Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Severe

  • very severe

  • Terms modified by Severe

  • severe LUT
  • severe abdominal pain
  • severe abnormality
  • severe abuse
  • severe acne
  • severe acute pancreatitis
  • severe acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome
  • severe ad
  • severe adverse effect
  • severe adverse effects
  • severe adverse event
  • severe alcoholic hepatitis
  • severe allergic asthma
  • severe allergic reaction
  • severe alteration
  • severe anaemia
  • severe anaphylactic reaction
  • severe anaphylaxis
  • severe anemia
  • severe aortic regurgitation
  • severe aortic stenosis
  • severe aplastic anemia
  • severe arthritis
  • severe asthma
  • severe asthma exacerbation
  • severe asthmatic
  • severe atopic dermatitis
  • severe atrophy
  • severe attack
  • severe back pain
  • severe bleeding
  • severe bone loss
  • severe bone resorption
  • severe bottleneck
  • severe bradycardia
  • severe burn
  • severe carotid stenosis
  • severe case
  • severe cellulitis
  • severe cerebral palsy
  • severe challenging behaviour
  • severe change
  • severe chd
  • severe chronic pain
  • severe chronic periodontitis
  • severe chronic plaque psoriasis
  • severe cirrhosis
  • severe clinical course
  • severe clinical manifestation
  • severe clinical phenotype
  • severe clinical sign
  • severe cognitive impairment
  • severe colitis
  • severe combined immune deficiency
  • severe combined immunodeficiency
  • severe combined immunodeficient mouse
  • severe competition
  • severe complication
  • severe complications
  • severe condition
  • severe congenital neutropenia
  • severe consequence
  • severe constraint
  • severe copd
  • severe coronary artery disease
  • severe course
  • severe criticism
  • severe crohn's disease
  • severe damage
  • severe decline
  • severe decrease
  • severe defect
  • severe deficiency
  • severe deficit
  • severe degradation
  • severe degree
  • severe dehydration
  • severe dementia
  • severe depression
  • severe depressive symptom
  • severe developmental delay
  • severe diabetic ketoacidosis
  • severe diarrhea
  • severe diarrhoea
  • severe difficulty
  • severe disabilities
  • severe disability
  • severe disease
  • severe disruption
  • severe distress
  • severe disturbance
  • severe drought
  • severe dysplasia
  • severe earthquake
  • severe economic loss
  • severe effects
  • severe encephalopathy
  • severe endometriosis
  • severe environmental condition
  • severe episode
  • severe epistaxis
  • severe erosion
  • severe event
  • severe exacerbation
  • severe fatigue
  • severe fibrosis
  • severe fire
  • severe flare
  • severe flooding
  • severe form
  • severe fragmentation
  • severe frost
  • severe functional impairment
  • severe group
  • severe growth retardation
  • severe gvhd
  • severe haemophilia
  • severe haemophilia b
  • severe haemorrhage
  • severe head injury
  • severe headache
  • severe headaches
  • severe heart failure
  • severe hemorrhage
  • severe hepatitis
  • severe histopathological change
  • severe hyperglycaemia
  • severe hyperparathyroidism
  • severe hypertension
  • severe hypoglycaemia
  • severe hypoglycaemic episode
  • severe hypoglycaemic event
  • severe hypoglycemia
  • severe hypotension
  • severe hypothermia
  • severe hypothyroidism
  • severe hypoxia
  • severe id
  • severe illness
  • severe impact
  • severe impairment
  • severe impairment battery
  • severe incontinence
  • severe infection
  • severe infections
  • severe inflammation
  • severe injury
  • severe insulin resistance
  • severe intellectual disabilities
  • severe intensity
  • severe involvement
  • severe iron
  • severe lesion
  • severe level
  • severe limitation
  • severe liver damage
  • severe liver disease
  • severe liver failure
  • severe liver injury
  • severe loss
  • severe lung disease
  • severe lv dysfunction
  • severe malaria
  • severe malformation
  • severe malnutrition
  • severe manifestation
  • severe mental disorders
  • severe mental illness
  • severe mental retardation
  • severe metabolic acidosis
  • severe migraine
  • severe mitral regurgitation
  • severe morbidity
  • severe mucositis
  • severe mutation
  • severe nausea
  • severe neurological impairment
  • severe neutropenia
  • severe oa
  • severe obesity
  • severe obstructive sleep apnoea
  • severe osa
  • severe osteoarthritis
  • severe osteoporosis
  • severe outbreak
  • severe outcome
  • severe pain
  • severe pancreatitis
  • severe pathology
  • severe patient
  • severe periodontal destruction
  • severe periodontal disease
  • severe periodontitis
  • severe persistent asthma
  • severe personality disorder
  • severe phenotype
  • severe physical
  • severe plaque psoriasis
  • severe plastic deformation
  • severe pneumonia
  • severe population bottleneck
  • severe portal hypertension
  • severe pre-eclampsia
  • severe preeclampsia
  • severe pressure
  • severe problem
  • severe pruritus
  • severe psoriasis
  • severe psychomotor retardation
  • severe psychopathology
  • severe pulmonary hypertension
  • severe reaction
  • severe recurrence
  • severe reduction
  • severe rejection
  • severe relapse
  • severe renal dysfunction
  • severe renal failure
  • severe renal impairment
  • severe renal insufficiency
  • severe resorption
  • severe respiratory distress
  • severe respiratory failure
  • severe respiratory insufficiency
  • severe seizures
  • severe sepsis
  • severe sequelae
  • severe shock
  • severe shortage
  • severe side effects
  • severe side-effect
  • severe stage
  • severe steatosi
  • severe stenosis
  • severe storm
  • severe strain
  • severe stress
  • severe stroke
  • severe symptom
  • severe systemic disease
  • severe systemic reaction
  • severe threat
  • severe thrombocytopenia
  • severe toxicity
  • severe trauma
  • severe traumatic brain injury
  • severe tricuspid regurgitation
  • severe type
  • severe uc
  • severe ulcerative colitis
  • severe upper airway obstruction
  • severe variant
  • severe violence
  • severe visual loss
  • severe water stress
  • severe wear
  • severe weather
  • severe weather event
  • severe weight loss
  • severe winter
  • severe withdrawal

