Severe Effects (severe + effects)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Seismic microzonation of the greater Bangkok area using microtremor observations

Rabin Tuladhar
Abstract Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand, is located at a remote distance from seismic sources. However, it has a substantial risk from these distant earthquakes due to the ability of the underlying soft clay to amplify ground motions. It is therefore imperative to conduct a detailed seismic hazard assessment of the area. Seismic microzonation of big cities, like Bangkok, provides a basis for site-specific hazard analysis, which can assist in systematic earthquake mitigation programs. In this study, a seismic microzonation map for the greater Bangkok area is constructed using microtremor observations. Microtremor observations were carried out at more than 150 sites in the greater Bangkok area. The predominant periods of the ground were determined from the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratio technique. A microzonation map was then developed for the greater Bangkok area based on the observations. Moreover, the transfer functions were calculated for the soil profile at eight sites, using the computer program SHAKE91, to validate the results from the microtremor analysis. The areas near the Gulf of Thailand, underlaid by a thick soft clay layer, were found to have long natural periods ranging from 0.8s to 1.2s. However, the areas outside the lower central plain have shorter predominant periods of less than 0.4s. The study shows that there is a great possibility of long-period ground vibration in Bangkok, especially in the areas near the Gulf of Thailand. This may have severe effects on long-period structures, such as high-rise buildings and long-span bridges. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Trypanosoma cruzi infection modulates intrathymic contents of extracellular matrix ligands and receptors and alters thymocyte migration

Vinícius Cotta-de-Almeida
Abstract Several T cell abnormalities have been described in the course of acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice, including severe effects on the thymus. In the present study, looking at the expression of extracellular matrix ligands in the thymus, we observed that deposits of fibronectin and laminin increased progressively during the course of infection, reaching a maximum at the peak of parasitemia and thymic atrophy. Concomitantly, membrane expression of fibronectin and laminin receptors (VLA-4, VLA-5 and VLA-6) was also enhanced on thymocyte subsets of infected mice. These results correlated with changes in intrathymic thymocyte migration ability during the acute phase of infection, when a higher fibronectin-dependent transmigratory activity of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes was observed. Strikingly, we detected higher frequency of immature and high VLA-expressing CD4+CD8+ T cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs of infected mice at thepeak of parasitemia. These cells seemed to be thymus dependent, since significantly lower amounts of them were found in thymectomized mice, and some of them carry "prohibited" V, segments of the TCR. Our data suggest an imbalance in the intrathymic cell trafficking following acute T. cruzi infection, likely due to dysregulated extracellular matrix-dependent interactions. [source]

Scorpion stings in Australia: five definite stings and a review

G. K. Isbister
Abstract Despite scorpions being locally abundant in many parts of Australia, scorpion sting is a poorly defined clinical condition in Australia. Many health-care workers are unaware of the effects of their stings and scorpions are often feared based on their international reputation. Five scorpion stings that occurred in different parts of Australia where the scorpion was caught at the time of the sting and identified by a professional arachnologist are reported in the present paper. The spectrum of clinical effects of scorpion stings in Australia and the potential for significant effects are discussed. These cases and recent prospective case series demonstrate that in ­Australia scorpion stings cause only minor effects. The main effect is localized pain lasting for several hours, associated less commonly with systemic effects, local numbness and paraesthesia. Most stings are from smaller scorpions from the family Buthidae and often occur indoors at night. The stings from Australian buthid scorpions cause more severe effects than from the larger species in the families Urodacidae (genus Urodacus) and Liochelidae (genus Liocheles). (Intern Med J 2004; 34: 427,430) [source]

Experimental study on the toxicity of imidacloprid given in syrup to honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies

Jean-Paul Faucon
Abstract Two groups of eight honey bee colonies were fed with two different concentrations of imidacloprid in saccharose syrup during summer (each colony was given 1 litre of saccharose syrup containing 0.5 µg litre,1 or 5 µg litre,1 of imidacloprid on 13 occasions). Their development and survival were followed in parallel with control hives (unfed or fed with saccharose syrup) until the end of the following winter. The parameters followed were: adult bee activity (number of bee entering the hive and pollen carrying activity), adult bee population level, capped brood area, frequency of parasitic and other diseases, mortality, number of frames with brood after wintering and a global score of colonies after wintering. The only parameters linked to feeding with imidacloprid-supplemented saccharose syrup when compared with feeding with non-supplemented syrup were: a statistically non-significant higher activity index of adult bees, a significantly higher frequency of pollen carrying during the feeding period and a larger number of capped brood cells. When imidacloprid was no longer applied, activity and pollen carrying were re-established at a similar level for all groups. Repeated feeding with syrup supplemented with imidacloprid did not provoke any immediate or any delayed mortality before, during or following the next winter, whereas such severe effects are described by several French bee keepers as a consequence of imidacloprid use for seed dressing in neighbouring cultures. In any case, during the whole study, mortality was very low in all groups, with no difference between imidacloprid-fed and control colonies. Further research should now address several hypotheses: the troubles described by bee keepers have causes other than imidacloprid; if such troubles are really due to this insecticide, they may only be observed either when bees consume contaminated pollen, when no other sources of food are available, in the presence of synergic factors (that still need to be identified), with some particular races of bees or when colonies are not strong and healthy. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Body image and sexual problems in young women with breast cancer

