Selective Blocker (selective + blocker)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Protective Effect of HOE642, a Selective Blocker of Na+ -H+ Exchange, Against the Development of Rigor Contracture in Rat Ventricular Myocytes

Marisol Ruiz-Meana
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Na+ -H+ exchange (NHE) and HCO3, -Na+ symport inhibition on the development of rigor contracture. Freshly isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to 60 min metabolic inhibition (MI) and 5 min re-energization (Rx). The effects of perfusion of HCO3, or HCO3, -free buffer with or without the NHE inhibitor HOE642 (7 ,M) were investigated during MI and Rx. In HCO3, -free conditions, HOE642 reduced the percentage of cells developing rigor during MI from 79 ▒ 1% to 40 ▒ 4% (P < 0.001) without modifying the time at which rigor appeared. This resulted in a 30% reduction of hypercontracture during Rx (P < 0.01). The presence of HCO3, abolished the protective effect of HOE642 against rigor. Cells that had developed rigor underwent hypercontracture during Rx independently of treatment allocation. Ratiofluorescence measurement demonstrated that the rise in cytosolic Ca2+ (fura-2) occurred only after the onset of rigor, and was not influenced by HOE642. NHE inhibition did not modify Na+ rise (SBFI) during MI, but exaggerated the initial fall of intracellular pH (BCEFC). In conclusion, HOE642 has a protective effect against rigor during energy deprivation, but only when HCO3, -dependent transporters are inhibited. This effect is independent of changes in cytosolic Na+ or Ca2+ concentrations. [source]

Role of the GLT-1 subtype of glutamate transporter in glutamate homeostasis: the GLT-1-preferring inhibitor WAY-855 produces marginal neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus

Julie V. Selkirk
Abstract Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and is tightly regulated by cell surface transporters to avoid increases in concentration and associated neurotoxicity. Selective blockers of glutamate transporter subtypes are sparse and so knock-out animals and antisense techniques have been used to study their specific roles. Here we used WAY-855, a GLT-1-preferring blocker, to assess the role of GLT-1 in rat hippocampus. GLT-1 was the most abundant transporter in the hippocampus at the mRNA level. According to [3H]- l -glutamate uptake data, GLT-1 was responsible for approximately 80% of the GLAST-, GLT-1-, and EAAC1-mediated uptake that occurs within dissociated hippocampal tissue, yet when this transporter was preferentially blocked for 120 h with WAY-855 (100 Ám), no significant neurotoxicity was observed in hippocampal slices. This is in stark contrast to results obtained with TBOA, a broad-spectrum transport blocker, which, at concentrations that caused a similar inhibition of glutamate uptake (10 and 30 Ám), caused substantial neuronal death when exposed to the slices for 24 h or longer. Likewise, WAY-855, did not significantly exacerbate neurotoxicity associated with simulated ischemia, whereas TBOA did. Finally, intrahippocampal microinjection of WAY-855 (200 and 300 nmol) in vivo resulted in marginal damage compared with TBOA (20 and 200 nmol), which killed the majority of both CA1,4 pyramidal cells and dentate gyrus granule cells. These results indicate that selective inhibition of GLT-1 is insufficient to provoke glutamate build-up, leading to NMDA receptor-mediated neurotoxic effects, and suggest a prominent role of GLAST and/or EAAC1 in extracellular glutamate maintenance. [source]

Increased Nerve Fiber Expression of Sensory Sodium Channels Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 in Rhinitis,,

