Self-report Measures (self-report + measure)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Self-report Measures

  • completed self-report measure

  • Selected Abstracts

    A Self-Report Measure of Clinicians' Orientation toward Integrative Medicine

    An-Fu Hsiao
    Objective. Patients in the U.S. often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and may use it concurrently with conventional medicine to treat illness and promote wellness. However, clinicians vary in their openness to the merging of treatment paradigms. Because integration of CAM with conventional medicine can have important implications for health care, we developed a survey instrument to assess clinicians' orientation toward integrative medicine. Study Setting. A convenience sample of 294 acupuncturists, chiropractors, primary care physicians, and physician acupuncturists in academic and community settings in California. Data Collection Methods. We used a qualitative analysis of structured interviews to develop a conceptual model of integrative medicine at the provider level. Based on this conceptual model, we developed a 30-item survey (IM-30) to assess five domains of clinicians' orientation toward integrative medicine: openness, readiness to refer, learning from alternate paradigms, patient-centered care, and safety of integration. Principal Findings. Two hundred and two clinicians (69 percent response rate) returned the survey. The internal consistency reliability for the 30-item total scale and the five subscales ranged from 0.71 to 0.90. Item-scale correlations for the five subscales were higher for the hypothesized subscale than other subscales 75 percent or more of the time. Construct validity was supported by the association of the IM-30 total scale score (0,100 possible range, with a higher score indicative of greater orientation toward integrative medicine) with hypothesized constructs: physician acupuncturists scored higher than physicians (71 versus 50, p<.001), dual-trained practitioners scored higher than single-trained practitioners (71 versus 62, p<.001), and practitioners' self-perceived "integrativeness" was significantly correlated (r=0.60, p<.001) with the IM-30 total score. Conclusion. This study provides support for the reliability and validity of the IM-30 as a measure of clinicians' orientation toward integrative medicine. The IM-30 survey, which we estimate as requiring 5 minutes to complete, can be administered to both conventional and CAM clinicians. [source]

    Predictors of 4-year outcome of community residential treatment for patients with substance use disorders

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2008
    Charlene Laffaye
    ABSTRACT Aims This study examined systematically how predictors of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment outcome worked together over time and identified mediators and moderators of outcome. Design The MacArthur model was applied in this naturalistic study to identify how baseline, discharge and 1-year follow-up factors worked together to predict 4-year improvement in substance-related problems. Setting Eighty-eight community residential facilities were selected based on geographic representativeness, number of patient referrals and type of treatment orientation. Participants Of 2796 male patients who completed intake assessments, 2324 were assessed at the 1-year follow-up and 2023 at the 4-year follow-up. Measurements Self-report measures of symptom severity, functioning, social resources and coping, treatment and involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) were collected at baseline and at 1- and 4-year follow-ups. Provider-rated treatment participation measures were obtained at discharge. Findings Greater substance use severity, more psychiatric symptoms, more prior arrests and stronger belief in AA-related philosophy at treatment entry predicted improvement significantly in substance-related problems 4 years later. At the 1-year follow-up, being employed and greater use of AA-related coping predicted outcome significantly. AA-related coping at 1 year mediated the relationship partially between belief in AA philosophy at treatment entry and 4-year outcome. Conclusions The findings highlight the unique and positive impact of AA involvement on long-term SUD treatment outcome and extend understanding of why AA is beneficial for patients. [source]

    Cue reactivity as a predictor of outcome with bulimia nervosa

    Frances A. Carter
    Abstract The present study sought to evaluate specific hypotheses concerning the relation between cue reactivity and outcome among women with bulimia nervosa. Participants were 135 women aged between 17 and 45 years with a current, primary diagnosis of bulimia nervosa who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the additive efficacy of exposure and nonexposure-based behavior therapy, to a core of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Physiological, self-report, and behavioral measures of cue reactivity to individualized high-risk binge foods were obtained at pretreatment and posttreatment. Primary, secondary, and tertiary outcome measures are reported for posttreatment and six-month follow-up. Self-report measures of cue reactivity at posttreatment were significantly positively associated with symptomatology at posttreatment. Cue reactivity at posttreatment was significantly positively associated with symptomatology at 6-month follow-up. However, cue reactivity at posttreatment did not contribute to the prediction of outcome at follow-up over and above posttreatment outcome. The notion that pretreatment cue reactivity may predict which treatment modality will be most beneficial (exposure or nonexposure-based treatment), as measured by reductions in symptomatology at posttreatment could not be supported. Implications for future research are discussed. © 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 31: 240,250, 2002; DOI 10.1002/eat.10041 [source]