  • Selected Abstracts

    Banff Schema for Grading Pancreas Allograft Rejection: Working Proposal by a Multi-Disciplinary International Consensus Panel

    C. B. Drachenberg
    Accurate diagnosis and grading of rejection and other pathological processes are of paramount importance to guide therapeutic interventions in patients with pancreas allograft dysfunction. A multi-disciplinary panel of pathologists, surgeons and nephrologists was convened for the purpose of developing a consensus document delineating the histopathological features for diagnosis and grading of rejection in pancreas transplant biopsies. Based on the available published data and the collective experience, criteria for the diagnosis of acute cell-mediated allograft rejection (ACMR) were established. Three severity grades (I/mild, II/moderate and III/severe) were defined based on lesions known to be more or less responsive to treatment and associated with better- or worse-graft outcomes, respectively. The features of chronic rejection/graft sclerosis were reassessed, and three histological stages were established. Tentative criteria for the diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection were also characterized, in anticipation of future studies that ought to provide more information on this process. Criteria for needle core biopsy adequacy and guidelines for pathology reporting were also defined. The availability of a simple, reproducible, clinically relevant and internationally accepted schema for grading rejection should improve the level of diagnostic accuracy and facilitate communication between all parties involved in the care of pancreas transplant recipients. [source]


    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    Johnson Dw


    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 2 2002
    Article first published online: 4 JUL 200
    Forest Tennant, MD, Dr PH; Laura Herman RN BSN FNP Veract Intractable Pain Centers, 338 S. Glendora Ave., West Covina, CA 91790 It is recognized that biologic markers of severe, intractable pain (SIP) can help distinguish degrees of pain and assist in monitoring treatment effectiveness. Fifty (50.0%) adult ambulatory SIP patients, at the time of referral described their pain as constant, excruciating, produced a bed or house-bound state, and was uncontrolled by non-opioid medications and low dosages of the weak opioids, hydrocodone or codeine. Patients were treated with a long-acting opioid preparation consisting of methadone, oxycodone, morphine, or transdermal fentanyl in addition to a short-acting opioid for breakthrough pain. These patients were screened before treatment and after three months of opioid treatment by: (1) blood pressure; (2) pulse rate; (3) morning cortisol and pregnenolone serum concentrations; and (4) erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The percentage of patients with physiologic abnormalities before and after three months of treatment were as follows: (1) hypertension above 140/90 mm/Hg; 28 (56.0%) vrs 14 (28.0%); (2) tachycardia above 84/minute; 21 (42.0%) vrs 9 (18.0%); (3) elevated serum cortisol concentration; 12 (24.0%) vrs 2 (4.0%); (4) low serum cortisol serum concentration; 7 (14.0% vrs 1 (2.0%); (5) low pregnenolone serum concentration; 18 (36.0%) vrs 3 (6.0%); and (6) elevated ESR; 10 (20.0%) vrs 3 (6.0%) (p<.05). Mean blood pressure, pulse rate, ESR, and serum concentrations of cortisol and pregnenolone in patients who demonstrated a physiologic abnormality all positively and significantly (p<.05) altered these markers toward normal. This study indicates that some physiologic abnormalities, particularly those related to pituitary-adrenal over-stimulation with excess output of catecholamines and glucocorticoids, may serve as biologic markers which can help to identify SIP and monitor treatment effectiveness. [source]

    Therapeutic Hotline: Treatment of prurigo nodularis and lichen simplex chronicus with gabapentin

    Gulsum Gencoglan
    ABSTRACT Psychocutaneous conditions are frequently encountered in dermatology practice. Prurigo nodularis and lichen simplex chronicus are two frustrating conditions that are classified in this category. They are often refractory to classical treatment with topical corticosteroids and antihistamines. Severe, generalized exacerbations require systemic therapy. Phototherapy, erythromycine, retinoids, cyclosporine, azathiopurine, naltrexone, and psychopharmacologic agents (pimozide, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants) were tried with some success. Here five cases with lichen simplex chronicus and four cases with prurigo nodularis, who responded well to gabapentin, are presented. [source]

    Hazardous alcohol consumption and other barriers to antiviral treatment among hepatitis C positive people receiving opioid maintenance treatment

    Abstract Amongst people on opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), chronic hepatitis C (HCV) is common but infrequently treated. Numerous barriers, including misuse of alcohol may limit efforts at anti-viral treatment. The aim of this study was to define barriers, including alcohol misuse, to the effective treatment of HCV amongst OMT recipients. Ninety-four OMT patients completed the 3-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C). A semi-structured interview was used in 53 subjects to assess alcohol use in detail, psychological health, discrimination and access to HCV treatment. Feasibility of brief intervention for alcohol misuse was assessed. Of the screening participants, 73% reported they were HCV positive. Of the detailed interview participants, 26% reported no drinking in the past month, but 53% scored 8 or more on AUDIT and 42% exceeded NHMRC drinking guidelines. Twenty subjects received brief intervention and among 17 re-interviewed at one month, alcohol consumption fell by 3.1 g/day (p = 0.003). Severe or extremely severe depression, stress and anxiety were found in 57%, 51% and 40% of interviewees respectively. Episodic heavy drinking, mental health problems, perceived discrimination, limited knowledge concerning HCV were all common and uptake of HCV treatment was poor. Brief intervention for alcohol use problems was acceptable to OMT patients, and warrants further study. [source]

