Selective Depletion (selective + depletion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Fenfluramine-induced serotonergic neurotoxicity in mice: lack of neuroprotection by inhibition/ablation of nNOS

Yossef Itzhak
Abstract Previous studies have implicated a role for nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether NO is involved in serotonergic neurotoxicity caused by fenfluramine. In the first experiment, the effect of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI; 25 mg/kg 4) on fenfluramine (25 mg/kg 4)-induced serotonergic neurotoxicity in Swiss Webster mice was investigated. In the second experiment, the effect of fenfluramine (25 mg/kg 4) on nNOS (,/,) and wild-type (WT) mice was investigated. Fenfluramine induced hypothermia in all three mouse strains, and 7-NI had no thermoregulatory effect. Selective depletion of 5-HT and 5-HT transporter binding sites in the striatum, frontal cortex and hippocampus in all three mouse strains was observed, with no evidence of dopaminergic neurotoxicity. In the first experiment, 7-NI did not attenuate serotonergic neurotoxicity in Swiss Webster mice. In the second experiment, nNOS(,/,) and WT mice were equally sensitive to serotonergic neurotoxicity. These findings suggest that NO and peroxynitrite do not mediate fenfluramine-induced serotonergic neurotoxicity, and that NO is a selective mediator of amphetamines-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. [source]

Multi-year tracking of sediment sources in a small agricultural watershed using rare earth elements

A. Kimoto
Abstract Rare earth elements (REEs) have been successfully used as a sediment tracer, but the REE technique has never been used for studying sediment sources for a multi-year period. A nearly four-year field experiment was conducted on a small agricultural watershed near Coshocton, OH, USA, to assess the applicability of the REE technique for a multi-year period and to evaluate the relative contributions of sediment sources in the watershed. Tracer depletion and tracer enrichment ratio (ratio of the tracer concentrations in sediment to the concentrations in the soil in the areas of application) were evaluated to examine the applicability and accuracy of the technique. A minimum of 91 per cent of the mass of the applied elements was still available on any individual morphological element at the end of the experimental period. The tracer enrichment ratio varied from 04 to 23, and it was not significantly related to time. The relative contributions of six morphological elements within the watershed were evaluated as proportions to total sediment yield. The relative contribution of the lower channel was significantly increased as a function of the amount of sediment yield, while that of the lower backslope was significantly decreased. The relative contribution of the lower channel significantly decreased as a function of cumulative sediment yield, while the contributions of the shoulder and the upper backslope significantly increased. Our results showed that the REE technique can be used to track sediment sources for a relatively long period with two limitations or potential sources of error associated with a selective depletion of tracers and a contamination of downslope areas with tagged sediments from upslope areas. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Selective mitochondrial glutathione depletion by ethanol enhances acetaminophen toxicity in rat liver

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
Ping Zhao
Chronic alcohol consumption may potentiate acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity through enhanced formation of N -acetyl- p -benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) via induction of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). However, CYP2E1 induction appears to be insufficient to explain the claimed magnitude of the interaction. We assessed the role of selective depletion of liver mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) by chronic ethanol. Rats were fed the Lieber-DeCarli diet for 10 days or 6 weeks. APAP toxicity in liver slices (% glutathione- S -transferase , released to the medium, GST release) and NAPQI toxicity in isolated liver mitochondria (succinate dehydrogenase inactivation, SDH) from these rats were compared with pair-fed controls. Ethanol induced CYP2E1 in both the 10-day and 6-week groups by ,2-fold. APAP toxicity in liver slices was higher in the 6-week ethanol group than the 10-day ethanol group. Partial inhibition of NAPQI formation by CYP2E1 inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate to that of pair-fed controls abolished APAP toxicity in the 10-day ethanol group only. Ethanol selectively depleted liver mitochondrial GSH only in the 6-week group (by 52%) without altering cytosolic GSH. Significantly greater GSH loss and APAP covalent binding were observed in liver slice mitochondria of the 6-week ethanol group. Isolated mitochondria of the 6-week ethanol group were ,50% more susceptible to NAPQI (25-165 ,mol/L) induced SDH inactivation. This increased susceptibility was reproduced in pair-fed control mitochondria pretreated with diethylmaleate. In conclusion, 10-day ethanol feeding enhances APAP toxicity through CYP2E1 induction, whereas 6-week ethanol feeding potentiates APAP hepatotoxicity by inducing CYP2E1 and selectively depleting mitochondrial GSH. [source]

Neuromelanin selectively induces apoptosis in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells by deglutathionylation in mitochondria: involvement of the protein and melanin component

Makoto Naoi
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by selective depletion of nigral dopamine (DA) neurons containing neuromelanin (NM), suggesting the involvement of NM in the pathogenesis. This study reports induction of apoptosis by NM in SH-SY5Y cells, whereas protease-K-treated NM, synthesized DA- and cysteinyl dopamine melanin showed much less cytotoxicity. Cell death was mediated by mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, namely collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase 3, but Bcl-2 over-expression did not suppress apoptosis. NM increased sulfhydryl content in mitochondria, and a major part of it was identified as GSH, whereas dopamine melanin significantly reduced sulfhydryl levels. Western blot analysis for protein-bound GSH demonstrated that only NM reduced S -glutathionylated proteins in mitochondria and dissociated macromolecular structure of complex I. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were required for the deglutathionylation by NM, which antioxidants reduced significantly with prevention of apoptosis. These results suggest that NM may be related to cell death of DA neurons in PD and aging through regulation of mitochondrial redox state and S -glutathionylation, for which NM-associated protein is absolutely required. The novel function of NM is discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of PD. [source]