    Reliability and Validity of a Steadiness Score

    Daniel O. Clark PhD
    Objectives: To determine the internal consistency and construct and predictive validity of three survey questions regarding steadiness in a sample of community-dwelling lower-income older adults. Design: A 6-month prospective cohort study. Setting: Community-based. Participants: Three hundred fifty-seven older adults who completed a baseline and 6-month follow-up interviewer-administered survey. These older adults received care at a single, public health system and were judged by insurance status to be of low income. Measurements: Self-report measures of steadiness while walking and transferring; difficulty in mobility, activities of daily living (ADLs), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs); chronic illness; falls; hospitalization; and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: The three steadiness questions showed good internal consistency (0.88); construct validity in Pearson correlations with mobility (0.57), ADL (0.53), and IADL scores (0.41); and predictive validity. With regard to predictive validity, steadiness was predictive of falls, hospitalization, and decline in ADL and IADL function over a subsequent 6-month period. Conclusion: Steadiness questions are a potentially valuable addition to survey research and clinical screening to identify persons with current impairment status and falls and disability risk. [source]

    Reducing subjectivity in the assessment of the job environment: development of the Factual Autonomy Scale (FAS)

    Paul E. Spector
    Self-report measures of job stressors have been criticized for being too subjective, rendering relations with other variables inconclusive. The Factual Autonomy Scale (FAS) was developed to reduce subjectivity by careful choice of fact-based items. Results of two studies showed that when compared to the Job Diagnostic Survey autonomy scale, the FAS demonstrated superior convergent validity with alternate sources (supervisors in Study 1 and coworkers in Study 2), and discriminant validity when correlated with the remaining JDS core characteristics subscales. In addition, the FAS was correlated to a lesser extent than the JDS autonomy scale with job satisfaction. Incumbent FAS scores and not JDS scores correlated significantly with job performance as assessed by supervisors. It is suggested that it is feasible to develop fact-based items for scales of the work environment that reduce the degree of subjectivity of responses. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Prospective comparison of subjective arousal during the pre-sleep period in primary sleep-onset insomnia and normal sleepers

    Summary Psychophysiological insomnia (PI) is the most common insomnia subtype, representing 12,15% of all sleep centre referrals. Diagnostic guidelines describe PI as an intrinsic sleep disorder involving both hyperarousal and learned sleep-preventing associations. Whilst evidence for the first component is reasonably compelling, evidence for learned (conditioned) sleep effects is markedly lacking. Indeed, to date no study has attempted to capture directly the conditioned arousal effect assumed to characterize the disorder. Accordingly, the present study explored variations in subjective arousal over time in 15 PI participants (sleep onset type) and 15 normal sleepers (NS). Self-report measures of cognitive arousal, somatic arousal and sleepiness were taken at three time points: 3 h before bedtime (early to mid-evening); 1 h before bedtime (late evening); and in the bedroom at lights out (bedtime) across four, 24-h cycles. Fluctuations in mean arousal and sleepiness values, and in day-to-day variation were examined using analyses of variance. Participants with PI were significantly more cognitive aroused and significantly less sleepy relative to NS, within the bedroom environment. These results support the tenet of conditioned mental arousal to the bedroom, although competing explanations cannot be ruled out. Results are discussed with reference to extant insomnia models. [source]

    The Effects of Pain and Depression on Physical Functioning in Elderly Residents of a Continuing Care Retirement Community

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 4 2000
    Jana M. Mossey PhD
    Objective., Explore the relationships between pain, depression, and functional disability in elderly persons. Design.,A cross-sectional, observational study of 228 independently living retirement community residents. Methods., Self-report measures of pain (adaptation of McGill Pain Questionnaire), depression (Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]) and physical functioning (Physical performance difficulties, activities of daily living [ADL], independent activities of daily living [IADL], and 3-meter walking speed) were employed. Outcome Measures.,Physical functioning variables were dichotomized. Individuals in the lowest quartiles of functional performance and of walking speed were contrasted to all others; for ADL and IADL, those needing some help were compared with those independent in activities. Results., Pain and depression levels were strongly related to physical performance; depression levels were related to ADL and walking speed. In multivariate analyses, an interaction effect was observed where the effects of pain were a function of level of depression. Individuals reporting activity-limiting pain and slightly elevated depressive symptom levels, sub-threshold depression, or major depression were significantly more likely (AOR 7.8; 95% CI, 3.07,20.03) than non-depressed persons to be in the lowest quartile of self-reported physical performance. Conclusions., While both pain and depression level affect physical performance, depressive symptoms rather than pain appear the more influential factor. When seeing elderly patients, identifying, evaluating, and treating both pain complaints and depressive symptoms and disorders may reduce functional impairment. [source]

    Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with incarcerated male offenders aged 18,21 years

    Emma J. Palmer
    Background,The Beck Depression Inventory , Second Edition (BDI-II) is a self-report measure of depression. Studies have shown it to have good psychometric properties with adult and adolescent clinical and non-clinical populations. However, this research has mostly been conducted with North American samples. Aims/hypotheses,To examine the psychometric characteristics of the BDI-II with male young adult offenders in the UK. Methods,The BDI-II was administered to 117 incarcerated male young adult offenders aged 18,21 years from the UK. Results,The BDI-II showed good internal consistency and concurrent validity. Factor analysis revealed two factors, relating to cognitive-affective items and somatic items. The items loading on the two factors were very similar to those found in a North American adolescent (13,17 years) psychiatric inpatient sample. Conclusions and implications for future research,The findings suggest that the BDI-II can be used with confidence in young adult male offenders. It would be useful to confirm its psychometric properties in other offender samples and establish offender population norms. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Cardiac anxiety in people with and without coronary atherosclerosis,

    Craig D. Marker Ph.D.
    Abstract Many studies have shown that cardiac anxiety when occurring in the absence of coronary artery disease is common and quite costly. The Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ) is an 18-item self-report measure that assesses anxiety related to cardiac symptoms. To better understand the construct of cardiac anxiety, a factor analysis was conducted on CAQ data from 658 individuals who were self or physician-referred for electron beam tomographic screening to determine whether clinically significant coronary atherosclerosis was present. A four-factor solution was judged to provide the best fit with the results reflecting the following factor composition: heart-focused attention, avoidance of activities that bring on symptoms, worry or fear regarding symptoms, and reassurance-seeking. Factorial invariance across groups was also assessed to determine whether the factor structure of the CAQ was similar in individuals with and without clear evidence of coronary atherosclerosis. The factor structure of the CAQ did not differ between the two groups. However, the group without coronary atherosclerosis had significantly higher mean scores on their attention and worry/fear factors suggesting that people without a diagnosed cardiac condition pay more attention to and worry more about their cardiac-related symptoms than those people who have coronary atherosclerosis. Depression and Anxiety 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Instrument to assess depersonalization-derealization in panic disorder

    Brian J. Cox Ph.D.
    Abstract There is a long history of scholarly interest on depersonalization-derealization (DD) and its role in clinical anxiety, but there is a paucity of appropriate assessment instruments available. Our objective was to develop and evaluate a self-report measure of DD for use with clinically anxious patients. Panic disorder patients (n=169) were surveyed about DD experiences and provided data on a new item pool for psychometric development. DD episodes were common and a 28-item Depersonalization-Derealization Inventory was found to possess good reliability and validity. DD appears to be prevalent and clinically relevant in panic disorder. Continued study of DD is warranted and may be facilitated by the availability of a suitable instrument with promising psychometric properties. A 12-item version of the instrument may be appropriate as a brief screen. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Reliability and validity of a structured interview guide for the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (SIGH-A)

    M. Katherine Shear M.D.
    Abstract The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, a widely used clinical interview assessment tool, lacks instructions for administration and clear anchor points for the assignment of severity ratings. We developed a Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (SIGH-A) and report on a study comparing this version to the traditional form of this scale. Experienced interviewers from three Anxiety Disorders research sites conducted videotaped interviews using both traditional and structured instruments in 89 participants. A subset of the tapes was co-rated by all raters. Participants completed self-report symptom questionnaires. We observed high inter-rater and test-retest reliability using both formats. The structured format produced similar but consistently higher (+ 4.2) scores. Correlation with a self-report measure of overall anxiety was also high and virtually identical for the two versions. We conclude that in settings where extensive training is not practical, the structured scale is an acceptable alternative to the traditional Hamilton Anxiety instrument. Depression and Anxiety 13:166,178, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The usefulness of self-reported psychopathy-like traits in the study of antisocial behaviour among non-referred adolescents

    Henrik Andershed
    The present study addresses the question of whether it is possible to use a self-report measure of psychopathic traits on non-referred youth samples to identify a subgroup of problematic youths who are particularly problematic and different from other problem youths. A large sample of eighth-grade, non-referred adolescents, and their parents were assessed. Results showed that the adolescents exhibiting a low-socialized psychopathy-like personality constellation had a more frequent, violent, and versatile conduct-problem profile than other low-socialized and well socialized adolescents. The psychopathy-like adolescents also differed from other poorly socialized adolescents in ways that suggested that their etiological background was different from adolescents with non-psychopathy-like conduct problems. We conclude that self-report measures can indeed be useful for research purposes in subtyping youths with conduct problems. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    I think I like you: Spontaneous and deliberate evaluations of potential romantic partners in an online dating context

