,644) [source]

Single Coronary Artery: Right Coronary Artery Originated From Middle of Left Anterior Descending Artery in a Patient With Severe Mitral Regurgitation

Murat Meric MD
The single coronary artery is a benign and very rare coronary artery abnormality. Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery originating from the left anterior descending artery has been reported previously in just a few cases. In this article, we presented a patient with an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the midportion of the left anterior descending artery. The anomalous coronary artery was discovered incidentally during a coronary angiography performed prior to mitral valve surgery. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Early and Late Results of Partial Left Ventriculectomy: Single Center Experience and Review of the Literature

Raimondo Ascione M.D.
Methods: From February 1996 to August 2001, 24 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (12 idiopathic, 12 ischemic) underwent PLV. Perioperative and follow-up data were prospectively entered into a database and analyzed. An observational analysis of the literature was carried out of all the published series of PLV reporting on ,15 patients. Results: In our series there were 22 males with amean age of 65 years (range 49 to73]). Of the 22, there were 3 (12.5%) in-hospital deaths. Mean duration of follow-up was 26 months (range 3 to 71) with 9 late deaths (38%), 6 in the idiopathic group. The five-year actuarial survival was 74% in the ischemic group and 33% in the idiopathic group. The observational analysis of literature included a total of 506 patients (425 males, age 50.2 ± 5.2 years)]. The etiology was idiopathic in 255 (50.4%), and ischemic in 89 (17.6%) patients. Baseline characteristics of the whole population include: ejection fraction 18.9 ± 3.9%, NYHA functional class 3.7 ± 0.2, and LVEDD of 7.7 ± 0.4 cm. Severe mitral regurgitation was present in 368 (72.7%) patients. There were 88 (17.4%) in-hospital deaths. Cause of death included 55 due to (62.5%) low cardiac output, 10 (11.3%) due to severe bleeding, 7 (7.95%) caused by malignant arrhythmias, 8 (9%) due to sepsis, and 5 (5.7%) as a result of stroke. Ten of the selected series (overall 386 patients) reported late outcome. There were 89 (22.9%) late deaths, 12 (13.5%) were not cardiac-related, 50 (56.2%) were due to recurrence of congestive heart failure (CHF), 20 (22.5%) caused by sudden arrhythmias, 5 (5.6%) due to infections, and 2 (2.2%) from strokes. Overall, there were 248 (64.2%) survivors, of whom 179 (72.17%) were reported to be in NYHA functional class I or II. All 10 papers reported one-year survival ranging from 50% to 85%. Seven reported a two-year survival of 45% to 72%, and 4 reported a three-year survival of 33% to 64%. Conclusions: Our results and the review of the literature seem to suggest a relatively high early mortality with satisfactory late results of PLV in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.(J Card Surg 2003;18:190-196) [source]

Immediate and Follow-Up Results of Repeat Percutaneous Mitral Balloon Commissurotomy for Restenosis After a Succesful First Procedure

Nuran Yaz, lu M.D.
Background: The widespread use of percutaneous mitral commissurotomy (PMC) has led to an increase in restenosis cases. The data regarding follow-up results of repeat PMC are quite limited. The aim of this retrospective analysis is to evaluate the immediate and midterm results of the second PMC, in patients with symptomatic mitral restenosis after a succesful first procedure. Methods: Twenty patients (95% female, mean age 37 ± 4 years) who have undergone a second PMC, 6.3 ± 2.5 years after a first successful intervention built the study group. All were in sinus rhythm, with a mean Wilkins score of 8.5 ± 1.2. Results: The valve area increased from 1.2 ± 0.2 to 1.9 ± 0.2 cm2 and mean gradient decreased from 10.5 ± 3.4 to 6.1 ± 1.1 mmHg. There were no complications except for a transient embolic event without sequela (5%) and two cases (10%) of severe mitral regurgitation. The immediate success rate was 90%. The mean follow-up was 70 ± 29 months (36,156 months). The 5-year restenosis and intervention (repeat PMC or valve replacement) rates were 9.1 ± 5.2% and 3.6 ± 3.3%, respectively. The intervention free 5-year survival in good functional capacity (New York Heart Association [NYHA] I,II) was 95.1 ± 5.5% and restenosis and intervention free 5-year survival with good functional capacity was 89.7 ± 6.8%. Conclusions: Although from a limited number of selected patients, these findings indicate that repeat PMC is a safe and effective method, with follow-up results similar to a first intervention and should be considered as the first therapeutic option in suitable patients. (Echocardiography 2010;27:765-769) [source]