Siew M. Keh MRCS
Abstract Introduction: Voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 are involved in nerve action potentials and have been proposed to underlie neuronal hypersensitivity. We have therefore studied their levels in allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. Materials and Methods: Inferior turbinate biopsies from 50 patients (n = 18 controls, n = 20 allergic, and n = 12 nonallergic rhinitis) were studied by immunohistology using antibodies to Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9, the structural nerve marker (protein gene product [PGP]9.5), nerve growth factor (NGF), mast cells (c-kit), macrophages (CD68), and T cells (CD3). Sodium channel-positive nerve fibers were counted per millimeter length of subepithelium, and immunoreactivity for inflammatory cell markers PGP9.5 and NGF were image analyzed. Results: All three sodium channel-immunoreactive nerve fiber numbers were significantly increased in allergic (Nav1.7, P = .0004; Nav1.8, P = .028; Nav1.9, P = .02) and nonallergic (Nav1.7, P = .006; Nav1.8, P = .019; Nav1.9, P = .0037) rhinitis. There was a significant increase of subepithelial innervation (PGP9.5, P = .01) and epithelial NGF immunoreactivity (P = .03) in nonallergic rhinitis, comparable with our previous report in allergic rhinitis. Inflammatory cell markers were significantly increased in allergic (mast cells, P = .06; macrophages, P = .044; T cells, P = .007) but not nonallergic rhinitis. Conclusion: The increased levels of sensory sodium channels in allergic and nonallergic rhinitis may contribute to the hypersensitive state, irrespective of the degree of active inflammation. Selective blockers of these sodium channels, administered topically, may have therapeutic potential in rhinitis. [source]

Molecular characterization of regenerated cardiomyocytes derived from adult mesenchymal stem cells

Keiichi Fukuda
ABSTRACT, We recently isolated a cardiomyogenic (CMG) cell line from murine bone marrow stroma, and in this paper characterize regenerated cardiomyocytes derived from adult mesenchymal stem cells at the molecular level. Stromal cells were immortalized, exposed to 5-azacytidine, and repeatedly screened for spontaneously beating cells. CMG cells began to beat spontaneously after 2 weeks, and beat synchronously after 3 weeks. They exhibited sinus-node-like or ventricular-cell-like action potentials. Analysis of the isoforms of contractile protein genes, such as of myosin and ,-actin, indicated that their phenotype was similar to that of fetal ventricular cardiomyocytes. The cells expressed Nkx2.5, GATA4, TEF-1, and MEF2-C mRNA before 5-azacytidine exposure, and MEF2-A and MEF2-D after exposure. CMG cells expressed ,1A, ,1B, and ,1D -adrenergic receptor mRNA prior to differentiation, and ,1, ,2 -adrenergic and M1, M2 -muscarinic receptors after acquiring the cardiomyocyte phenotype. Phenylephrine induced phosphorylation of ERK1/ 2, and the phosphorylation was inhibited by prazosin. Isoproterenol increased the cAMP level 38-fold and beating rate, cell motion, % shortening, and contractile velocity by 48%, 38%, 27%, and 51%, respectively, and the increases were blocked by CGP20712A (,1 -selective blocker). Car-bachol increased IP3 32-fold, and the increase was inhibited by AFDX116 (M2 -selective blocker). These findings demonstrated that the regenerated cardiomyocytes were capable of responding to adrenergic and muscarinic stimulation. This new cell line provides a model for the study of cardiomyocyte transplantation. [source]

Contribution of NMDA receptor NR2B subunit to synaptic plasticity during associative learning in behaving rats

Mauricio Valenzuela-Harrington
Abstract The difference in the amounts of NR2 subunits contained in NMDA receptors of the hippocampus has been related to their different involvement in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that Ro 25-6981, a high-affinity and selective blocker of NMDA receptors containing NR2B subunits, is able to block the acquisition of a trace conditioning paradigm in adult rats, a task that requires the active participation of hippocampal circuits. Reconditioning with the same trace paradigm was also prevented by Ro 25-6981. In addition, we show that the slope of monosynaptic field excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked at the dentate gyrus by single pulses presented to the medial perforant pathway increases significantly across conditioning sessions and during reconditioning, in a linear relationship with the increase in the number of classically conditioned eyelid responses. Administration of Ro 25-6981 prevented these learning-related changes in synaptic strength at the perforant pathway,dentate granule cell synapse. The present results suggest the involvement of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in hippocampal functions related to both associative learning and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. [source]