    Benefits of communal breeding in burying beetles: a field experiment

    Anne-Katrin Eggert
    Summary 1. The ultimate causes of communal breeding and joint parental care in various species of Nicrophorus burying beetles have not been resolved satisfactorily. One hypothesis suggests that females remain on the carcass for extended periods of time because joint defence affords them improved probabilities of retaining the carcass successfully in the face of intense competition from intra-generic competitors. 2. In a field experiment designed to test this hypothesis in N. defodiens (Mannerheim), breeding associations of two females and a male were no more successful at retaining their carcass than were monogamous pairs, lending no support to the hypothesis. 3. Intra-generic intruders that usurped already-buried carcasses were typically much larger than the original residents. 4. The body size of original residents affected both the burial depth and the probability of a takeover. Larger beetles buried the carcass deeper and were more likely to retain possession of the carcass. Group composition also did not affect the depth at which carcasses were buried. 5. Severe and even fatal injuries incurred by some residents indicated the occurrence of violent and damaging fights between competitors over carcasses in the field. [source]

    Allergy-like reactions to iodinated contrast agents.

    A critical analysis
    Abstract Allergy-like reactions may occur following administration of iodinated contrast media (CM), mostly in at-risk patients (patients with history of previous reaction, history of allergy, co-treated with interleukin-2 or beta-blockers, etc.) but remain generally unpredictable. Severe and fatal reactions are very rare events. All categories of CM may induce such reactions, although first generation (high osmolar CM) have been found to induce a higher rate of adverse events than low osmolar CM. However, no differences were found between the two categories of CM with respect to mortality. Delayed reactions can also occur. There are no differences between the various categories of CM except for non-ionic dimers, which are more likely to induce such effect. Numerous clinical studies have evaluated the prophylactic value of drugs (mostly antihistamines and corticosteroids). Results are unclear and highly variable. Any prevention depends upon the mechanism involved. However, the mechanism of CM-induced allergy-like reaction remains disputed. Relatively recent data revived the hypothesis of a type-I hypersensitivity mechanism. Positive skin tests to CM have been reported. However, the affinity of IgE towards CM has been found to be very low in the only study which actually evaluated it. Other pathophysiological mechanisms (involving direct secretory effects on mast cells or basophils, or activation of the complement system associated or not with the plasma contact system) are also much debated. Anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions are, in the end, clinically undistinguishable. [source]

    Microstructured Surfaces Cause Severe but Non-Detrimental Deformation of the Cell Nucleus

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 35 2009
    Patricia M. Davidson
    Surface features on the length scale of organelles allow their manipulation. Here, we present observations of an unexpected deformation of nuclei within cells growing on surfaces with micrometer-sized pillars. Our results demonstrate that a microstructured surface can induce strong shape deformations in cells, without harmful consequences, and strongly suggest that these are limited to cancerous cells. [source]

    Severe ulcerated ,bodybuilding acne' caused by anabolic steroid use and exacerbated by isotretinoin

    Verena Voelcker
    We report a case of severe "bodybuilding acne" in a 22-year-old patient. Treatment with isotretinoin paradoxically led to exaceibation and occurrence of pyogenic granuloma-like lesions. [source]

    Severity of Vertebral Fractures Is Associated With Alterations of Cortical Architecture in Postmenopausal Women,

    Elisabeth Sornay-Rendu
    Abstract Patients with vertebral fractures (VFx) have trabecular architectural disruption on iliac biopsies. Because cortical bone is an important determinant of bone strength, we assessed cortical and trabecular microarchitecture at peripheral sites in patients with VFx of varying number (N) and severity (S). Bone architecture and volumetric density (vBMD) were assessed at the distal radius and tibia with HR-pQCT (XTreme CT; Scanco Medical, Bassersdorf, Switzerland) in 100 women with VFx (age, 74 ± 9 yr) of different S (GI, n = 23; GII, n = 35; GIII, n = 42) and in 362 women (age, 69 ± 7 yr) without peripheral or VFx (G0) from the OFELY study. Spine areal BMD (aBMD) was assessed by DXA. Among all women, at the radius and after adjustment for age and aBMD, there were significant trends in lower vBMD, cortical thickness (Cort.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N) and thickness (Tb.Th), higher trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), and distribution of separation (Tb.Sp.SD) with greater VFx S and N. Among women with VFx, lower Cort.Th and cortical vBMD (D.Cort) were associated with severe (GIII) and multiple (n > 2) VFx (p < 0.05). The age-adjusted OR for each SD decrease of Cort.Th was 2.04 (95% CI, 1.02,4.00) after adjustment for aBMD. At the tibia, there were trends for lower vBMD, Tb.N, Tb.Th, and higher Tb.Sp and Tb.Sp.SD with greater VFx S and N (p < 0.001). Among women with VFx, lower Cort.Th and D.Cort were associated with severe and multiple (n > 3) VFx (p < 0.01). In postmenopausal women, VFx are associated with low vBMD and architectural decay of trabecular and cortical bone at the radius and tibia, independently of spine aBMD. Severe and multiple VFx are associated with even more alterations of cortical bone. [source]

    Left Ventricular Rhabdomyoma With Severe Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

    Ali Sarigul M.D.
    Rhabdomyomas are the most common tumors in this group of patients. We herein report a 40-day-old male patient with left ventricular rhabdomyoma. The tumor caused syncope attack and supraventricular tachycardia. An emergency operation was planned and the life-threatening lesion was excised via left ventriculotomy. The patient was extubated on postoperative sixth hour and discharged from hospital on the sixth day of the postoperative period without any problem. This successful operation encourages us not to hesitate to perform an operation in newborns with cardiac neoplasms causing hemodynamic instability. [source]

    Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction: A Continuous Surgical Challenge