    Rajees Sritharan
    The present research examined processes of impression formation within an online dating context. Across two studies, female participants formed impressions of a potential partner based on an online dating profile containing information about the target's facial attractiveness and self-described ambition. Afterwards, deliberate evaluations of the target were assessed with a self-report measure and spontaneous evaluations were measured with an affective priming task. The results showed that deliberate evaluations varied as a function of both self-described ambition and facial attractiveness. In contrast, spontaneous evaluations varied only as a function of facial attractiveness. Experiment 2 further showed that these effects were independent of the order in which the two types of information had been encoded. The results are discussed in terms of associative and propositional processes, and the conditions under which these processes can lead to conflicting evaluations of the same potential romantic partner. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Expressed Emotion Attitudes and Individual Psychopathology Among the Relatives of Bipolar Patients

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 4 2002
    Tina R. Goldstein M.A.
    This study investigated the relationships between expressed emotion (EE) and individual psychopathology among 82 biological and non-biological relatives of 66 patients with bipolar I disorder. Relatives' psychopathology was assessed via the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Patient Version (SCID-P) and the General Behavior Inventory (GBI), a self-report measure of lifetime subsyndromal mood disturbances. We hypothesized that relatives who held high-EE critical, hostile, and/or overinvolved attitudes toward their bipolar family member, as measured via the Camberwell Family Interview, would be more likely to have DSM-III-R Axis I diagnoses on the SCID, as well as more mood and temperamental disturbances on the GBI, than those who held low-EE attitudes. The findings did not support a significant relationship between overall EE status and psychopathology in family members. However, relatives without significant Axis I pathology scored significantly higher than those with Axis I pathology on one measure of EE, emotional overinuolvement. The findings are discussed with reference to explanations for the genesis of high-EE attitudes. [source]

    Measurement of antipsychotic-induced side effects: Support for the validity of a self-report (LUNSERS) versus structured interview (UKU) approach to measurement

    T. J. R. Lambert
    Abstract A self-report measure of antipsychotic side effects (LUNSERS) was compared with that of an established semi-structured interview (UKU side effect rating scale). The validity and the ability of the LUNSERS to determine false positives by use of an internal ,red herring' subscale were assessed. ,Red herring' items are those which do not directly relate to known antipsychotic side effects. In an open study, 29 patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder from inpatient and outpatient settings within an Australian metropolitan mental health service were assessed for antipsychotic-induced side effects using both the LUNSERS and UKU. The LUNSERS and UKU were similar in their overall assessment of antipsychotic side effects (total score correlation of 0.58) and were correlated on a wide array of individual side effect items. Correlations between total scores and individual items were higher for those patients scoring low on the LUNSERS ,red herring' items compared with both those with high ,red herring' scores and the sample as a whole. Several LUNSERS items were identified as potentially problematic, requiring further explanation or supplementation with direct questioning. The ,red herring' scale appears to enable detection of patients that may be over-reporting symptomatology. The LUNSERS is a valuable self-report measure of antipsychotic side effects, particularly in cases where red herring scores are low. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Individual differences in children's understanding of social evaluation concerns

    Robin BanerjeeArticle first published online: 27 AUG 200
    Abstract Recent research suggests that children's understanding of self-presentational behaviour,behaviour designed to shape social evaluation,is a function of both cognitive and motivational variables. Furthermore, the motivational factors involved are likely to reflect individual differences in the salience of concerns about social evaluation. The present research represents a first effort to determine whether measures of such differences are indeed associated with the understanding of self-presentational behaviour. In a first experiment, a teacher rating measure of self-monitoring was found to be positively associated with the understanding of self-presentational motives. In a second experiment, a more narrowly specified self-report measure of public self-consciousness was found to have a similar association with the understanding of self-presentation, with no such association found for private self-consciousness. These preliminary results make it clear that our formulations of development in social cognition must indeed include a consideration of individual differences in motivational orientations. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The attitudes to ageing questionnaire (AAQ): development and psychometric properties

