Selective Abortion (selective + abortion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


SELECTIVE ABORTION IN BRAZIL: THE ANENCEPHALY CASE

DEVELOPING WORLD BIOETHICS, Issue 2 2007
DEBORA DINIZ
ABSTRACT This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church. [source]


Selective Abortion for Down Syndrome: The Relation Between the Quality of Intergroup Contact, Parenting Expectations, and Willingness to Terminate

JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
Karen L. Lawson
This study examines the links between familiarity with individuals with Down syndrome (DS), perceptions of parenting a child with DS, and willingness to consider selective termination subsequent to a fetal diagnosis of DS. Within a sample of childless young adults (N = 280), those reporting personal familiarity indicated both more positive attitudes toward parenting a child with DS and more certainty that they would not abort following a prenatal diagnosis. In further support of contact theory, the quality of the past intergroup interactions moderated these findings. The potential role of negative stereotypes in selective-abortion decision making and implications for prenatal counseling protocols are discussed. [source]


SELECTIVE ABORTION IN BRAZIL: THE ANENCEPHALY CASE

DEVELOPING WORLD BIOETHICS, Issue 2 2007
DEBORA DINIZ
ABSTRACT This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church. [source]


Cone abortion in Pinus halepensis: the role of pollen quantity, tree size and cone location

OIKOS, Issue 1 2002
Shirrinka Goubitz
This study describes the seasonal patterns of seed and cone abortion in natural Pinus halepensis trees and assesses the effects of pollen quantity, tree size and cone location on seed and cone abortion. The cone-set ratio was similar to the expected value, based on literature on woody perennials. The seed-ovule ratio, however, was almost twice as high as its expected value. The investment in protective cone elements was high and did not vary with the seed-ovule ratio of a cone. Pollination factors influenced cone abortion, as indicated by the high abortion rate at the end of the pollination period. Furthermore, abortive cones had lower pollination rates and lower pollen loads than well developed cones. Effects of resource availability were assessed as effects of tree size and cone position on twigs. Small trees aborted more cones than big trees and cone abortion was higher in apical cones than in basal cones. Abortion in P. halepensis is selective, mediated by both pollen quantity and resource availability. The relative importance of pollen and resources is suggested to be flexible, probably varying between trees and years. The high seed-ovule ratio of P. halepensis is the result of high pollination rate and selective abortion. The selective abortion might be due to the high allocation to protective cone elements relative to the allocation to seeds. [source]


The Reproductive Biology of Two Species of Diplusodon Pohl (Lythraceae) from Serra do Cipů, Southeastern Brazil

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2000
C. M. Jacobi
Abstract: The reproductive biology of two shrub species of Diplusodon (Lythraceae), D. hirsutus and D. orbicularis, was studied. Their distribution is restricted, mainly associated with "campos rupestres", a montane biome in SE Brazil. Both species proved to be self-compatible but because of herkogamy they are greatly dependent on visitors to effect pollination. The main pollinators are medium-sized bees. In experiments where pollinators were excluded or discouraged the percentage of abscised fruits was total or extremely high; most of these fruits dropped within the first two weeks after pollination in D. orbicularis and three weeks in D. hirsutus. The percentage of surviving fruits from control or manual pollination was higher in D. orbicularis (ca. 70 %) than in D. hirsutus (ca. 50 %). Seed set was very variable, with slightly lower means in D. hirsutus. Within each species the mean seed set was similar in self-, cross-pollinated fruits, and controls. In both species, the similarity between control and manual pollination fruit survival curves suggests that factors other than pollen limitation are the cause of abortion in the study area. The high rate of abscission, which was also observed in unmanipulated fruits, was attributed to resource limitation. In D. hirsutus this was caused by drought during seed development. In D. orbicularis it was enhanced by nutrient drain by shoot-galling flies. The lack of selective abortion of either selfed fruits or fruits with a small number of seeds may be a useful mechanism to overcome this detrimental effect which is felt later during fruit development. [source]


SELECTING POTENTIAL CHILDREN AND UNCONDITIONAL PARENTAL LOVE

BIOETHICS, Issue 5 2008
JOHN DAVIS
ABSTRACT For now, the best way to select a child's genes is to select a potential child who has those genes, using genetic testing and either selective abortion, sperm and egg donors, or selecting embryos for implantation. Some people even wish to select against genes that are only mildly undesirable, or to select for superior genes. I call this selection drift, the standard for acceptable children is creeping upwards. The President's Council on Bioethics and others have raised the parental love objection: Just as we should love existing children unconditionally, so we should unconditionally accept whatever child we get in the natural course of things. If we set conditions on which child we get, we are setting conditions on our love for whatever child we get. Although this objection was prompted by selection drift, it also seems to cover selecting against genes for severe impairments. I argue that selection drift is not inconsistent with the ideal of unconditional parental love and, moreover, that the latter actually implies that we should practise selection drift , in other words, we should try to select potential children with the best genetic endowments. My endowment argument for the second claim works from an analogy between arranging an endowment prior to conception to fund a future child's education, and arranging a genetic endowment by selecting a potential child who already has it, where in both cases the child would not have existed without the endowment. I conclude with some programmatic remarks about the nonidentity problem. [source]