    Ch.M., F.E.T.C.S., F.R.C.S., Raimondo Ascione M.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Predictors of Early Outcome After Coronary Artery Surgery in Patients with Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Naresh Trehan
    The present study was undertaken to identify the prognostic factors in such patients. Methods: We analyzed the data of 176 consecutive patients (161 men, 15 women), aged 29 to 88 years (mean 58.43), with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <30% who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. The LVEF ranged from 15% to 30% (mean 27.18%). Preoperatively, 33% had angina, 19.9% had recent myocardial infarction, and 21.6% had congestive heart failure. The mean number of grafts was 2.5/patient. The intra-aortic balloon was used prophylactically in 20.5% of patients and therapeutically in 4.0% of patients. Results: The hospital mortality was 2.3%. The complications occurred as follows: perioperative myocardial infarction in two (1.1%), intractable ventricular arrhythmias in two (1.1%), prolonged ventilation in four (2.3%) and peritoneal dialysis in 1 (0.6%). The mean ICU and hospital stay were2.46 ± 0.76and7.57 ± 2.24days, respectively. The predictors of survival on univariate analysis were New York Heart Association (NYHA) class(x2 = 14.458, p < 0.001), recent myocardial infarction(x2 = 5.852, p = 0.016), congestive heart failure (CHF)(x2 = 5.526, p = 0.019), and left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI)(x2 = 25.833, p < 0.001). However, on multivariate analysis, left ventricular end-systolic volume index was the only independent left ventricular function measurement predictive of survival(x2 = 10.228, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Left ventricular end-systolic volume index is the most important predictor of survival after coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with severe myocardial dysfunction.(J Card Surg 2003;18:101-106) [source]

    Acceleration-Dependent Left Bundle Branch Block with Severe Left Ventricular Dyssynchrony Results in Acute Heart Failure: Are There More Patients Who Benefit from Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy?

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been proposed to improve hemodynamics in patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block (LBBB) by resynchronization of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony. The current report concerns a patient with narrow QRS complex without LV dyssynchrony who experienced an acute exacerbation of heart failure following exercise. Careful analysis revealed that an increase of heart rate induced acceleration-dependent LBBB with severe LV dyssynchrony and mitral regurgitation followed by acute heart failure and hemodynamic collapse. CRT prevented these adverse reactions. Accordingly, optimal evaluation for CRT may include testing for LV dyssynchrony during exercise. [source]

    Clinical Course and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapy in Postinfarction Women with Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Background: There are limited data regarding implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy in postinfarction women with severe left ventricular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of cardiac events and effects of ICD therapy in women as compared to men enrolled in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II (MADIT II). Methods and Results: Among 1,232 patients enrolled in MADIT II, there were 192 (16%) women and 1,040 (84%) men. When compared to men, women had an increased frequency of NYHA class ,II (70 vs 63%; P = 0.067), hypertension (60% vs 52%; P = 0.047), diabetes (42% vs 34%; P = 0.027), and LBBB (25% vs 17%; P = 0.011), and less frequent CABG surgery (42% vs 60%; P < 0.001). The 2-year cumulative mortality in patients randomized to conventional therapy was not significantly different in women and men (30% and 20%, respectively; P = 0.19). Adjusting for relevant clinical covariates, the hazard ratios for ICD effectiveness were similar in women (0.57; 95% CI = 0.28,1.18; P = 0.132) and men (0.66; 95% CI = 0.48,0.91; P = 0.011). The risk of appropriate ICD therapy for VT/VF was lower in women than in men (hazard ratio = 0.60 for female vs male gender; 95% CI = 0.37,0.98; P = 0.039). Conclusions: MADIT II women had similar mortality and similar ICD effectiveness when compared to men. MADIT II women with ICDs had a lower risk of arrhythmic events with fewer episodes of ventricular tachycardia than men. [source]

    Prospective Follow-Up of Empirically Derived Alcohol Dependence Subtypes in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC): Recovery Status, Alcohol Use Disorders and Diagnostic Criteria, Alcohol Consumption Behavior, Health Status, and Treatment Seeking

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2010
    Howard B. Moss
    Background:, We have previously reported on an empirical classification of Alcohol Dependence (AD) individuals into subtypes using nationally representative general population data from the 2001 to 2002 Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and latent class analysis. Our results suggested a typology of 5 separate clusters based upon age of onset of AD, multigenerational familial AD, rates of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), endorsement of specific AD and Alcohol Abuse (AA) criteria, and the presence of comorbid mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders (SUD). In this report, we focus on the clinical follow-up of these cluster members in Wave 2 of the NESARC (2004 to 2005). Methods:, The mean interval between NESARC Wave 1 and NESARC Wave 2 interviews was 36.6 (SD = 2.6) months. For these analyses, we utilized a Wave 2 NESARC sample that was comprised of a total of 1,172 individuals who were initially ascertained as having past-year AD at NESARC Wave 1 and initially subtyped into one of 5 groupings using latent class analysis. We identified these subtypes as: (i) Young Adult, characterized by very early age of onset, minimal family history, and low rates of psychiatric and SUD comorbidity; (ii) Functional, characterized by older age of onset, higher psychosocial functioning, minimal family history, and low rates of psychiatric and SUD comorbidity; (iii) Intermediate Familial, characterized by older age of onset, significant familial AD, and elevated comorbid rates of mood disorders SUD; (iv) Young Antisocial, characterized by early age of onset and elevated rates of ASPD, significant familial AD, and elevated rates of comorbid mood disorders and SUD; (v) Chronic Severe, characterized by later onset, elevated rates of ASPD, significant familial AD, and elevated rates of comorbid mood disorders and SUD. In this report, we examine Wave 2 recovery status, health status, alcohol consumption behavior, and treatment episodes based upon these subtypes. Results:, Significantly fewer of the Young Adult and Functional subtypes continued to meet full DSM-IV AD criteria in Wave 2 than did the Intermediate Familial, the Young Antisocial, and the Chronic Severe subtypes. However, we did not find that treatment seeking for alcohol problems increased over Wave 1 reports. In Wave 2, Young Antisocial and Chronic Severe subtypes had highest rates of past-year treatment seeking. In terms of health status, the Intermediate Familial, the Young Antisocial, and the Chronic Severe subtypes had significantly worse mental health scores than the Young Adult and Functional subtypes. For physical health status, the Functional, Intermediate Familial, Young Antisocial, and the Chronic Severe subtypes had significantly worse scores than the Young Adult subtype. In terms of alcohol consumption behavior, the Young Adult, Functional, and Young Antisocial subtypes significantly reduced their risk drinking days between Wave 1 and Wave 2, whereas the Intermediate Familial and the Chronic Severe subtypes did not. Discussion:, The results suggest that the empirical AD typology predicts differential clinical outcomes 3 years later. Persistence of full AD, treatment seeking, and worse mental health status were associated most strongly with those subtypes manifesting the greatest degree of psychiatric comorbidity. Reductions in alcohol consumption behavior and good physical health status were seen among the 2 younger subtypes. Overall, the least prevalent subtype, the Chronic Severe, showed the greatest stability in the manifestations of AD, despite having the highest rate of treatment seeking. [source]