Unusual Cause of Heart Failure in a 65-Year-Old Woman

Mirela Tomescu M.D., Ph.D.
Left ventricular (LV) free wall rupture is a potentially lethal mechanical complication after myocardial infarction (MI). Pericardial adhesions or slow extracardiac leak and pericardial inflammation may result in a contained cardiac rupture. LV pseudoaneurysm is a relatively uncommon clinical entity. It may occur after MI, but also as a complication of infective endocarditis, cardiac surgery, or trauma. Patients developing LV pseudoaneurysm after MI may present angina pectoris or signs of congestive heart failure (HF) but often are asymptomatic. Surgery is the treatment of choice for LV pseudoaneurysms diagnosed in the first months after MI. The management of chronic LV pseudoaneurysms is still subject of debate. This report highlights a 65-year-old patient newly hospitalized for acute decompensated HF who was diagnosed with a large chronic LV pseudoaneurysm and severe mitral regurgitation. The patient underwent successful resection of the pseudoaneurysm and patch repair of the ruptured ventricular wall. [source]

Elongation Index as a New Index Determining the Severity of Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction and Mitral Regurgitation in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

Mehmet Yokusoglu M.D.
The shape of the left ventricle is an important echocardiographic feature of left ventricular dysfunction. Progression of the mitral regurgitation and consequent left ventricular remodeling is unpredictable in heart failure. Elongation index is an index of left ventricular sphericity. The surface area of the elongated ventricle is larger than that of a spherical one. The objective of this study was to assess the relation between elongation index and the degree of mitral regurgitation along with noninvasive indices of left ventricular function. Thirty-two patients (21 male, 11 female, mean age: 57 ± 6 yrs) with congestive heart failure and mitral regurgitation were included. Patients were stratified into three groups according to vena contracta width as having mild (n = 11), moderate (n = 11) and severe mitral regurgitation (n = 10). The elongation index (EI) was considered as equal to {[(left ventricular internal area-measured) , (theoretical area of the sphere with measured left ventricular volume)]/(theoretical area of the sphere with measured left ventricular volume)}. Ejection fractions by the modified Simpson rule, dP/dt and sphericity index (SI) were also recorded. The relationship between (EI), ejection fraction, dP/dt and SI reached modest statistical significance (p < 0.05). When the EI and SI were compared, the correlation was also significant (p < 0.01). The areas under the receiver operator curve of EI and SI for discriminating dP/dt < 1000 mm Hg/s were 0.833 and 0.733, respectively. In conclusion, the elongation, which defines the shape of the left ventricle, might be related to the systolic function of the left ventricle and the degree of the mitral regurgitation. Further studies are needed to demonstrate its use in other clinical entities. [source]

Giant Left Ventricular Aneurysm Complicating Silent Inferoposterior Myocardial Infarction

Vijayakumar Subban M.D.
A 54-year-old male was evaluated for recurrent heart failure. Method: The echocardiogram showed large aneurysm arising from the inferoposterior wall of the left ventricle and severe mitral regurgitation. Results: The coronary angiogram revealed occluded right coronary artery (RCA) in the mid segment. Conclusion: The patient underwent aneurysm repair and coronary artery bypass grafting to RCA. [source]

Successful Mitral Valve Surgery in a Patient with Myasthenia Gravis

Cüneyt Narin M.D.
Most of the patients die because of a respiratory failure toward the end of the disease. A 49-year-old male patient with MG in whom a thymectomy operation had been performed five years ago had dyspnea, palpitation, and chest pain during his admission. After his examination, a severe mitral regurgitation was detected, and he underwent a successful mitral valve replacement. A general anesthesia management was performed using sufentanyl and propophol without any muscle relaxant agent. He was extubated seven hours after the surgery. He had difficulty in swallowing at postoperative day three, and his medication doses were increased. He was discharged from the hospital at postoperative day seven without any complication. MG is a rare disease and may cause morbid complications during the cardiac surgery, but can be successfully managed. [source]

Usefulness of Intraoperative Real-Time 3D Transesophageal Echocardiography in Cardiac Surgery