Pat Fobair
Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of body image and sexual problems in the first months after treatment among women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 50 or younger. Background: Breast cancer treatment may have severe effects on the bodies of younger women. Surgical treatment may be disfiguring, chemotherapy may cause abrupt menopause, and hormone replacement is not recommended. Methods: A multi-ethnic population-based sample of 549 women aged 22,50 who were married or in a stable unmarried relationship were interviewed within seven months of diagnosis with in situ, local, or regional breast cancer. Results: Body image and sexual problems were experienced by a substantial proportion of women in the early months after diagnosis. Half of the 546 women experienced two or more body image problems some of the time (33%), or at least one problem much of the time (17%). Among sexually active women, greater body image problems were associated with mastectomy and possible reconstruction, hair loss from chemotherapy, concern with weight gain or loss, poorer mental health, lower self-esteem, and partner's difficulty understanding one's feelings. Among the 360 sexually active women, half (52%) reported having a little problem in two or more areas of sexual functioning (24%), or a definite or serious problem in at least one area (28%). Greater sexual problems were associated with vaginal dryness, poorer mental health, being married, partner's difficulty understanding one's feelings, and more body image problems, and there were significant ethnic differences in reported severity. Conclusions: Difficulties related to sexuality and sexual functioning were common and occurred soon after surgical and adjuvant treatment. Addressing these problems is essential to improve the quality of life of young women with breast cancer. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

An Evaluation of Hsp90 as a Mediator of Cortical Patterning in Tetrahymena

ABSTRACT. This study asks two questions: 1) whether Hsp90 is involved in the regulation of cortical patterning in Tetrahymena, and 2) if it is, whether specific defects in this regulation can be attributed to functional insufficiency of the Hsp90 molecule. To address question I, we compared the effects of a specific inhibitor of Hsp90, geldanamycin, on population growth and on development of the oral apparatus in two Tetrahymena species, T. pyriformis and T. thermophila. We observed that geldanamycin inhibits population growth in both species at very low concentrations, and that it has far more severe effects on oral patterning in T. pyriformis than in T. thermophila. These effects are parallel to those of high temperature in the same two species, and provide a tentative affirmative answer to the first question. To address question 2, we ascertained the base sequence of the genes that encode the Hsp90 molecules which are induced at high temperatures in both Tetrahymena species, as well as corresponding sequences in Paramecium tetraurelia. Extensive comparative analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences of the Hsp90 molecules of the two Tetrahymena species indicate that on the basis of what we currently know about Hsp90 both proteins are equally likely to be functional. Phylogenetic analyses of Hsp90 amino acid sequences indicate that the two Tetrahymena Hsp90 molecules have undergone a similar number of amino acid substitutions from their most recent common ancestor, with none of these corresponding to any known functionally critical region of the molecule. Thus there is no evidence that the Hsp90 molecule of T. pyriformis is functionally impaired; the flaw in the control of cortical patterning is more likely to be caused by defects in mechanism(s) that mediate the response to Hsp90, as would be expected from the "Hsp90 capacitor" model of Rutherford and Lindquist. [source]

Adverse health effects of children's exposure to pesticides: What do we really know and what can be done about it

Abstract Children may be exposed to pesticides in several ways, such as by transplacental transfer during foetal life, by intake of contaminated breast milk and other nutrients, or by contact with contaminated subjects and areas in the environment such as pets treated with insecticides, house dust, carpets and chemically treated lawns and gardens. Exposure early in life, and particularly during periods of rapid development, such as during foetal life and infancy, may have severe effects on child health and development by elevating the risk of congenital malformations, cancer, malabsorption, immunological dysfunction, endocrine disease, and neurobehavioural deficiencies. As pesticides can also interfere with parental reproductive health, exposure of parents may have consequences for the offspring leading to reduced chance of male birth and increased risk of childhood cancer. Conclusions: Current knowledge about tolerable levels and consequences of toxic exposure to pesticides during human development is rather scarce. Owing to the high risk of exposure to pesticides, particularly in less developed countries, further elucidation by well-controlled epidemiological studies in this field it is urgently needed. The Policy Interpretation Network on Children's Health and Environment (PINCHE), which is financed by the EU DG research has suggested actions against pesticide exposure. They have been presented and discussed in this paper. Several suggestions of PINCHE concerning action needed regarding pesticides were presented in the paper. [source]