    Effects of Corticosteroid Therapy on the Long-Term Outcome of Radiofrequency Lesions in the Swine Caval Veins

    Background: We explored the angiographic and pathological effects of corticosteroids on the long-term outcome of radiofrequency (RF) ablation lesions in the swine caval veins. Methods: Under fluoroscopy guidance, a single linear RF lesion (4-mm tip, 60°C, 180 seconds) was created in each vena cava (from ±2 cm into the vein to the venoatrial junction) of 20 anesthetized minipigs (35± 2 kg). Three groups were studied: acute (n = 4), killed 1 hour after RF; control (n = 8), sacrificed 83± 1 days after RF; and pigs (n = 8) receiving hydrocortisone (400 mg i.v. after RF) and prednisone (25 mg po for 30 days), killed 83± 1 days post-RF. Angiography was performed before, immediately after ablation, and at follow-up. Then, animals were sacrificed for histological analysis. Results: Mild (<40%) or moderate (41,70%) acute luminal narrowing occurred in 19/20 (95%) inferior veins and in 13/20 (65%) superior veins. Severe (>70%) stenosis and occlusions were not noted. At follow-up, in both chronic groups, mean vessel diameters returned to baseline and progression of luminal narrowing did not occur in any vein. Of note, superior and inferior vena cava angiographic diameter for control and treated pigs did not differ. The same was observed for the cross-sectional luminal area. Acute lesions displayed transmural coagulative necrosis whereas chronic lesions revealed marked fibrosis. Histological findings were similar in controls and treated pigs. Conclusion: In this model, mild and moderate stenosis, occurring immediately after ablation, seems to resolve over time. Corticosteroids do not affect the long-term outcome of such RF lesions in the caval veins. [source]

    Intraoperative hyponatremia during craniofacial surgery

    Summary Background:, Hyponatremia is an important cause of morbidity in some groups of hospitalized children. Our aim is to describe the incidence and severity of intraoperative hyponatremia in children undergoing craniofacial surgery, and determine the associated risk factors. Methods:, A descriptive retrospective study of children who underwent primary craniofacial surgery between March 1994 and February 2008 was performed. All administered fluids contained a minimum sodium concentration of 140 mmol·l,1. Hyponatremia was classified as follows: severe ,125 mmol·l,1; moderate 126,130 mmol·l,1; and, mild 131,134 mmol·l,1. Results:, Hundred and seven cases are reported. Severe, moderate and mild intraoperative hyponatremia occurred in 14 (13%), 21 (19%) and 23 (22%) children respectively. Mannitol was given to 31 (29%) children, but was not associated with the development of hyponatremia. Neither the type nor duration of surgery, type of fluid replacement nor hourly urinary output, was associated with development of hyponatremia. Most episodes of significant intraoperative hyponatremia (44%) were detected between the 2nd and the 4th hour of surgery. There were no identified neurological sequelae (e.g. coma, neurological deficit) attributable to the hyponatremia. Conclusion:, Despite strict avoidance of low sodium solutions (<140 mmol·l,1), hyponatremia occurs frequently in children undergoing craniofacial surgery in our practice; and is unrelated to the administration of mannitol. Although the mechanisms are yet to be determined, anesthesiologists should be aware of this issue and be prepared to monitor and treat this potentially serious complication. [source]

    Severe ,0 thalassemia/hemoglobin E disease caused by de novo 22-base pair duplication in the paternal allele of , globin gene

    Ponlapat Rojnuckarin
    Abstract , Thalassemia is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia. A prevention program has been implemented in Thailand comprising mass carrier screening and genetic testing. In this study, a Thai girl with severe , thalassemia/hemoglobin (Hb) E disease was born from the mother with Hb E trait and the genotypically normal father. DNA sequencing revealed novel 22-bp tandem duplication in the paternal allele of , globin gene, producing a severely truncated product. A short recurring nucleotide at the insertion site suggested a predisposition to this mutation. Therefore, spontaneous , globin mutations occasionally occur in normal population. Its clinical significance is noteworthy in countries with high prevalence of , thalassemia. Am. J. Hematol 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Integrative Model of Caregiving: How Macro and Micro Factors Affect Caregivers of Adults With Severe and Persistent Mental Illness