Thierry V. Scohy M.D.
Methods: Preoperative transthoral echocardiography (TTE) revealed: hypertrophic ventricular septum (TTE:19.3 mm), systolic anterior motion (SAM) not causing obstruction and malcoaptation of the anterior mitral valve leaflet (AMVL), and posterior mitral valve leaflet (PMVL) with severe mitral regurgitation. Results: Intraoperative TEE with a x7-2t MATRIX-array transducer (Philips, Andover, MA, USA) with a transducer frequency of x7,2 t mHz, connected to a iE33 (Philips), shows us that the main mechanism and site of regurgitation was an AMVL cleft. We also measured a 24.3-mm thickness of the ventricular septum and analyzing the 3D full volume acquisition revealed that there was no SAM. Conclusion: Intraoperative RT3DTEE permitted comprehensive 3D viewing of the mitral valve revealing the mechanism of mitral valve regurgitation, SAM, and the exact width of the hypertrophic ventricular septum. [source]

Limited Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Patients with Concomitant Right Ventricular Dysfunction

Limited Response to CRT in Patients with RVD.,Introduction: Patients with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) and LV dyssynchrony may respond to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) is a predictor of decreased survival in patients with LVD, and its influence on clinical response to CRT is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of RVD on the clinical response to CRT. Methods and Results: A retrospective cohort of consecutive patients who underwent implantation of a CRT implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) were included and deemed to have RVD based on a RV ejection fraction <0.40. A lack of response to CRT was defined as: death, heart transplantation, implantation of an LV assist device, absent improvement in NYHA functional class at 6 months or hospice care. Among 130 patients included (mean age 58 ± 11 years, 68.5% male, 87.7% Caucasian, 51.5% nonischemic cardiomyopathy), 77 (59.2%) had no response to CRT as defined above. Of the nonresponders, 43 (56%) had RVD and 34 (44%) did not have RVD (P = 0.02). After adjustment for age, race, gender, cardiomyopathy type, atrial fibrillation, serum sodium, and severe mitral regurgitation, RVD (adjusted OR = 0.34, 95%CI 0.14,0.82), female gender (adjusted OR = 0.36, 95%CI 0.14,0.95), and serum creatinine (adjusted OR = 0.25, 95%CI 0.09,0.71) were independently associated with decreased odds of response to CRT. There was a significant difference in survival of patients with and without RVD after CRT (log rank P = 0.01). Conclusion: RVD represents a strong predictor of lack of clinical response to CRT in patients with CHF due to LVD and should be considered when prescribing CRT. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 21, pp. 431,435, April 2010) [source]

Feasibility of Myxomatous Mitral Valve Repair Using Direct Leaflet and Chordal Radiofrequency Ablation

Objective: Minimally invasive repair of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) causing severe mitral regurgitation (MR) should reduce MR and have chronic durability. Our ex vivo, acute in vivo, and chronic in vivo studies suggest that direct application of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) to mitral leaflets and chordae can effect these repair goals to decrease MR. Methods: A total of seven canines were studied to assess the effects of RFA on mitral valve structure and function. RFA was applied ex vivo (n = 1), acutely in vivo using a right lateral thoracotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 3), and chronically in vivo using percutaneous access to the heart (n = 3). RFA was applied to the mitral valve and its associated chordae. Mitral valve structure and function (in vivo preparations) were then assessed. Results: Ex vivo application of RFA resulted in qualitative reduction in mitral leaflet surface area and chordal length. Acute in vivo application of RFA to canines found to have MVP causing severe MR demonstrated a 43.7,60.7% statistically significant (P = 0.039) reduction in postablation MR. Chronic, in vivo, percutaneous application of RFA was found to be feasible and the engendered alterations durable. Conclusion: These data suggest that myxomatous mitral valve repair using radiofrequency energy delivered via catheter is feasible. [source]

Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair for Functional Mitral Regurgitation: Coronary Sinus Approach

Mitral regurgitation has become recognized as an important health problem. More specifically, functional mitral regurgitation is associated with worse outcomes in heart failure, postmyocardial infarction, and perioperative coronary artery bypass surgery patients. Many patients with severe mitral regurgitation are denied or refused mitral valve surgery. A less invasive procedure with possibly fewer potential complications may thus be attractive for patients with severe mitral regurgitation. Devices used for coronary sinus (CS) mitral annuloplasty are directed toward patients with functional mitral regurgitation. Because of its easy accessibility and close relationship to the posterior mitral annulus (MA), alterations of the CS geometry with percutaneous devices may translate to displacement of the posterior annulus and correct mitral leaflet coaptation. This review will focus on the contemporary CS annuloplasty devices: (1) Edwards MONARC system; (2) Cardiac Dimensions CARILLON; and (3) Viacor Shape Changing Rods system. In addition, important information obtained from recent imaging studies describing the relationship between the CS, MA, and coronary arteries will be reviewed. [source]

