Selection Patterns (selection + pattern)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2009
Rhonda R. Snook
Experimental evolution, particularly experimental sexual selection in which sexual selection strength is manipulated by altering the mating system, is an increasingly popular method for testing evolutionary theory. Concerns have arisen regarding genetic diversity variation across experimental treatments: differences in the number and sex ratio of breeders (effective population size; Ne) and the potential for genetic hitchhiking, both of which may cause different levels of genetic variation between treatments. Such differences may affect the selection response and confound interpretation of results. Here we use both census-based estimators and molecular marker-based estimates to empirically test how experimental evolution of sexual selection in Drosophila pseudoobscura impacts Ne and autosomal genetic diversity. We also consider effects of treatment on X-linked Nes, which have previously been ignored. Molecular autosomal marker-based estimators indicate that neither Ne nor genetic diversity differs between treatments experiencing different sexual selection intensities; thus observed evolutionary responses reflect selection rather than any confounding effects of experimental design. Given the increasing number of studies on experimental sexual selection, we also review the census Nes of other experimental systems, calculate X-linked Ne, and compare how different studies have dealt with the issues of inbreeding, genetic drift, and genetic hitchhiking to help inform future designs. [source]

Body Weight and Matching With a Physically Attractive Romantic Partner

Julie H. Carmalt
Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage greater for women than men, and greater for White women than Black women. Additional education, a more attractive personality, and better grooming increased the probability of having a physically attractive partner and offset the disadvantage of obesity for some individuals. Unexpectedly, we found women, like men, trade education for their partners' physical attractiveness. Despite evidence of attribute trade, matching with respect to physical characteristics was the dominant mate selection pattern. [source]

Female Choice, Female Reluctance to Mate and Sexual Selection on Body Size in the Dung Fly Sepsis cynipsea

ETHOLOGY, Issue 7 2000
Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
We investigated the mechanisms of sexual selection in the common dung fly Sepsis cynipsea and how these affect selection on body size at the population level. Because of the presumed costs associated with mating, we predicted that there would be a decrease in the general reluctance of females to mate with any particular male at higher male densities at the mating site, a fresh cow pat, resulting in indirect female choice and a decrease in the strength of sexual selection. In contrast, classical direct female choice and male-male competition should result in increased selection intensities because more opportunities for choice and competition exist at higher densities. Female reluctance to mate and female assessment of males are expressed in prominent female behaviour to repel mates in several insect species, including S. cynipsea. Laboratory pair-wise choice experiments showed that large males were more likely to obtain copulations, which also ensued more promptly, suggesting female assessment of male quality (direct female choice). There was a basic influence of male activity but little further effect of male scramble competition on the outcome of mating. Another laboratory experiment showed a decrease in female shaking duration per male, associated with an asymptote in the shaking duration per female, as male density and harassment increased, but did not show the increase in mating frequency predicted by the female reluctance hypothesis. A study estimating sexual selection differentials in the field showed that directional selection for larger males was present overall and was negatively related to seasonally mediated variation in male density. Our study suggests that direct female choice in combination with indirect female choice (due to an interaction of female reluctance to mate and male persistence) is most consistent with the behavioural and selection patterns observed in S. cynipsea, but male effects cannot be definitively excluded. [source]

Ontogenetic selection on hatchery salmon in the wild: natural selection on artificial phenotypes

Michael M. Bailey
Abstract Captive rearing often alters the phenotypes of organisms that are destined for release into the wild. Natural selection on these unnatural phenotypes could have important consequences for the utility of captive rearing as a restoration approach. We show that normal hatchery practices significantly advance the development of endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry by 30+ days. As a result, hatchery fry might be expected to face strong natural selection resulting from their developmental asynchrony. We investigated patterns of ontogenetic selection acting on hatchery produced salmon fry by experimentally manipulating fry development stage at stocking. Contrary to simple predictions, we found evidence for strong stabilizing selection on the ontogeny of unfed hatchery fry, with weaker evidence for positive directional selection on the ontogeny of fed fry. These selection patterns suggest a seasonally independent tradeoff between abiotic or biotic selection favoring advanced development and physiological selection linked to risk of starvation in unfed fry. We show, through a heuristic exercise, how such selection on ontogeny may exacerbate problems in restoration efforts by impairing fry productivity and reducing effective population sizes by 13,81%. [source]

Spatial differences in breeding success in the pied avocet Recurvirostra avosetta: effects of habitat on hatching success and chick survival