    Winnie W. S. Mak PhD
    The study tested an integrative model of caregiving by examining the effects of sociocultural characteristics, interpersonal relations, mental health service structure, consumers' symptoms, objective burden, and evaluation of service systems on the subjective experiences of caregivers. The sample consisted of 428 caregivers of adults with severe and persistent mental illness. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that ethnicity was the most significant sociocultural factor on caregivers' worry, personal growth, and benefits. Caregivers enrolled in managed care plans worried more about their consumers' welfare and felt less gratified by their experiences than their counterparts from fee-for-service plans. Implications to and partnerships among caregivers and mental health service systems were discussed. [source]

    Risk factors and characteristics associated with severe and difficult to treat asthma phenotype: an analysis of the ENFUMOSA group of patients based on the ECRHS questionnaire

    M. Gaga
    Summary Background Severe and difficult to treat asthma impairs health status and accounts for about half of asthma expenditure. In 1994, a European Network For Understanding Mechanisms of Severe Asthma (ENFUMOSA) was formed. A large group of patients from nine European countries has been selected. Objective To examine the risk factors and symptoms associated with a phenotype of severe/difficult to treat asthma. Methods The present report presents data assessed through the use of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) Questionnaire in 148 mild,moderate controlled and 155 severe asthmatics from the ENFUMOSA group. Results There is a negative association of severe asthma with reported allergy and with a family history of allergy (Odds ratio (OR)=0.45). Sharing a bedroom before the age of five is associated with a higher risk of severe asthma (OR=1.5) while childhood infections, play school attendance and exposure to allergens or animals are not. A larger proportion of severe asthma patients report symptoms at work (OR=2.7) or have to change jobs (OR=4.3) and fewer severe than mild patients are currently employed (OR=0.39). Smoking and exposure to smoke is similar in mild and severe asthma. Dietary habits do not differ between the groups, but severe asthmatics report eating less savoury snacks and there is a trend for lower intake of sweets. Conclusions Analysis of the ECRHS questionnaire in the ENFUMOSA study shows that severe asthma patients experience more symptoms and their health status is impaired by their inability to work and perhaps eat freely. Personal and maternal history of allergy is associated with mild but not severe asthma. Other than sharing a bedroom before the age of 5 years, no childhood exposure risk factors associated with severe asthma could be identified from this analysis. [source]

    Severity of anxiety and work-related outcomes of patients with anxiety disorders

    Steven R. Erickson PharmD.
    Abstract Background: This study examined associations between anxiety and work-related outcomes in an anxiety disorders clinic population, examining both pretreatment links and the impact of anxiety change over 12 weeks of treatment on work outcomes. Four validated instruments were used to also allow examination of their psychometric properties, with the goal of improving measurement of work-related quality of life in this population. Methods: Newly enrolled adult patients seeking treatment in a university-based anxiety clinic were administered four work performance measures: Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ), Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI), Endicott Work Productivity Scale (EWPS), and Functional Status Questionnaire Work Performance Scale (WPS). Anxiety severity was determined using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The Clinical Global Impressions, Global Improvement Scale (CGI-I) was completed by patients to evaluate symptom change at a 12-week follow-up. Two severity groups (minimal/mild vs. moderate/severe, based on baseline BAI score) were compared to each other on work measures. Results: Eighty-one patients provided complete baseline data. Anxiety severity groups did not differ in job type, time on job, job satisfaction, or job choice. Patients with greater anxiety generally showed lower work performance on all instruments. Job advancement was impaired for the moderate/severe group. The multi-item performance scales demonstrated better validity and internal consistency. The WLQ and the WPAI detected change with symptom improvement. Conclusion: Level of work performance was generally associated with severity of anxiety. Of the instruments tested, the WLQ and the WPAI questionnaire demonstrated acceptable validity and internal reliability. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Prevalence of vision, hearing, and combined vision and hearing impairments in patients with hip fractures

    Else Vengnes Grue
    Aims and objectives., To examine the prevalence of hearing and vision impairments in 65+ year-old patients with hip fractures. Background., Many older people believe sensory problems are inevitable and thus avoid medical assessment and assistance. Furthermore, health professionals often overlook sensory problems, though it is known that sensory impairments can increase the risk of falling and sustaining hip fractures. Design., A prospective, observational study. Methods., We admitted 544 consecutive patients to an orthogeriatric ward from October 2004,July 2006; 332 were screened for study inclusion with the Resident Assessment Instrument for Acute Care (InterRAI-AC) and a questionnaire (KAS-Screen). We conducted patient interviews, objective assessments, explored hospital records and interviewed the family and staff. Impairments were defined as problems with seeing, reading regular print or hearing normal speech. Results., Sixteen per cent of the patients had no sensory impairments, 15·4% had vision impairments, 38·6% had hearing impairments and 30·1% had combined sensory impairments. Among the impaired, 80·6% were female, the mean age was 84·3 years (SD 6·8), 79·9% were living alone, 48·0% had cognitive impairments, 89·6% had impaired activities of daily living, 70·6% had impaired instrument activities in daily living, 51·0% had bladder incontinence and 26·.8% were underweight. Comorbidity and polypharmacy were common. Delirium was detected in 17·9% on day three after surgery. Results showed the prevalence of combined sensory impairments was: 32·8% none; 52·2% moderate/severe; and 15·1% severe. Conclusion., Patients with hip fractures frequently have hearing, vision and combined impairments. Relevance to clinical practice., We recommend routine screening for sensory impairments in patients with hip fractures. Most sensory problems can be treated or relieved with environmental adjustments. Patients should be encouraged to seek treatment and training for adapting to sensory deficiencies. This approach may reduce the number of falls and improve the ability to sustain independent living. [source]

    Preoperative erectile function is one predictor for post prostatectomy incontinence,

