Selective Cyclooxygenase (selective + cyclooxygenase)

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Selected Abstracts

Addition of nimesulide to small intestinal submucosa biomaterial inhibits postsurgical adhesiogenesis in rats

Mark A. Suckow
Abstract Adhesion formation is a common complication in abdominal surgery with incidence as high as 93% and small bowel obstruction a common complication. Because the extracellular matrix material, small intestinal submucosa (SIS), is commonly used in various surgical procedures, methods to inhibit adhesiogenesis are of great interest. This study was undertaken to determine if incorporation of nimesulide (NM), a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, could reduce the extent and tenacity of intraabdominal adhesion formation associated with SIS implantation. Female Sprague,Dawley rats underwent a cecal abrasion surgical procedure to induce adhesiogenesis. Rats were either left untreated or treated by direct application over the injured cecum with polypropylene mesh (PPM); SIS; SIS containing a low dose of NM; or SIS containing a high dose of NM. Rats were euthanized 21 days later, and adhesion extent and tenacity were evaluated using standard scales (0 = minimal adhesiogenesis; 4 = severe adhesiogenesis). Addition of NM to SIS resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in adhesion extent and in a similar reduction in adhesion tenacity for SIS containing a low dose of NM. Adhesions typically extended from the abraded cecal surface to the body wall and were characterized histologically by fibrous tissue adherent to the cecal wall. In conclusion, addition of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, COX-2 selective drug, NM, to SIS attenuates adhesion extent and tenacity when compared with surgical placement of SIS or PPM alone. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2010 [source]

Morphine, opioids, and the feline pulmonary vascular bed

Background: Opioid-induced vasodepressor responses have been reported in a variety of species and laboratory models. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relative potencies of different clinically relevant opioids compared with traditional vasodepressor agents in the feline pulmonary vascular bed. A second aim was to study the effects of morphine and to identify the receptors involved in the mediation or the modulation of these effects. Methods: This was a prospective vehicle-controlled study involving an intact chest preparation of adult mongrel cats. The effects of various opioids, morphine, fentanyl, remifentanil, sufentanil, and meperidine were compared with other vasodepressor agents. Additionally, the effects of l - N5 -(1-iminoethyl) ornithine hydrochloride (l -NIO) (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), nimesulide [selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor], glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker), naloxone (non-selective opioid receptor antagonist), and diphenhydramine (histamine H1 -receptor antagonist) were investigated on pulmonary arterial responses to morphine and other selected agonists in the feline pulmonary vascular bed. The systemic pressure and lobar arterial perfusion pressure were continuously monitored, electronically averaged, and recorded. Results: In the cat pulmonary vascular bed of the isolated left lower lobe, morphine, remifentanil, fentanyl, sufentanil, and meperidine induced a dose-dependent moderate vasodepressor response and it appeared that sufentanil was the most potent on a nanomolar basis. The effects of morphine were not significantly altered after administration of l -NIO, nimesulide, and glibenclamide. However, the vascular responses to morphine were significantly attenuated following administration of naloxone and diphenhydramine. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that sufentanil appears to have slightly more potency and morphine the least of the five opioid agonists studied on a nanomolar basis. Morphine-induced vasodilatory responses appeared to be mediated or modulated by both opioid receptor and histamine-receptor-sensitive pathways. [source]

Preclinical pharmacology of robenacoxib: a novel selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2

This manuscript reports the results of preclinical studies in the rat with robenacoxib, a novel selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor. Robenacoxib selectively inhibited COX-2 in vitro as evidenced from COX-1:COX-2 IC50 ratios of 27:1 in purified enzyme preparations and >967:1 in isolated cell assays. Binding to COX-1 was rapid and readily reversible (dissociation t1/2 << 1 min), whilst COX-2 binding was slowly reversible (t1/2 = 25 min). In vivo, robenacoxib inhibited PGE2 production (an index of COX-2 inhibition) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated air pouches (ID50 0.3 mg/kg) and for at least 24 h in zymosan-induced inflammatory exudate (at 2 mg/kg). Robenacoxib was COX-1 sparing, as it inhibited serum TxB2 synthesis ex vivo (an index of COX-1 inhibition) only at very high doses (100 mg/kg but not at 2,30 mg/kg). Robenacoxib inhibited carrageenan-induced paw oedema (ID50 0.40,0.48 mg/kg), LPS-induced fever (ID50 1.1 mg/kg) and Randall,Selitto pain (10 mg/kg). Robenacoxib was highly bound to plasma protein (99.9% at 50 ng/mL in vitro). After intravenous dosing, clearance was 2.4 mL/min/kg and volume of distribution at steady-state was 306 mL/kg. Robenacoxib was preferentially distributed into inflammatory exudate; the AUC for exudate was 2.9 times higher than for blood and the MRT in exudate (15.9 h) was three times longer than in blood (5.3 h). Robenacoxib produced significantly less gastric ulceration and intestinal permeability as compared with the reference nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), diclofenac, and did not inhibit PGE2 or 6-keto PGF1, concentrations in the stomach and ileum at 30 mg/kg. Robenacoxib also had no relevant effects on kidney function at 30 mg/kg. In summary, results of preclinical studies in rats studies suggest that robenacoxib has an attractive pharmacological profile for potential use in the intended target species, cats and dogs. [source]

Underutilization of gastroprotective measures in patients receiving nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs

Walter Smalley
Objective To determine the frequency of use of recommended gastroprotective strategies in a cohort of patients receiving recurrent treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using administrative data from the Tennessee Medicaid (TennCare) program. The study population consisted of 76,765 recurrent recipients of NSAIDs (NSAID users), comprising 24% of the 319,402 persons ages 50 years or older enrolled in the TennCare program from January 1999 through June 2000. Frequency of use of either of 2 recommended gastroprotective strategies, involving either traditional NSAIDs combined with recommended anti-ulcer cotherapy or use of a selective cyclooxygenase 2,inhibiting drug (coxib), was measured and categorized by risk for ulcer complication. Results Among this cohort of recurrent NSAID users, 16% received 1 of the 2 recommended gastroprotective therapies: 10% received traditional NSAIDs along with antiulcer drugs at the recommended doses and 6% received coxibs. Among those patients with ,2 risk factors for ulcer complications (age 75 years or older, peptic ulcer or gastrointestinal bleeding in the past year, or concurrent use of oral anticoagulants or corticosteroids), 30% received such gastroprotective therapy. Conclusion Use of recommended strategies to decrease ulcer complications in vulnerable populations is relatively uncommon. [source]