Szabolcs Lengyel
I studied the breeding biology of pied avocets Recurvirostra avosetta in natural habitats (alkaline lakes), and in semi-natural sites (dry fishpond, reconstructed wetlands) in Hungary to relate habitat selection patterns to spatial and temporal variation in breeding success. Colonies were initiated earlier in semi-natural sites than in natural habitats, and earlier on islands than on the mainland. Hatching success was higher on islands than on the mainland, in semi-natural sites than in natural habitats, in colonies of at least 15 pairs than in smaller colonies, and for nests initiated earlier than later within a colony. Fledging success was higher in the wet years (1999,2000) than in the dry year (1998), decreased strongly by season in both habitats and increased with average daily temperature in the first week post-hatch in 1999,2000. Most pairs hatching young in semi-natural sites attempted to lead their chicks to feeding areas in natural habitats, whereas no such movement occurred in the opposite direction. Chick mortality due to predation was high during brood movements and only 23% of the pairs moving their young produced fledglings, compared to 43% for pairs remaining in semi-natural sites and 68% for pairs hatching and rearing young in natural habitats (total n=192 broods). These results suggest that semi-natural sites were more suitable for nesting, whereas natural habitats were more suitable for chick-rearing. The opposing trends in habitat-related breeding success between nesting and chick-rearing suggest sub-optimal habitat selection by Pied Avocets due to an incorrect assessment of the potential for successful reproduction of semi-natural sites, which may thus function as ecological traps. [source]

Why is mimicry in cuckoo eggs sometimes so poor?


I propose that the existence of imperfect adaptations (e.g. egg mimicry) in brood parasites and their hosts (e.g. discrimination abilities) could reflect age-dependent territory and nest-site selection patterns of the host. Studies of various passerines indicate that (1) older breeders tend to occupy nest sites of higher quality than do young birds (ideal despotic distribution resulting from interference competition), (2) nest-site selection affects the risk of parasitism in various habitats, (3) egg recognition in passerines has a strong learning component (therefore naive breeders tend to accept whereas older birds tend to reject parasitic eggs). Because young naive birds, who tend to accept parasitic eggs, usually breed in low-quality areas where they are frequently parasitised, while old experienced birds, who tend to reject parasitic eggs, breed in high-quality areas where they are rarely parasitised, the distribution of acceptors and rejecters with respect to the risk of parasitism is non-random, i.e. populations of some host species may consist of heavily parasitised acceptors and weakly parasitised rejecters. Therefore, the selection pressure exerted by the host on the parasite should be weaker than if brood parasitism was randomly distributed among naive and experienced breeders and affect adaptations such as egg mimicry. This could explain the existence of imperfect adaptations in some brood parasite-host systems. [source]

Variable selection patterns on the labellum shape of Geoblasta pennicillata, a sexually deceptive orchid

Abstract By mimicking shape and female mating pheromones, flowers of sexually deceptive orchids attract sexually excited males which pollinate them while trying to copulate. Although many studies have demonstrated the crucial importance of odour signals in these systems, most flowers pollinated by pseudocopulation resemble, at least superficially, an insect body and these visual cues may be important to cheat pollinators. In this 2-year study, we show that the shape of the labellum of Geoblasta pennicillata is a target of pollinator-mediated natural selection. Contrary to our expectations, plants with a labellum shape more similar to female wasps were not favoured. The strength and pattern of phenotypic selection varied between study years and sexual functions. Although selection through female success was probably associated to the fine-tuning of the mechanical fit between flower form and male wasp, shape was the target of natural selection through male success in both study years indicating that male wasps use this trait when choosing flowers. The imperfect mimicry and patterns of selection observed indicated that an exact imitation is not needed to attract and deceive the pollinators and they suggested a receiver perceptual bias towards uncommon phenotypes. [source]

Target selection patterns in rape

Eric Beauregard
Abstract Both theoretical and empirical studies of decision making in target selection have shown that this process is highly dependent on the physical environment. However, research specifically investigating decision making in sex offenders' target selection is scarce. The aims of the current study were to (1) identify target selection patterns in a mixed sample of 78 Canadian and Portuguese adult rapists, (2) investigate how geographical decision making influences target selection patterns, and (3) test the influence of the type of environment on target selection patterns. The results indicate that Canadian and Portuguese rapists exhibit different target selection patterns but that their geographical decision making is congruent and consistent with the environment within which they operate. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Persistence and Heterogeneity in Habitat Selection Studies Using Radio Telemetry

BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2003
Fred L. Ramsey
Summary Biologists attach radio transmitters to animals so that the animals' movements through their preferred habitats can be followed. To analyze the resulting sequences of visited habitat classes, McCracken, Manly, and Vander Heyden (1998, Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics3(3), 268,279) proposed an independent multinomial selections (IMS) model. Two issues that arise when using this approach are: (i) serial dependence possibly affects measures of uncertainty; and (ii) individual animals from the population studied may exhibit heterogeneity in their selection patterns. We develop two single-parameter extensions of the IMS model to address these issues. A Markov chain model allows for persistence in the habitat class previously visited. Heterogeneity is modeled by assuming the population of animal selection patterns follows a Dirichlet distribution, from which the study animals are a random sample. We show that these persistence and heterogeneity characteristics are present in the study by McCracken et al. (1998) of bear movements. Simulations demonstrate that failure to account for persistence or heterogeneity when either is present can seriously misrepresent measures of uncertainty. [source]