Chromanol 293B Inhibits Slowly Activating Delayed Rectifier and Transient Outward Currents in Canine Left Ventricular Myocytes

Chromanol 293B on Ionic Currents.Introduction: Drugs that selectively inhibit the slowly activating component of the delayed rectifier potassium current (IKs) are being considered as possible antiarrhythmic agents, because they produce more prolongation of action potential duration at fast rates with less transmural dispersion of repolarization compared with blockers of the rapidly activating component (IKr). Although the chromanol derivative chromanol 293B has been shown to be relatively selective in blocking IKs in some species, its selectivity is far from established. Methods and Results: The present study uses whole-cell, patch-clamp technique to examine the selectivity of this compound for inhibition of IKs in comparison with other repolarizing ionic currents, such as IKr, inward rectifier potassium current (IK1), transient outward current (Ito), and L-type calcium current (ICa-L) in canine left ventricular mid-myocardial and endocardial cells. Chromanol 293B blocked IKs with an IC50 of 1.8 ,M and Ito with an IC50 of 38 ,M. Concentrations as high as 30 ,M did not affect IK1, IKr, or ICa-L. Higher concentrations of chromanol 293B (100 ,M) caused a slight, but statistically insignificant, inhibition of IKr. Conclusion: Our results indicate that chromanol 293B is a relatively selective blocker of IKs in canine left ventricular myocytes. [source]

Implication of Rho-associated kinase in the elevation of extracellular dopamine levels and its related behaviors induced by methamphetamine in rats

Minoru Narita
Abstract A growing body of evidence suggests that several protein kinases are involved in the expression of pharmacological actions induced by a psychostimulant methamphetamine. The present study was designed to investigate the role of the Rho/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK)-dependent pathway in the expression of the increase in extracellular levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and its related behaviors induced by methamphetamine in rats. Methamphetamine (1 mg/kg, subcutaneously) produced a substantial increase in extracellular levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, with a progressive augmentation of dopamine-related behaviors including rearing and sniffing. Methamphetamine also induced the decrease in levels of its major metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA). Both the increase in extracellular levels of dopamine and the induction of dopamine-related behaviors by methamphetamine were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with an intranucleus accumbens injection of a selective ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. In contrast, Y-27632 had no effect on the decrease in levels of DOPAC and HVA induced by methamphetamine. Under these conditions, there were no changes in protein levels of membrane-bound RhoA in the nucleus accumbens following methamphetamine treatment. It is of interest to note that the microinjection of Y-27632 into the nucleus accumbens failed to suppress the increases in extracellular levels of dopamine, DOPAC, and HVA in the nucleus accumbens induced by subcutaneous injection of a prototype of Á-opioid receptor agonist morphine (10 mg/kg). Furthermore, perfusion of a selective blocker of voltage-dependent Na+ channels, tetrodotoxin (TTx) into the rat nucleus accumbens did not affect the increase in extracellular levels of dopamine in the rat nucleus accumbens by methamphetamine, whereas the morphine-induced dopamine elevation was eliminated by this application of TTx. The extracellular level of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens was also increased by perfusion of a selective dopamine re-uptake inhibitor 1-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (GBR-12909) in the nucleus accumbens. This effect was not affected by pretreatment with intranucleus accumbens injection of Y-27632. These findings provide first evidence that Rho/ROCK pathway in the nucleus accumbens may contribute to the increase in extracellular levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens evoked by a single subcutaneous injection of methamphetamine. In contrast, this pathway is not essential for the increased level of dopamine in this region induced by morphine, providing further evidence for the different mechanisms of dopamine release by methamphetamine and morphine in rats. [source]

Mechanisms of Preventive Effect of Nicorandil on Ischaemia-Induced Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia in Isolated Arterially Perfused Canine Left Ventricular Wedges