    K. Laidlaw
    Abstract Objective This paper describes the development of the Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ) which is a self-report measure with which older people themselves can express their attitudes to the process of ageing. Method The development of the AAQ followed a coherent, logical and empirical process taking full account of relevant gerontological knowledge and modern and classical psychometric analytical methods. Pilot testing with 1,356 participants from 15 centres worldwide refined the scale and provided the basis for a field test. A total of 5,566 participants from 20 centres worldwide contributed to the further development of this new scale with the derivation involving both classical and modern psychometric methods. Results The result is a 24-item cross-cultural attitudes to ageing questionnaire consisting of a three-factor model encompassing psychological growth, psychosocial loss, and physical change. The three-factor model suggests a way of conceptualizing and measuring successful ageing in individuals. Conclusions The AAQ provides researchers, clinicians and policy makers with a unique scale to measure the impact of successful ageing interventions. It also provides a vehicle for the measurement of how individuals age across cultures and under different economic, political and social circumstances. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A Structured Clinical Interview for Kleptomania (SCI-K): preliminary validity and reliability testing

    Jon E. Grant
    Abstract Kleptomania presents difficulties in diagnosis for clinicians. This study aimed to develop and test a DSM-IV-based diagnostic instrument for kleptomania. To assess for current kleptomania the Structured Clinical Interview for Kleptomania (SCI-K) was administered to 112 consecutive subjects requesting psychiatric outpatient treatment for a variety of disorders. Reliability and validity were determined. Classification accuracy was examined using the longitudinal course of illness. The SCI-K demonstrated excellent test-retest (Phi coefficient = 0.956 (95% CI = 0.937, 0.970)) and inter-rater reliability (phi coefficient = 0.718 (95% CI = 0.506, 0.848)) in the diagnosis of kleptomania. Concurrent validity was observed with a self-report measure using DSM-IV kleptomania criteria (phi coefficient = 0.769 (95% CI = 0.653, 0.850)). Discriminant validity was observed with a measure of depression (point biserial coefficient = ,0.020 (95% CI = ,0.205, 0.166)). The SCI-K demonstrated both high sensitivity and specificity based on longitudinal assessment. The SCI-K demonstrated excellent reliability and validity in diagnosing kleptomania in subjects presenting with various psychiatric problems. These findings require replication in larger groups, including non-psychiatric populations, to examine their generalizability. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The development and initial validation of the Terminally Ill Grief or Depression Scale (TIGDS)

    Vyjeyanthi S. Periyakoil
    Abstract Patients often experience ,preparatory-grief' as they cope with the dying process. Some may be depressed. The Terminally Ill Grief or Depression Scale (TIGDS), comprising grief and depression sub-scales, is a new self-report measure designed to differentiate between preparatory-grief and depression in adult inpatients. The initial 100-item inventory was assembled based on literature review, interviews with clinicians and dying patients and then shortened to 42 items based on consensus expert opinion. Validity and reliability were tested in a sample of 55 terminally ill adults. The consensus clinical opinion was used as the gold standard to differentiate between preparatory grief and depression. The intra-class correlation coefficient was high (it was calculated to estimate the test-retest reliability for the 47 patients who had completed the TIGDS twice , retest was administered 2 to 7 days after the initial test), ranging from 0.86 (grief) to 0.97 (depression). The validity of TIGDS was assessed using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, comparing the first test with the clinical criterion. The first and only variable and cut-point was the depression score (chi-square = 18.4,p < 0.001, cut point = 3). The sensitivity of the TIGDS was 0.727 and specificity was 0.886 for the depression = 3 cutoff score. The construct validity of the TIGDS was tested by comparing with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The TIGDS depression subscale showed strong convergent validity and the TIGDS grief subscale showed strong discriminant validity with the HADS total score. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Why do primary care doctors diagnose depression when diagnostic criteria are not met?

    Michael Höfler
    Abstract This study examines predictors of false positive depression diagnoses by primary care doctors in a sample of primary care attendees, taking the patients' diagnostic status from a self-report measure (Depression Screening Questionnaire, DSQ) as a yardstick against which to measure doctors' correct and false positive recognition rates. In a nationwide study, primary care patients aged 15,99 in 633 doctors' offices completed a self-report packet that included the DSQ, a questionnaire that assesses depression symptoms on a three-point scale to provide diagnoses of depression according to the criteria of DSM-IV and ICD-10. Doctors completed an evaluation form for each patient seen, reporting the patient's depression status, clinical severity, and treatment choices. Predictor analyses are based on 16,909 patient-doctor records. Covariates examined included depression symptoms, the total DSQ score, number and persistence of depression items endorsed, patient's prior treatment, history of depression, age and gender. According to the DSQ, 11.3% of patients received a diagnosis of ICD-10 depression, 58.9% of which were correctly identified by the doctor as definite threshold, and 26.2% as definite subthreshold cases. However, an additional 11.7% of patients not meeting the minimum DSQ threshold were rated by their doctors as definitely having depression (the false positive rate). Specific DSQ depression items endorsed, a higher DSQ total score, more two-week depression symptoms endorsed, female gender, higher age, and patient's prior treatment were all associated with an elevated rate of false positive diagnoses. The probability of false positive diagnoses was shown to be affected more by doctors ignoring the ,duration of symptoms' criterion than by doctors not following the ,number of symptoms' criterion for an ICD or DSM diagnosis of depression. A model selection procedure revealed that it is sufficient to regress the ,false positive diagnoses' on the DSQ-total score, symptoms of depressed mood, loss of interest, and suicidal ideation; higher age; and patient's prior treatment. Further, the total DSQ score was less important in prediction if there was a prior treatment. The predictive value of this model was quite good, with area under the ROC-curve = 0.86. When primary care doctors use depression screening instruments they are oversensitive to the diagnosis of depression. This is due to not strictly obeying the two weeks duration required by the diagnostic criteria of ICD-10 and DSM-IV. False positive rates are further increased in particular by the doctor's knowledge of a patient's prior treatment history as well as the presence of a few specific depression symptoms. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Predictors of medication compliance among older heart failure patients