    S. Wille
    Abstract Aims The precise etiology of post prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) is not fully understood and risk factors are not yet comprehensively defined. It has been reported that sparing of the neurovascular bundle during prostatectomy improves postoperative erectile function, whereas the influence on urinary control is unclear. From daily clinical experience we made the impression that patients who are in the best shape have better erections and better continence. We therefore searched our database for a possible correlation between the preoperative erectile function and the incidence of PPI. Patients and Methods Four hundred three patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy between January 2000 and May 2003 were enrolled into this retrospective study. Data of 327 patients (response rate 81%) at a median follow-up of 26 months were analyzed using the validated International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF 5), the validated Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI6) and a standardized urinary symptom inventory. Continence was defined as usage of no or one pad daily. Erectile Dysfunction (ED) was defined as none/mild or moderate/severe with an IIEF 5 score of 17 or more or less than 17, respectively. Results Univariate and mulitvariate logistic regression analysis including preoperative IIEF 5 scores, age and nerve sparing prostatectomy, identified preoperative erectile function as significant predictor for PPI (P,=,0.024), whereas age (P,=,0.759) and nerve sparing prostatectomy (P,=,0.504) did not predict PPI. Conclusion Erectile function is a predictor of PPI and should be recorded preoperatively. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Investigation of metabolite changes in the transition from pre-invasive to invasive cervical cancer measured using 1H and 31P magic angle spinning MRS of intact tissue

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 2 2009
    Sonali S. De Silva
    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic changes in the transition from pre-invasive to invasive cervical cancer using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) MRS. Biopsy specimens were obtained from women with histologically normal cervix (n,=,5), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN; mild, n,=,5; moderate/severe, n,=,40), and invasive cancer (n,=,23). 1H HR-MAS MRS data were acquired using a Bruker Avance 11.74,T spectrometer (Carr,Purcell,Meiboom,Gill sequence; TR,=,4.8,s; TE,=,135,ms; 512 scans; 41,min acquisition). 31P HR-MAS spectra were obtained from the normal subjects and cancer patients only (as acetic acid applied before tissue sampling in patients with CIN impaired spectral quality) using a 1H-decoupled pulse-acquire sequence (TR,=,2.82,s; 2048 scans; 96,min acquisition). Peak assignments were based on values reported in the literature. Peak areas were measured using the AMARES algorithm. Estimated metabolite concentrations were compared between patient diagnostic categories and tissue histology using independent samples t tests. Comparisons based on patient category at diagnosis showed significantly higher estimated concentrations of choline (P,=,0.0001) and phosphocholine (P,=,0.002) in tissue from patients with cancer than from patients with high-grade dyskaryosis, but no differences between non-cancer groups. Division by histology of the sample also showed increases in choline (P,=,0.002) and phosphocholine (P,=,0.002) in cancer compared with high-grade CIN tissue. Phosphoethanolamine was increased in cancer compared with normal tissue (P,=,0.0001). Estimated concentrations of alanine (P,=,0.01) and creatine (P,=,0.008) were significantly reduced in normal tissue from cancer patients compared with normal tissue from non-cancer patients. The estimated concentration of choline was significantly increased in CIN tissue from cancer patients compared with CIN tissue from non-cancer patients (P,=,0.0001). Estimated concentrations of choline-containing metabolites increased from pre-invasive to invasive cervical cancer. Concurrent metabolite depletion occurs in normal tissue adjacent to cancer tissue. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Allergic rhinitis in the child and associated comorbidities

    Tania Sih
    Sih T, Mion O. Allergic rhinitis in the child and associated comorbidities. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: e107,e113. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S Allergic rhinitis (AR) typically presents after the second year of life, but the exact prevalence in early life is unknown. AR affects 10,30% of the population, with the greatest frequency found in children and adolescents. It appears that the prevalence has increased in the pediatric population. As the childs' immune system develops between the 1st and 4th yr of life, those with an atopic predisposition begin to express allergic disease with a clear Th2 response to allergen exposure, resulting in symptoms. In pediatric AR, two or more seasons of pollen exposure are generally needed for sensitization, so allergy testing to seasonal allergens (trees, grasses, and weeds) should be conducted after the age of 2 or 3 years. Sensitization to perennial allergens (animals, dust mites, and cockroaches) may manifest several months after exposure. Classification of AR includes measurement of frequency and duration of symptoms. Intermittent AR is defined as symptoms for <4 days/wk or <4 consecutive weeks. Persistent AR is defined as occurring for more than 4 days/wk and more than 4 consecutive weeks. AR is associated with impairments in quality of life, sleep disorders, emotional problems, and impairment in activities such as work and school productivity and social functioning. AR can also be graded in severity , either mild or moderate/severe. There are comorbidities associated with AR. The chronic effects of the inflammatory process affect lungs, ears, growth, and others. AR can induce medical complications, learning problems and sleep-related complaints, such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and chronic and acute sinusitis, acute otitis media, serous otitis media, and aggravation of adenoidal hypertrophy and asthma. [source]

    Chest radiograph thoracic areas and lung volumes in infants developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Caroline May MRCPCH
    Abstract Objectives To determine whether chest radiograph (CXR) thoracic areas and lung volumes differed between infants who did and did not develop BPD and according to the severity of BPD developed. Working Hypothesis Infants developing BPD, particularly if moderate or severe, would have low CXR thoracic areas and lung volumes in the perinatal period. Study Design Prospective study. Patient-Subject Selection 53 infants with a median gestational age of 28 (range 24,32) weeks. Methodology CXR thoracic areas were calculated using a Picture Archiving and Communicating System (PACS) and lung volume assessed by measurement of functional residual capacity (FRC) in the first 72 hr after birth. BPD was diagnosed if the infants were oxygen dependent beyond 28 days, mild BPD in infants no longer oxygen dependent at 36 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA) and moderate/severe BPD in infants who required supplementary oxygen with or without respiratory support at 36 weeks PMA. Results Thirty two infants developed BPD, 21 had moderate/severe BPD. The median CXR thoracic areas were higher (P,<,0.0001) and FRCs were lower (P,<,0.0001) in the BPD compared to no BPD infants. The median CXR thoracic areas of the moderate/severe group (P,<,0.001) and the mild group (P,<,0.05) were greater than that of the no BPD group and the median FRC of the moderate/severe BPD group was lower than the no BPD group (<0.001) and the mild BPD group (P,<,0.05). Conclusion These results highlight that in the perinatal period infants developing BPD, particularly if moderate/severe, have low functional lung volumes and may have gas trapping, which likely reflects ventilation inhomogeneity. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009; 44:80,85. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Quality of evidence for the present Swedish child health surveillance programme