Modifications of the iron,neuromelanin system in Parkinson's disease

Mauro Fasano
Abstract Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder with a mainly sporadic aetiology, although a number of monogenic familiar forms are known. Most of the motor symptoms are due to selective depletion of dopaminergic, neuromelanin-containing neurones of the substantia nigra pars compacta. Neuromelanin is the dark insoluble macromolecule that confers the black (substantia nigra) or grey (locus coeruleus) colour to monoaminergic basal ganglia. In particular, nigral neurones are pigmented because of the accumulation of by-products of oxidative metabolism of the neurotransmitter dopamine. The occurrence of dopamine (and all the enzymatic machinery required for dopamine synthesis, re-uptake and disposal) and neuromelanin, and a large amount of iron ions that interact with them, makes dopaminergic nigral neurones peculiarly susceptible to oxidative stress conditions that, in turn, may become amplified by the iron,neuromelanin system itself. In this mini-review we describe biophysical evidence for iron,neuromelanin modifications that support this hypothesis. Furthermore, we discuss the formation of the covalent linkage between ,-synuclein and neuromelanin from the early stages of the disease. [source]

Delayed-onset neutropenia associated with rituximab therapy

Kritika Chaiwatanatorn
Summary. The characteristics of severe neutropenia with a delayed onset following administration of rituximab have been evaluated in 53 consecutively treated patients. All but one patient received rituximab for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Eight episodes of grade 4 neutropenia were detected between 1 and 5 months after rituximab, when administered alone on five occasions, and on three occasions in combination with chemotherapy, where neutrophil counts had recovered prior to the development of neutropenia. In three episodes, the patients presented with sepsis. Development of neutropenia did not correlate with either the presence of detectable disease or the administration of further treatment. Neutropenia was associated with selective depletion of neutrophil precursors in all but one episode, where it was associated with generalized bone marrow hypoplasia. All episodes developed after a period of either normal or mildly depressed neutrophil counts following treatment with rituximab, and persisted for between several days and several months, before undergoing spontaneous recovery in four instances, and after administration of filgrastim in the remainder. Episodes of neutropenia were associated with disordered immune status manifested by lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinaemia, raising the possibility that either disturbance of the balance of lymphocyte subsets or an immune dyscrasia induced by rituximab resulted in the development of this type of neutropenia. [source]

Nitric oxide selectively depletes macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques via induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress

W Martinet
Background and purpose: Macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques have a tremendous impact on atherogenesis and plaque destabilization. We previously demonstrated that treatment of plaques in cholesterol-fed rabbits with the nitric oxide (NO) donor molsidomine preferentially eliminates macrophages, thereby favouring features of plaque stability. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism. Experimental approach: Macrophages and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were treated in vitro with the NO donors, spermine NONOate or S -nitroso- N -acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) as well as with the well-known endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducers thapsigargin, tunicamycin, dithiothreitol or brefeldin A. Cell viability was analysed by Neutral Red viability assays. Cleavage of caspase-3, DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural changes were examined to characterize the type of macrophage death. Induction of ER stress was evaluated by measuring C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2, (eIF2a), splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and inhibition of protein synthesis. Key results: Macrophages and SMCs treated with spermine NONOate or SNAP showed several signs of ER stress, including upregulation of CHOP expression, hyperphosphorylation of eIF2,, inhibition of de novo protein synthesis and splicing of XBP1 mRNA. These effects were similar in macrophages and SMCs, yet only macrophages underwent apoptosis. Plaques from molsidomine-treated atherosclerotic rabbits showed a 2.7-fold increase in CHOP expression as compared to placebo. Beside NO, selective induction of macrophage death could be initiated with thapsigargin and tunicamycin. Conclusions and implications: Induction of ER stress explains selective depletion of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques by a NO donor, probably via inhibition of protein synthesis. British Journal of Pharmacology (2007) 152, 493,500; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707426; published online 13 August 2007 [source]

Exploring the feasibility of selective depletion of T lymphocyte subsets by whole blood immunoadsorption cytapheresis

M. Belak
Summary Normal turnover of T lymphocytes is slow relative to other blood cells. Consequently, the physical removal of circulating leucocytes by thoracic duct drainage, repeated leukapheresis or blood filtration results in T cell depletion and immunosuppression. However, clinical use of such procedures is impractical compared with immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. None the less, immunosuppression by physical depletion of T cells, avoiding the systemic toxicities of drugs and radiation, might have clinical advantages if immunophenotypically distinct T cell subsets could be depleted selectively. Recent advances in targeted plasma protein apheresis using adsorbent macrobead columns prompted us to determine whether analogous techniques might permit CD4+ T lymphocytes to be removed selectively from whole blood. To explore this possibility, we linked murine anti-human-CD4 and isotype-identical control monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to agarose, polyacrylamide and polystyrene macrobeads (150,350 ,m) and then evaluated the selectivity, specificity and efficiency of macrobead columns to remove CD4+ T cells from anti-coagulated whole blood at varying mAb densities and flow rates. We also examined saturation kinetics and Fc-oriention versus random coupling of mAbs to macrobeads. Sepharose 6MB macrobead (250,350 ,m) columns proved to be most effective, selectively removing up to 98% of CD4+ T cells from whole blood. Moreover, depletion efficiency and selectivity were retained when these columns were reused after elution of adherent CD4+ cells. These studies indicate that selective depletion of T lymphocyte subsets by whole blood immunoadsorption apheresis using mAb-linked macrobead columns may be feasible on a clinical scale. It is possible that such apheresis techniques could achieve targeted forms of immunosuppression not possible with drugs or radiation. [source]