    Krystyna Cholowski PhD
    Aim. To examine relationships between psycho-social and patho-physiological measures in explaining medication compliance in older heart failure (HF) patients. Background. Self-efficacy is a predictor not only of medication compliance, but also health recovery. How older HF patients conceptualize and manage this life-threatening event is central to ongoing rehabilitation. Regulating ongoing medical and lifestyle changes in the rehabilitation process requires that any underlying negative affect be productively managed by the use of appropriate coping strategies. Method. Using an exploratory correlational design, 51 older HF patients were asked to complete the Beck Depression Inventory, Beliefs about Medication and Diet Questionnaire, Reactions to Daily Events Questionnaire and Self-regulation scale. A self-report measure of medication compliance was obtained as part of a semi-structured interview. The study was conducted in 2003,2004. Results. Using descriptive statistics, patho-physiological and psychosocial characteristics were given. Independent t -tests were used to assess the gender effects. Pairwise correlations were used to examine the relationships between presenting circumstances, psychosocial characteristics, medication compliance beliefs and self-reported medication compliance behaviours. All positive coping strategies and self-regulation were associated with positive intentions in medication compliance. Males were more inclined towards proactive coping and self-regulatory strategies than were females. Increased depressive symptoms were linked to carelessness in compliance. A belief in medication compliance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carelessness Conclusion. Bandura's three conditions for agency in rehabilitation, self-efficacy and goal-directed intention appeared to be important even in the early phase of the programme. Positive coping strategies and self-regulation suggests a positive basis for medication compliance and more successful ongoing rehabilitation for older HF patients. We identify a significantly enhanced educative role for nurses in this context. Relevance to clinical practice. We suggest that nurses dealing with compliance issues among older patients need to monitor behaviour through addressing both the quality of affect during the patient's response to HF (self-concept, -esteem and -efficacy) as well as the quality of health-related metacognitive knowledge underlying the self-regulatory decisions (such as the patients conceptions of ,wellness' and the strategic knowledge underpinning its achievement and maintenance). [source]

    Measuring Counterproductivity: Development and Initial Validation of a German Self-Report Questionnaire

    Bernd Marcus
    This article describes the development and initial construct validation of a comprehensive self-report measure of workplace counterproductivity. The instrument contains subscales for different targets of counterproductivity (organizational and interpersonal deviance, Robinson and Bennett 1995) as well as for different forms of manifestation (absenteeism, substance use, aggression, and theft, respectively) An empirical study (N = 174), conducted in one manufacturing and one retail organization, confirmed the intended internal structure by means of confirmatory factor analysis. Counterproductivity may best be described as a higher-order behavioural construct loading on subdimensions carrying unique variance. In addition, an examination of outside variables showed that the best predictor of counterproductivity was self-control, followed by integrity, whereas cognitive ability was largely unrelated to the construct. The opposite pattern of correlations occurred for productive performance behaviours, indicating that counterproductivity is a unique construct within the performance domain. Differences and similarities between the present measure and a recent independent development by Bennett and Robinson (2000) are discussed, along with conclusions for future research on the topic. [source]

    Public sector training participation: an empirical investigation

    Reid A Bates
    This study tests a mediated model of employee participation in training activities in a public sector highway department. Results showed the combined predictor sets accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in an objective measure of training attended, a self-report measure of training attended, and intentions to participate in future training. Although the proposed mediated model was not supported, the findings suggest that previous transfer success and motivation play a significant role in intentions to participate in training. [source]

    Hearing Impairment Affects Older People's Ability to Drive in the Presence of Distracters