Masamichi Hirose
We examined effects of nicorandil on the induction of VT during acute myocardial ischaemia. Optical action potentials were recorded from the entire transmural wall of arterially perfused canine left ventricular wedges. Ischaemia was produced by arterial occlusion for 20 min. During endocardial pacing, nicorandil shortened mean action potential duration (APD) in the transmural wall before ischaemia and further shortened it during ischaemia without increasing dispersion of APD. HMR1098, a selective blocker of sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ channels, inhibited the shortening of APD by nicorandil before and during ischaemia. Ischaemia decreased transmural conduction velocity (CV). Nicorandil partially restored CV to a similar extent in the absence and presence of HMR1098. In contrast, HMR1098 did not suppress the ischaemic conduction slowing in the absence of nicorandil. Nicorandil suppressed the increased dispersion of local CV during ischaemia. Isochrone maps on the initiation of VT showed that reentry in the transmural surface resulted from the excitation of the epicardial region of transmural surface. Nicorandil significantly increased the size of non-excited area in the epicardial region of the transmural wall, thereby significantly reducing the incidence of VT induced during ischaemia. HMR1098 inhibited this effect of nicorandil. These results suggest that nicorandil prevents VT during acute global ischaemia primarily by augmenting the inactivation of epicardial muscle through the activation of sarcolemmal KATP channels. [source]

Roles of KATP channels in delayed cardioprotection and intracellular Ca2+ in the rat heart as revealed by , -opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H

Mai Chen
The effect of preconditioning with U50,488 H (UP), a selective kappa-opioid receptor (, -OR) agonist, on infarct size and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in the heart subjected to ischaemic insults were studied and evaluated. U50,488 H administered intravenously reduced the infarct size 18,48 h after administration in isolated hearts subjected to regional ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R). The effect was dose dependent. A peak effect was reached at 10 mg kg,1 U50,488 H and at 24 h after administration. The effect of 10 mg kg,1 U50,488 H at 24 h after administration was abolished by nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI), a selective , -OR antagonist, indicating the effect was , -OR mediated. The infarct reducing effect of U50,488 H was attenuated when a selective blocker of mitochondrial (5-hydroxydecanoic acid, 5-HD) or sarcolemmal (HRM-1098) ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) was coadministered with U50,488 H 24 h before ischaemia or when 5-HD was administered just before ischaemia. U50,488 H also attenuated the elevation in [Ca2+]i and reduction in electrically induced [Ca2+]i transient in cardiomyocytes subjected to ischaemic insults. The effects were reversed by blockade of KATP channel, which abolished the protective effect of preconditioning with U50,488 H. The results indicated that mitochondrial KATP channel serves as both a trigger and a mediator, while sarcolemmal KATP channel as a trigger only, of delayed cardioprotection of , -OR stimulation. The effects of these channels may result from prevention/attenuation of [Ca2+]i overload induced by ischaemic insults. British Journal of Pharmacology (2003) 140, 750,758. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705475 [source]


Zhi-Jiang Huang
SUMMARY 1Torsades de pointes (TDP) is a severe adverse effect during the clinical use of dofetilide, a selective blocker of the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr). The present study was designed to test whether CPU228, a derivative of dofetilide with calcium (Ca2+) antagonist properties, could reduce TDP without reducing the blockade of IKr. 2The incidence of TDP in a rabbit model and the effective refractory period (ERP) were measured and compared for dofetilide and CPU228. Suppression of IKr and the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) and the Ca2+ transients of isolated cardiomyocytes were investigated by whole-cell patch-clamp and Fluo-3 dye spectrophotometry. 3The incidence of TDP was greatly reduced by CPU228 relative to dofetilide, occurring in only one of six rabbits compared with five of six rabbits following dofetilide (P < 0.05). In isolated atria, prolongation of ERP by CPU228 was less than that of dofetilide and no reverse frequency dependence was observed. Negative inotropism by CPU228 was significant against positive inotropism by dofetilide. CPU228 inhibited both IKr and ICa,L currents and the IC50 for ICa,L inhibition was 0.909 Ámol/L. At 3 Ámol/L, CPU228 significantly suppressed the Ca2+ transients. 4CPU228 is able to block ICa,L, contributing to decreased TDP, while also blocking IKr activity. By combined blockade of IKr and ICa,L, CPU228 shares the property of complex Class III anti-arrhythmic agents. [source]