Efficacy of Spironolactone on Survival in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Mitral Regurgitation Caused by Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease

F. Bernay
Background: Spironolactone, an aldosterone antagonist, has been demonstrated to decrease mortality in human patients when added to other cardiac therapies. Hypothesis: Spironolactone in addition to conventional therapy increases survival compared with conventional therapy in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Animals: Between February 2003 and March 2005, 221 dogs were recruited in Europe. Nine dogs were excluded from analysis, leaving 212 dogs with moderate to severe mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by MMVD (International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council classification classes II [n = 190] and III [n = 21]). Methods: Double-blinded, field study conducted with dogs randomized to receive either spironolactone (2 mg/kg once a day) or placebo in addition to conventional therapy (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, plus furosemide and digoxin if needed). Primary endpoint was a composite of cardiac-related death, euthanasia, or severe worsening of MR. Results: Primary endpoint reached by 11/102 dogs (10.8%) in the spironolactone group (6 deaths, 5 worsening) versus 28/110 (25.5%) in control group (14 deaths, 8 euthanasia, 6 worsening). Risk of reaching the composite endpoint significantly decreased by 55% (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.45; 95% confidence limits [CL], 0.22,0.90; log rank test, P= .017). Risk of cardiac- related death or euthanasia significantly reduced by 69% (HR = 0.31; 95% CL, 0.13,0.76; P= .0071). Number of dogs not completing the study for cardiac and other miscellaneous reasons similar in spironolactone (67/102) and control groups (66/110). Conclusion and Clinical Importance: Spironolactone added to conventional cardiac therapy decreases the risk of reaching the primary endpoint (ie, cardiac-related death, euthanasia, or severe worsening) in dogs with moderate to severe MR caused by MMVD. [source]

Biventricular Pacing for Severe Mitral Reguritation Following Atrioventrgicular Nodal Ablation

DISNEY, P.J.S., et al.: Biventricular Pacing for Severe Mitral Regurgitation Following Atrioventricular Nodal Ablation. A 69-year-old woman developed acute pulmonary edema and severe mitral regurgitation (MR) 2 days following an uncomplicated AV nodal (AVN) ablation and insertion of VVI pacemaker for chronic atrial fibrillation. There was no history of significant mitral valve disease. Left ventricular function was normal and there was no evidence of an acute cardiac ischemic event. Transthoracic echo and right heart catheterization studies showed reduction in the severity of MR with biventricular pacing as opposed to RV pacing alone. A permanent pacemaker configured for biventricular pacing was implanted with complete resolution of symptoms and significant reduction in degree of MR. (PACE 2003; 26[Pt. I]:643,644) [source]

Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement in Children and Adolescents After Previous Repair of Congenital Heart Disease

Aron-Frederik Popov
Abstract Due to improved outcome after surgery for congenital heart defects, children, adolescents, and grown-ups with congenital heart defects become an increasing population. In order to evaluate operative risk and early outcome after mechanical aortic valve replacement (AVR) in this population, we reviewed patients who underwent previous repair of congenital heart defects. Between July 2002 and November 2008, 15 (10 male and 5 female) consecutive patients (mean age 14.5 ± 10.5 years) underwent mechanical AVR. Hemodynamic indications for AVR were aortic stenosis in four (27%), aortic insufficiency in eight (53%), and mixed disease in three (20%) after previous repair of congenital heart defects. All patients had undergone one or more previous cardiovascular operations due to any congenital heart disease. Concomitant cardiac procedures were performed in all of them. In addition to AVR, in two patients, a mitral valve exchange was performed. One patient received a right ventricle-pulmonary artery conduit replacement as concomitant procedure. The mean size of implanted valves was 23 mm (range 17,29 mm). There were neither early deaths nor late mortality until December 2008. Reoperations were necessary in five (33%) and included implantation of a permanent pacemaker due to complete atrioventricular block in two (15%), mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis due to moderate to severe mitral regurgitation in one (7%), aortocoronary bypass grafting due to stenosis of a coronary artery in one (7%), and in one (7%), a redo subaortic stenosis resection was performed because of a secondary subaortic stenosis. At the latest clinical evaluation, all patients were in good clinical condition without a pathological increased gradient across the aortic valve prosthesis or paravalvular leakage in echocardiography. Mechanical AVR has excellent results in patients after previous repair of congenital heart defects in childhood, even in combination with complex concomitant procedures. Previous operations do not significantly affect postoperative outcome. [source]