    Louise Hickson PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of hearing impairment and distractibility on older people's driving ability, assessed under real-world conditions. DESIGN: Experimental cross-sectional study. SETTING: University laboratory setting and an on-road driving test. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred seven community-living adults aged 62 to 88. Fifty-five percent had normal hearing, 26% had a mild hearing impairment, and 19% had a moderate or greater impairment. MEASUREMENTS: Hearing was assessed using objective impairment measures (pure-tone audiometry, speech perception testing) and a self-report measure (Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly). Driving was assessed on a closed road circuit under three conditions: no distracters, auditory distracters, and visual distracters. RESULTS: There was a significant interaction between hearing impairment and distracters, such that people with moderate to severe hearing impairment had significantly poorer driving performance in the presence of distracters than those with normal or mild hearing impairment. CONCLUSION: Older adults with poor hearing have greater difficulty with driving in the presence of distracters than older adults with good hearing. [source]

    The Lost E-Mail Technique: Use of an Implicit Measure to Assess Discriminatory Attitudes Toward Two Minority Groups in Israel

    Orit E. Tykocinski
    The effectiveness of the "lost e-mail technique" (LET) as an unobtrusive attitude measure was successfully demonstrated in 2 studies. In Study 1, we found that Israeli students were more likely to reply to a similar other than to a minority group member (an Israeli-Arab or an immigrant from the former Soviet Union). In Study 2, LET was administered to professors and administrators, and its effectiveness was compared to a more traditional self-report measure. Although professors showed less discrimination on the self-report measure than did administrators, they were nevertheless discriminative in their responses to lost e-mails. These results suggest that professors are not necessarily less prejudiced, but probably are better able to detect attitude probes and more motivated to appear unbiased. [source]

    A psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of the stage of change-readiness and treatment-eagerness scale

    Mei-Yu Yeh
    Aims., The present study analysed the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the stage of change-readiness and treatment-eagerness scale among alcohol-dependent patients and investigated whether a three-factor structure fit the data. Background., The stage of change-readiness and treatment-eagerness scale is a 19-item instrument designed to measure alcohol-dependent patients' motivation for change. However, this instrument had not been translated and validated for use in Taiwan. Design., Survey. Methods., A sample of 161 alcohol-dependent patients receiving alcohol-related treatment in psychiatric hospital outpatient and inpatient units was included. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on three-factor measurement models of the stage of change-readiness and treatment-eagerness scale. Results., Confirmatory factor analyses supported the presence of a three-factor modified model (ambivalence, recognition and taking steps) among alcohol-dependent patients. Higher internal item consistency was found for the recognition and taking step factors, while the ambivalence factor was shown to have lower internal consistency. Convergent, discriminant and concurrent validity were obtained for the assessment of severity of alcohol dependence. Conclusions., The results indicated that the 11-item, three-factor modified Chinese version of the stage of change readiness and treatment eagerness scale provided best goodness of fit for the data in this study. This study demonstrated that the Chinese version of the stage of change readiness and treatment eagerness scale is a reliable and valid self-report measure for the assessment of changing motivation in alcohol-dependent patients. Relevance to clinical practice., The Chinese version of stage of change readiness and treatment eagerness scale is applicable for use in clinical treatment and research, predicting motivation for change and evaluating intervention outcomes in Taiwan. [source]

    Efficient assessment of social problem-solving abilities in medical and rehabilitation settings: a rasch analysis of the social problem-solving inventory-revised

    Laura E. Dreer
    Abstract The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Scale (SPSI-R) has been shown to be a reliable and valid self-report measure of social problem-solving abilities. In busy medical and rehabilitation settings, a brief and efficient screening version with psychometric properties similar to the SPSI-R would have numerous benefits including decreased patient and caregiver assessment burden and administration/scoring time. Thus, the aim of the current study was to identify items from the SPSI-R that would provide for a more efficient assessment of global social problem-solving abilities. This study consisted of three independent samples: 121 persons in low-vision rehabilitation (M age=71 years old, SD=15.53), 301 persons living with diabetes mellitus (M age=58, and SD=14.85), and 131 family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities (M age=56 years old, SD=12.15). All persons completed a version of the SPSI-R, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Using Rasch scaling of the SPSI-R short-form, we identified a subset of 10 items that reflected the five-component model of social problem solving. The 10 items were separately validated on the sample of persons living with diabetes mellitus and the sample of family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities. Results indicate that the efficient 10-item version, analyzed separately for all three samples, demonstrated good reliability and validity characteristics similar to the established SPSI-R short form. The 10-item version of the SPSI-R represents a brief, effective way in which clinicians and researchers in busy health care settings can quickly assess global problem-solving abilities and identify those persons at-risk for complicated adjustment. Implications for the assessment of social problem-solving abilities are discussed. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 65: 1,15, 2009. [source]

