Selective Induction (selective + induction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Selective induction of mucin-3 by hypoxia in intestinal epithelia

Nancy A. Louis
Abstract Epithelial cells line mucosal surfaces (e.g., lung, intestine) and critically function as a semipermeable barrier to the outside world. Mucosal organs are highly vascular with extensive metabolic demands, and for this reason, are particularly susceptible to diminished blood flow and resultant tissue hypoxia. Here, we pursue the hypothesis that intestinal barrier function is regulated in a protective manner by hypoxia responsive genes. We demonstrate by PCR confirmation of microarray data and by avidin blotting of immunoprecipitated human Mucin 3 (MUC3), that surface MUC3 expression is induced in T84 intestinal epithelial cells following exposure to hypoxia. MUC3 RNA is minimally detectable while surface protein expression is absent under baseline normoxic conditions. There is a robust induction in both the mRNA (first evident by 8 h) and protein expression, first observed and maximally expressed following 24 h hypoxia. This is followed by a subsequent decline in protein expression, which remains well above baseline at 48 h of hypoxia. Further, we demonstrate that this induction of MUC3 protein is associated with a transient increase in the barrier restorative peptide, intestinal trefoil factor (ITF). ITF not only colocalizes with MUC3, by confocal microscopy, to the apical surface of T84 cells following exposure to hypoxia, but is also found, by co-immunoprecipitation, to be physically associated with MUC3, following 24 h of hypoxia. In exploration of the mechanism of hypoxic regulation of mucin 3 expression, we demonstrated by luciferase assay that the full-length promoter for mouse Mucin 3 (Muc3) is hypoxia-responsive with a 5.08,,1.76-fold induction following 24 h of hypoxia. Furthermore, analysis of both the human (MUC3A) and mouse (Muc3) promoters revealed potential HIF-1 binding sites which were shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation to bind the pivotal hypoxia-regulating transcription factor HIF-1,. Taken together, these studies implicate the HIF-1, mediated hypoxic induced expression of mucin 3 and associated ITF in the maintenance of intestinal barrier function under hypoxic conditions. J. Cell. Biochem. 99: 1616,1627, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Selective induction of human beta-defensin mRNAs by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in primary and immortalized oral epithelial cells

E. C. Feucht
Human beta-defensin-2, and -3 (hBD-2, -3) are small inducible antimicrobial peptides involved in host defense. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a gram-negative facultative anaerobe, is frequently associated with oral disease in humans. A. actinomycetemcomitans, strain JP2, was examined for its ability to modulate hBD-2 and -3 gene expression in normal human oral epithelial cells (NHOECs) and in OKF6/Tert cells, an immortalized cell line derived from human oral epithelial cells. Stimulation of both cell types by live bacteria, at a minimal bacteria/cell ratio of 500 : 1, resulted in increased hBD-3 gene expression. This was not evinced for hBD-2 in either cell type with live bacteria, even at bacteria/cell ratios exceeding 500 : 1. The increased hBD-3 gene expression was dependent upon viable bacteria, and not their lipopolysaccharides (LPS), since heat-killed A. actinomycetemcomitans did not induce hBD-3 transcript expression. The overall similarity between results obtained in OKF6/Tert cells and NHOECs suggest that the OKF6/Tert cell line may be a useful tool in the study of beta-defensin expression in oral epithelium. [source]

Selective induction of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor by LPS and allergen in dendritic cells

O. Noga
Summary Background Neurotrophins are produced by various cells upon different stimuli and participate in the initiation and regulation of inflammation in various diseases including allergy and asthma, but little is known about the production and control of neurotrophins by dendritic cells (DCs). The aim of this study was to assess whether DCs produce the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and whether inflammatory stimuli or allergens are able to induce the production of neurotrophic factors. Methods Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) were generated from different donors. The neurotrophins NGF and BDNF were demonstrated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, flow cytometry analysis and fluorescence microscopy. MoDCs were cultured and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or allergen for 24 h. The supernatants and cells were collected. Measurement for NGF and BDNF was performed by ELISA. Results DCs express mRNA for the neurotrophins NGF and BDNF. Proteins were detectable by Western blot, FACS analysis and fluorescence microscopy. LPS led to an up-regulation of BDNF, while NGF was unaffected. Cell lysates demonstrated an increased amount of BDNF after stimulation with LPS or allergen, while NGF was not affected significantly. Conclusions DCs are a source of neurotrophins. LPS selectively regulates the production of BDNF. Allergen stimulation leads to an LPS-independent regulation. This contributes to a complex involvement of neurotrophins in allergic diseases. [source]