Comparison of early results of percutaneous metallic mitral commissurotome with Inoue balloon technique in patients with high mitral echocardiographic scores

Adel M. Zaki MD
Abstract We compared the safety, efficacy, and cost of the newly introduced percutaneous metallic commissurotome (PMC) with the results of Inoue balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV) in 80 patients with mitral stenosis (MS). The mean increase in mitral valve area (MVA) was 0.95 ± 0.19 to 1.7 ± 0.35 cm2 for PMC and 0.97 ± 0.15 to 1.81 ± 0.36 cm2 for BMV (P = NS). The Wilkins echocardiographic scores before dilatation did not correlate with any difference in MVA after dilatation. Bilateral commissural splitting was significantly more common with PMC than with BMV (30/39 patients, 76.9%, vs. 21/40 patients, 52.5%; P = 0.02). Postprocedural severe mitral regurgitation occurred in 1/39 (2.6%) in the PMC group and in 4/41 (9.8%) in the BMV group. Because the PMC device is resterilizable, we estimated the cost to be one-fourth the cost of BMV with the Inoue balloon. The estimated device cost ratio of PMC to BMV for each patient was 1 to 4.25. The early results of PMC on the MVA are comparable to BMV. However, PMC had better results not only in patients with high echocardiographic scores, but the PMC device splits commissural calcification better than BMV. Cathet Cardiovasc Intervent 2002;57:312,317. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy: Immediate and long-term follow-up results

Ramesh Arora MD
Abstract Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy has emerged as an effective nonsurgical technique for the treatment of patients with symptomatic mitral stenosis. This report highlights the immediate and long-term follow-up results of this procedure in an unselected cohort of patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis from a single center. It was performed in a total of 4,850 patients using double balloon in 320 (6.6%), flow-guided Inoue balloon technique in 4,374 (90.2%), and metallic valvulotome in 156 (3.2%) patients. Their age range was 6.5,72 years (mean, 27.2 ± 11.2 years) and 1,552 (32%) patients were under 20 years of age. Atrial fibrillation was present in 702 (14.5%) patients. No patient was rejected on the basis of echocardiographic score using the Wilkins criteria. Echocardiographic score of , 8 was present in 1,632 (33.6%) patients, of which 103 (2.1%) had densely calcified (Wilkins score 4+) valve. A detailed clinical and echocardiographic (two-dimensional, continuous-wave Doppler and color-flow imaging) assessment was done at every 3 months for the first year and at 6-month interval thereafter. The procedure was technically successful in 4,838 (99.8%) patients but optimal result was achieved in 4,408 (90.9%) patients with an increase in mitral valve area (MVA) from 0.7 ± 0.2 to 1.9 ± 0.3 cm2 (P < 0.001) and a reduction in mean transmitral gradient from 29.5 ± 7.0 to 5.9 ± 2.1 mm Hg (P < 0.001). The mean left atrial pressure decreased from 32.1 ± 9.8 to 13.1 ± 6.2 mm Hg (P < 0.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in the MVA achieved between de novo and restenosed valves (1.9 ± 0.3 and 1.8 ± 0.2 cm2, respectively; P > 0.05), or between noncalcific and calcific valves (2.0 ± 0.3 and 1.8 ± 0.2 cm2, respectively; P > 0.05), on the whole MVA obtained after percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy was less in restenosed and calcific valves. Ten (0.20%) patients had cardiac tamponade during the procedure. Mitral regurgitation appeared or worsened in 2,038 (42%) patients, of which 68 (1.4%) developed severe mitral regurgitation. Urgent mitral valve replacement was carried out in 52 (1.1%) of these patients. Data of 3,500 patients followed over a period of 94 ± 41 months (range, 12,166 months) revealed MVA of 1.7 ± 0.3 cm2. Elective mitral valve replacement was done in 34 (0.97%) patients. Mitral restenosis was seen in 168 (4.8%) patients, of which 133 (3.8%) were having recurrence of class III or more symptoms. Thus, percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy is an effective and safe procedure with gratifying results in high percentage of patients. The benefits are sustained in a majority of these patients on long-term follow-up. It should be considered as the treatment of choice in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis of all age groups. Cathet Cardiovasc Intervent 2002;55:450,456. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]