Severe Mental Disorders (severe + mental_disorders)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Beliefs about medications: measurement and relationship to adherence in patients with severe mental disorders

H. Jónsdóttir
Objective:, To determine if the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) has satisfactory psychometric properties in patients with severe mental disorders and if their scores differ from those of patients with severe medical disorders. To investigate if the scores are related to medication adherence. Method:, Two hundred and eighty psychiatric patients completed the BMQ and reported how much of their medication they had taken the past week. Serum concentrations of medications were analyzed. BMQ scores were compared with those of patients with chronic medical disorders. Results:, Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory for all subscales. The psychiatric group scored lower on the necessity of taking medication than the medical group. Non-adherent patients felt medication to be less necessary and were more concerned about it than adherent patients. The necessity subscale predicted adherence fairly well. Conclusion:, The BMQ has satisfactory psychometric properties for use in patients with severe mental disorders. The constructs measured by the BMQ are related to adherence in these patients. [source]

Individual quality of life of people with severe mental disorders

People with mental disorders have been found to suffer from impaired quality of life (QoL). Therefore, the assessment of QoL has become important in psychiatric research. This explorative study was carried out in acute psychiatric wards. Thirty-five patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and related psychosis were interviewed. QoL was rated by the Schedule for Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life which is a respondent-generated QoL measure using semi-structured interview technique. Patients named five areas of life important to them and then rated their current status and placed relative weight on each QoL area. The data were analysed with qualitative content analysis and descriptive statistics. The most frequently named areas for QoL were health, family, leisure activities, work/study and social relationships, which represented 72% of all QoL areas named. Patients' average satisfaction with these QoL areas ranged 49.0,69.1 (scale 0,100). The mean global QoL score was 61.5 (standard deviation 17.4; range 24.6,89.6; scale 0,100). Awareness of patients' perceptions of their QoL areas can enhance our understanding of an individual patient's QoL and reveal unsatisfactory areas where QoL could be improved with individually tailored needs-based interventions. [source]

Characteristics of aggression in a German psychiatric hospital and predictors of patients at risk

R. KETELSEN md phd
This study investigated the aggressive behaviour of all mentally ill patients within a whole psychiatric hospital with a catchment area of 325 000 inhabitants over a 1-year period (i) to assess the 1-year prevalence and characteristics of aggressive episodes and index inpatients, and (ii) to identify predictors of patients at risk by a multivariate approach. Staff Observation of Aggression Scale was used to assess aggressive behaviour. Characteristics of index inpatients were compared with those of non-index inpatients. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify risk factors. A total of 171 out of 2210 admitted patients (7.7%) exhibited 441 aggressive incidents (1.7 incidents per bed per year). Logistic regression analyses revealed as major risk factors of aggression: diagnoses (organic brain syndromes OR = 3.6, schizophrenia OR = 2.9), poor psychosocial living conditions (OR = 2.2), and critical behaviour leading to involuntary admission (OR = 3.3). Predictors of aggressive behaviour can be useful to identify inpatients at risk. Nevertheless, additional situational determinants have to be recognized. Training for professionals should include preventive and de-escalating strategies to reduce the incidence of aggressive behaviour in psychiatric hospitals. The application of de-escalating interventions prior to admission might be effective in preventing aggressive behaviour during inpatient treatment especially for patients with severe mental disorders. [source]

Performance of the CJDATS Co-Occurring Disorders Screening Instruments (CODSIs) among Minority Offenders

Alexandra Duncan M.P.H.
Previous research has shown the performance of the CJDATS Co-Occurring Disorders Screening Instruments (CODSI-MD and SMD),six- and three-item instruments to screen for any mental disorder (CODSI-MD) and for severe mental disorders (CODSI-SMD), respectively,to be comparable or superior to other, longer instruments. This study tested the stability of the performance of the CODSI-MD and SMD across three racial/ethnic groups of offenders entering prison substance abuse treatment programs (n,=,353), consisting of 96 African American, 120 Latino, and 137 White admissions. The Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) was used to obtain DSM-IV Axis I and II diagnoses; a lifetime SCID diagnosis of a mental disorder or a severe mental disorder was the criterion against which the CODSI-MD and SMD were validated. Results showed no statistical differences in sensitivity or specificity for either the CODSI-MD or SMD across the African American, Latino, and White prisoner groups. The value of the CODSI-MD and SMD as brief screens for mental disorders among offenders with diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds is discussed. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]