    Criminal attitudes to violence: Development and preliminary validation of a scale for male prisoners

    Devon L.L. Polaschek
    Abstract Two studies report on the development and preliminary psychometric properties of a new scale measuring criminal attitudes to violence. In Study 1, the responses of a mixed sample of male prisoners were used to select 20 scale items from a larger pool. The final scale (the Criminal Attitudes to Violence Scale; CAVS) was designed so that it had a single-factor structure and was uncorrelated with a measure of social desirability bias. It demonstrated high internal reliability, and a strong relationship to a self-report measure of physical aggression. Significant differences were found in CAVS mean scores for various offence history comparisons, such as whether or not the offender was currently on sentence for a violent conviction. In the second study, most results from the first study were replicated with an independent sample of male prisoners. Further, compared to another scale measuring attitudes to aggression [the EXPAGG Instrumental subscale; Archer and Haigh, 1997b], the CAVS was a better predictor of general attitudes to crime. Mean CAVS scores were again significantly higher for current violent offenders than those on sentence for other types of offences. Lastly, the CAVS was moderately predictive of estimated risk of reconviction and re-imprisonment. Overall these results suggest that this scale measures the construct of attitudes to criminal violence, which partially overlaps two other constructs: attitudes to aggression and attitudes to crime. Aggr. Behav. 30:484,503, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Changes in Sensation Seeking and Risk-Taking Propensity Predict Increases in Alcohol Use Among Early Adolescents

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2010
    Laura MacPherson
    Background:, Conceptual models implicating disinhibitory traits often are applied to understanding emergent alcohol use, but, little is known of how inter-individual changes in these constructs relate to increases in alcohol use in early adolescence. The current study utilized behavioral and self-report instruments to capture the disinhibitory-based constructs of sensation seeking and risk-taking propensity to examine if increases in these constructs over time related to increases in early adolescent alcohol use. Methods:, Participants included a community sample of 257 early adolescents (aged 9 to 12) who completed a self-report measure of sensation seeking, a behavioral task assessing risk-taking propensity, and a self-report of past year alcohol use, at 3 annual assessment waves. Results:, Both sensation seeking and risk-taking propensity demonstrated significant increases over time, with additional evidence that change in the behavioral measure of risk-taking propensity was not because of practice effects. Greater sensation seeking and greater risk-taking propensity demonstrated concurrent relationships with past year alcohol use at each assessment wave. Prospective analyses indicated that after accounting for initial levels of alcohol use, sensation seeking, and risk-taking propensity at the first assessment wave, larger increases in both constructs predicted greater odds of alcohol use at subsequent assessment waves. Conclusions:, Results indicate the role of individual changes in disinhibitory traits in initial alcohol use in early adolescents. Specifically, findings suggest it is not simply initial levels of sensation seeking and risk-taking propensity that contribute to subsequent alcohol use but in particular increases in each of these constructs that predict greater odds of use. Future work should continue to assess the development of sensation seeking and risk-taking propensity in early adolescence and target these constructs in interventions as a potential means to reduce adolescent alcohol use. [source]

    Hormone Responses to Social Stress in Abstinent Alcohol-Dependent Subjects and Social Drinkers with No History of Alcohol Dependence

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2005
    Cynthia A. Munro
    Background: Previous studies have described blunted stress hormone responses after pharmacological activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in sober alcoholics. The aim of the present study was to compare ACTH, cortisol, and prolactin responses to a psychological stressor in abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects matched to healthy control subjects. Methods: Individuals who met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for a history of alcohol dependence but not for other axis I disorders were included in the study (n= 18; mean duration of abstinence ± SEM, 3.5 ± 5.7 years). Social drinkers (n= 23) served as control subjects. The sober alcohol-dependent and control subjects were matched for demographic measures including levels of stress symptoms. All subjects underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a laboratory-based psychological stressor. Prestress and poststress plasma ACTH, cortisol, and prolactin levels, as well as a self-report measure of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), were obtained. Results: Nondepressed, abstinent alcoholics and control subjects did not differ with regard to age, racial composition, or baseline or poststress ratings of anxiety. Whereas ACTH and cortisol levels increased in response to the TSST, prolactin levels did not. Stress hormone response curves for the three hormones did not differ between the alcoholics and control subjects. Conclusions: When matched for levels of stress, a laboratory-based psychological stress test did not induce differential hormone response curves for abstinent alcoholics and control subjects. [source]