Intracellular Calcium Increase in Epileptiform Activity: Modulation by Levetiracetam and Lamotrigine

EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2004
Antonio Pisani
Summary:,Purpose: Alterations in neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis are believed to play an essential role in the generation and propagation of epileptiform events. Levetiracetam (LEV) and lamotrigine (LTG), novel antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), were tested on epileptiform events and the corresponding elevations in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) recorded from rat neocortical slices. Methods: Electrophysiological recordings were performed from single pyramidal neurons from a slice preparation. Spontaneous epileptiform events consisting of long-lasting, repetitive paroxysmal depolarization shifts (PDSs) and interictal spike activity were induced by reducing the magnesium concentration from the solution and by adding bicuculline and 4-aminopyridine. Simultaneously, microfluorimetric measurements of [Ca2+]i were performed. Optical imaging with Ca2+ indicators revealed a close correlation between Ca2+ transients and epileptiform events. Results: Both LEV and LTG were able to reduce both amplitude and duration of PDSs, as well as the concomitant elevation in [Ca2+]i, in a dose-dependent fashion. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from isolated neocortical neurons revealed that LEV significantly reduced N-, and partially P/Q-type high-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ currents, whereas sodium currents were unaffected. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects of LEV were mimicked and occluded by LTG or by a combination of ,-conotoxin GVIA and ,-agatoxin IVA, selective blockers of N- and P/Q-type HVA channels, respectively, suggesting a common site of action for these AEDs. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that large, transient elevations in neuronal [Ca2+]i correlate to epileptiform discharges. The antagonistic effects of LEV and LTG on [Ca2+]i overload might represent the basis for their anticonvulsant efficacy and could preserve neuronal viability. [source]

Virodhamine relaxes the human pulmonary artery through the endothelial cannabinoid receptor and indirectly through a COX product

H Koz, owska
Background and purpose: The endocannabinoid virodhamine is a partial agonist at the cannabinoid CB1 receptor and a full agonist at the CB2 receptor, and relaxes rat mesenteric arteries through endothelial cannabinoid receptors. Its concentration in the periphery exceeds that of the endocannabinoid anandamide. Here, we examined the influence of virodhamine on the human pulmonary artery. Experimental approach: Isolated human pulmonary arteries were obtained during resections for lung carcinoma. Vasorelaxant effects of virodhamine were examined on endothelium-intact vessels precontracted with 5-HT or KCl. Key results: Virodhamine, unlike WIN 55,212-2, relaxed 5-HT-precontracted vessels concentration dependently. The effect of virodhamine was reduced by endothelium denudation, two antagonists of the endothelial cannabinoid receptor, cannabidiol and O-1918, and a high concentration of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (5 ,M), but only slightly attenuated by the NOS inhibitor L -NAME and not affected by a lower concentration of rimonabant (100 nM) or by the CB2 and vanilloid receptor antagonists SR 144528 and capsazepine, respectively. The COX inhibitor indomethacin and the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 and combined administration of selective blockers of small (apamin) and intermediate and large (charybdotoxin) conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ channels attenuated virodhamine-induced relaxation. The vasorelaxant potency of virodhamine was lower in KCl- than in 5-HT-precontracted preparations. Conclusions and implications: Virodhamine relaxes the human pulmonary artery through the putative endothelial cannabinoid receptor and indirectly through a COX-derived vasorelaxant prostanoid formed from the virodhamine metabolite, arachidonic acid. One or both of these mechanisms may stimulate vasorelaxant Ca2+ -activated K+ channels. British Journal of Pharmacology (2008) 155, 1034,1042; doi:10.1038/bjp.2008.371; published online 22 September 2008 [source]