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2000
    S Bremberg
    The present Swedish health surveillance programme includes 15 examinations by a nurse, 5 examinations by a physician, 7 assessments of development, 2 assessments of hearing and 1 assessment of visual acuity. The WHO criteria for evaluation of screening programmes can be applied to the Swedish health surveillance programme. These criteria state that the health problem must be important, that there should be an early phase during which the condition is only detectable by medical professionals and that treatment at an early phase should favourably affect the prognosis. The quality of evidence for fulfilment of these criteria has been graded I-III. Grade II-2 refers to evidence obtained from well-designed cohort or case-control analytical studies. The following disorders might be affected by health surveillance at child health centres: amblyopia, ADHD/DAMP, failure to thrive, cerebral palsy, congenital heart failure, congenital luxation of hip, hearing impairment (severe or moderate), mental retardation, retentio testis and hydrocephalus. None of these conditions fulfils the WHO criteria with quality of evidence grade II-2 or better. Thus, the evidence for the present Swedish health surveillance programme is problematic. [source]

    The Contribution of Long-Term Research at Gombe National Park to Chimpanzee Conservation

    chimpancé; conservación de simios mayores; Parque Nacional Gombe; Tanzania Abstract:,Long-term research projects can provide important conservation benefits, not only through research specifically focused on conservation problems, but also from various incidental benefits, such as increased intensity of monitoring and building support for the protection of an area. At Gombe National Park, Tanzania, long-term research has provided at least four distinct benefits to wildlife conservation. (1) Jane Goodall's groundbreaking discoveries of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) tool use, hunting, and complex social relationships in what was then a game reserve drew attention to the area and created support for upgrading Gombe to national park status in 1968. (2) The highly publicized findings have earned Gombe and Tanzania the attention of a worldwide public that includes tourists and donors that provide financial support for Gombe, other parks in Tanzania, and chimpanzee conservation in general. (3) Crucial information on social structure and habitat use has been gathered that is essential for effective conservation of chimpanzees at Gombe and elsewhere. (4) A clear picture of Gombe's chimpanzee population over the past 40 years has been determined, and this has helped identify the greatest threats to the viability of this population, namely disease and habita loss outside the park. These threats are severe and because of the small size of the population it is extremely vulnerable. Research at Gombe has led to the establishment of conservation education and development projects around Gombe, which are needed to build local support for the park and its chimpanzees, but saving these famous chimpanzees will take a larger integrated effort on the part of park managers, researchers, and the local community with financial help from international donors. Resumen:,Los proyectos de investigación de largo plazo pueden proporcionar beneficios importantes a la conservación, no solo a través de investigación enfocada específicamente a problemas de conservación, sino también a través de varios beneficios incidentales, como una mayor intensidad de monitoreo y construcción de soporte para la protección de un área. En el Parque Nacional Gombe, Tanzania, la investigación a largo plazo ha proporcionado por lo menos cuatro beneficios a la conservación de vida silvestre. (1) Los descubrimientos innovadores de Jane Goodall sobre el uso de herramientas, la cacería y las complejas relaciones sociales de chimpancés en lo que entonces era una reserva de caza atrajeron la atención al área y crearon el soporte para cambiar a Gombe a estatus de parque nacional en 1968. (2) Los hallazgos muy publicitados han ganado para Gombe y Tanzania la atención del público en todo el mundo incluyendo turistas y donadores que proporcionan soporte financiero a Gombe, otros parques en Tanzania y a la conservación de chimpancés en general. (3) Se ha reunido información crucial sobre la estructura social y el uso del hábitat que ha sido esencial para la conservación efectiva de chimpancés en Gombe y otros sitios. (4) Se ha determinado un panorama claro de la población de chimpancés en Gombe durante los últimos 40 años, y esto a ayudado a identificar las mayores amenazas a la viabilidad de esta población, a saber enfermedades y pérdida de hábitat fuera del parque. Estas amenazas son severas y la población es extremadamente vulnerable por su tamaño pequeño. La investigación en Gombe ha llevado al establecimiento de proyectos de desarrollo y de educación para la conservación en los alrededores del parque, lo cual es necesario para encontrar soporte local para el parque y sus chimpancés, pero el rescate de estos famosos chimpancés requerirá de un esfuerzo más integrado de parte de los manejadores del parque, investigadores y la comunidad local con la ayuda financiera de donadores internacionales. [source]

    An epidemic of allergic contact dermatitis due to epilating products

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 2 2002
    A. Goossens
    Over a period of 19 months, 33 cases of acute allergic contact dermatitis from Veet® epilating waxes and/or the accompanying tissue (Reckitt Benckiser, Massy, France) were observed in France and Belgium. The lesions started on the legs and spread to other parts of the body, especially the face, and were sometimes so severe that hospitalization and/or systemic corticosteroids were required. Primary sensitization occurred as early as after the first application in several patients. Patch tests were performed in 26 of the patients and produced strong positive reactions to the tissue (25 times) and/or the wax (13 times). The allergenic culprits in the wax were modified-colophonium derivatives (colophonium in the standard series testing negatively in all except 4 patients), while methoxy PEG-22/dodecyl glycol copolymer and to a lesser degree lauryl alcohol turned out to be the main causal allergens in the tissue. [source]