Roles of JNK-1 and p38 in selective induction of apoptosis by capsaicin in ras -transformed human breast epithelial cells

Hye-Jung Kang
Abstract Efforts have been made to develop a chemoprevention strategy that selectively triggers apoptosis in malignant cancer cells. Previous studies showed that capsaicin, the major pungent ingredient of red pepper, had differential effect between normal and transformed cells. As an approach to unveil the molecular mechanism by which capsaicin selectively induces apoptosis in transformed cells, we investigated the effect of capsaicin in nontransformed and ras -transformed cells of a common origin: parental (MCF10A) and H- ras -transformed (H- ras MCF10A) human breast epithelial cells. Here, we show that capsaicin selectively induces apoptosis in H- ras -transformed cells but not in their normal cell counterparts. The capsaicin-induced apoptosis, which is dependent on ras transformation, involves the activity of DEVDase (caspase-3 like). In H - ras MCF10A cells, capsaicin treatment markedly activated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-1 and p38 matigen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) while it deactivated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs). The use of kinase inhibitors and overexpression of dominant-negative forms of MAPKs demonstrated a role of JNK-1 and p38, but not that of ERKs, in apoptosis induced by capsaicin in H- ras -transformed MCF10A cells. Based on the present study, we propose that capsaicin selectively induces apoptosis through modulation of ras -downstream signaling molecules in ras -activated MCF10A cells. Taken in conjunction with the fact that uncontrolled ras activation is probably the most common genetic defect in human cancer cells, our finding may be critical to the chemopreventive potential of capsaicin and for developing a strategy to induce tumor cell-specific apoptosis. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effects of Light and Dark Beer on Hepatic Cytochrome P-450 Expression in Male Rats Receiving Alcoholic Beverages as Part of Total Enteral Nutrition

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2005
Mats Hidestrand
Background: Alcoholic beverages contain many congeners in addition to ethanol. Therefore, consumption of alcoholic beverages may have considerably different effects on expression of hepatic microsomal monooxygenases than the relatively selective induction of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2E1 observed after consumption of pure ethanol. Methods: In the current study, we compared the effects of two beers: lager (a light roasted beer) and stout (a dark roasted beer) with those of an equivalent amount of pure ethanol on hepatic CYP expression. Beer or pure ethanol was part of a complete total enteral nutrition diet that was infused intragastrically into male Sprague Dawley rats for 21 days. At the end of the infusion period, rats were euthanized, and liver and intestinal microsomes were prepared. Expression and activity of CYP1A1/2, CYP2B1, CYP2E1, CYP3A, and CYP4A were assessed by Western immunoblotting and by using CYP enzyme,specific substrates, respectively. Results: mRNA and protein levels of CYP4A1 were elevated only in stout-treated animals. However, lauric acid 12-hydroxylase activity (a CYP4A-specific activity) was reduced (p, 0.05) in microsomes from lager- and stout-fed rats. After oxidation with potassium ferricyanide, this activity was significantly increased in microsomes from stout-fed animals. The relative expression of CYP2E1 and CYP2B1 and the activities toward p -nitrophenol, pentoxyresorufin, or benzyloxyresorufin did not differ between beers or compared with pure ethanol or controls. However, the mean expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A, and CYP4A apoproteins was greater in liver microsomes from stout-infused rats than in those from lager-infused rats, ethanol-infused rats, and diet controls (p, 0.05). In addition, although no significant differences were observed in ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (MROD), midazolam, or testosterone hydroxylase activities between groups, stout-infused rats had greater hepatic microsomal erythromycin N -demethylase activity than other groups (p, 0.05). Conclusions: Stout contains components other than ethanol that interact in a complex fashion with the monooxygenase system. [source]

Review: On TRAIL for malignant glioma therapy?

J. M. A. Kuijlen
J. M. A. Kuijlen, E. Bremer, J. J. A. Mooij, W. F. A. den Dunnen and W. Helfrich (2010) Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology36, 168,182 On TRAIL for malignant glioma therapy? Glioblastoma (GBM) is a devastating cancer with a median survival of around 15 months. Significant advances in treatment have not been achieved yet, even with a host of new therapeutics under investigation. Therefore, the quest for a cure for GBM remains as intense as ever. Of particular interest for GBM therapy is the selective induction of apoptosis using the pro-apoptotic tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). TRAIL signals apoptosis via its two agonistic receptors TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2. TRAIL is normally present as homotrimeric transmembrane protein, but can also be processed into a soluble trimeric form (sTRAIL). Recombinant sTRAIL has strong tumouricidal activity towards GBM cells, with no or minimal toxicity towards normal human cells. Unfortunately, GBM is a very heterogeneous tumour, with multiple genetically aberrant clones within one tumour. Consequently, any single agent therapy is likely to be not effective enough. However, the anti-GBM activity of TRAIL can be synergistically enhanced by a variety of conventional and novel targeted therapies, making TRAIL an ideal candidate for combinatorial strategies. Here we will, after briefly detailing the biology of TRAIL/TRAIL receptor signalling, focus on the promises and pitfalls of recombinant TRAIL as a therapeutic agent alone and in combinatorial therapeutic approaches for GBM. [source]

Odorants as cell-type specific activators of a heat shock response in the rat olfactory mucosa

Virginian McMillan Carr
Abstract Heat shock, or stress, proteins (HSPs) are induced in response to conditions that cause protein denaturation. Activation of cellular stress responses as a protective and survival mechanism is often associated with chemical exposure. One interface between the body and the external environment and chemical or biological agents therein is the olfactory epithelium (OE). To determine whether environmental odorants affect OE HSP expression, rats were exposed to a variety of odorants added to the cage bedding. Odorant exposure led to transient, selective induction of HSP70, HSC70, HSP25, and ubiquitin immunoreactivities (IRs) in supporting cells and subepithelial Bowman's gland acinar cells, two OE non-neuronal cell populations involved with inhalant biotransformation, detoxification, and maintenance of overall OE integrity. Responses exhibited odor specificity and dose dependency. HSP70 and HSC70 IRs occurred throughout the apical region of supporting cells; ubiquitin IR was confined to a supranuclear cone-shaped region. Electron microscopic examination confirmed these observations and, additionally, revealed odor-induced formation of dense vesicular arrays in the cone-like regions. HSP25 IR occurred throughout the entire supporting cell cytoplasm. In contrast to classical stress responses, in which the entire array of stress proteins is induced, no increases in HSP40 and HSP90 IRs were observed. Extended exposure to higher odorant doses caused prolonged activation of the same HSP subset in the non-neuronal cells and severe morphological damage in both supporting cells and olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), suggesting that non-neuronal cytoprotective stress response mechanisms had been overwhelmed and could no longer adequately maintain OE integrity. Significantly, ORNs showed no stress responses in any of our studies. These findings suggest a novel role for these HSPs in olfaction and, in turn, possible involvement in other normal neurophysiological processes. J. Comp. Neurol. 432:425,439, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Nitric oxide selectively depletes macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques via induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress

W Martinet
Background and purpose: Macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques have a tremendous impact on atherogenesis and plaque destabilization. We previously demonstrated that treatment of plaques in cholesterol-fed rabbits with the nitric oxide (NO) donor molsidomine preferentially eliminates macrophages, thereby favouring features of plaque stability. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism. Experimental approach: Macrophages and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were treated in vitro with the NO donors, spermine NONOate or S -nitroso- N -acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) as well as with the well-known endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducers thapsigargin, tunicamycin, dithiothreitol or brefeldin A. Cell viability was analysed by Neutral Red viability assays. Cleavage of caspase-3, DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural changes were examined to characterize the type of macrophage death. Induction of ER stress was evaluated by measuring C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2, (eIF2a), splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and inhibition of protein synthesis. Key results: Macrophages and SMCs treated with spermine NONOate or SNAP showed several signs of ER stress, including upregulation of CHOP expression, hyperphosphorylation of eIF2,, inhibition of de novo protein synthesis and splicing of XBP1 mRNA. These effects were similar in macrophages and SMCs, yet only macrophages underwent apoptosis. Plaques from molsidomine-treated atherosclerotic rabbits showed a 2.7-fold increase in CHOP expression as compared to placebo. Beside NO, selective induction of macrophage death could be initiated with thapsigargin and tunicamycin. Conclusions and implications: Induction of ER stress explains selective depletion of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques by a NO donor, probably via inhibition of protein synthesis. British Journal of Pharmacology (2007) 152, 493,500; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707426; published online 13 August 2007 [source]